Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

Power Efficiency Guide

The Power Efficiency Guide is a step-by-step guide showing the users how to create their own Home Power Plant. The E-book was created just to explain and help people out of the problem they face because of the lack of electricity. The guide was made to help the users use about 90% of the tools they use regularly in their various houses for the creation of a power generator, which will beneficial to them and their family. The device uses the endless power principle used to make the electric cars constantly charge themselves from the wheels when not being accelerated. It is a unique concept that can be used in every home. It was created in such a way that it would be a quick fix for the users' electricity problem. In other words, when the users purchase it during the day, the users will be able to make use of it before night falls. The process is so easy that even a little child can fix it up. The guide is such that comes at a cheap price and would help in the reduction of the amount the users might have to pay for regular electricity bill due to the number of appliances used at home. Read more here...

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Author: Mark Edwards
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Power Efficiency Guide Review

Highly Recommended

The writer presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this manual are precise.

When compared to other ebooks and paper publications I have read, I consider this to be the bible for this topic. Get this and you will never regret the decision.

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New York State Energy Research and Development Authority Nyserda

The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority is a public benefit corporation created to administer the Energy Smart Program in the State of New York. It provides energy-efficient services and implements research and development projects in the area of energy efficiency and environmental protection. The NYSERDA Web site provides information on incentives for creating energy efficient businesses and homes, descriptions of authority programs, and links to funding opportunities, state energy regulations, and news and data on energy prices and weather.

Technology transfer energy efficiency and renewable energy

Transfer energy-efficient and renewable-energy technology to participating non-Annex I countries. The prospect for such a transfer of technology almost completely diverts attention from business-as-usual in the developed world. For instance, the World Business Council on Sustainable Development outlines key areas for future action on climate change, including efficiency, nuclear energy, government support for energy research and development, and technology transfer to the South, but neglects to mention any measures for phasing out fossil fuels in industrialized countries. The International Emissions Trading Association a corporate lobby group established through the cooperation of UNCTAD and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development obviously has adopted this approach and lists as its members BP and Shell, but also Chevron Texaco, Conoco Philips, and Statoil.25 The IETA in its review of the EU ETS reports its position on the carbon market and promotes a global carbon...

Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy Regulatory Policy

Do you support, in federal energy legislation, a small wire charge on everyone's electric bill (e.g., 2-3 ), as previously included in most utility rate bases, to maintain funding of energy efficiency, low-income weather-ization and energy assistance, and renewable energy research, development, demonstration, and deployment programs 4. Do you support increasing, decreasing, or maintaining the current level of federal purchases of green electricity and or decentralized renewable energy technologies and energy efficiency measures

General energy consumption

During the past few decades, the East Asian countries have experienced many changes in their energy consumption patterns both in quantitative and qualitative terms. This can be explained by two factors. The first is the natural increase caused by population growth and demographic changes such as age groups and household size. Another factor is the increase in economic activity and development. The population of the region is expected to reach about 1,646 million in 2025 and substantial economic growth is expected. Therefore, energy consumption will continue to increase in the next few decades and there will be an increasing demand on external sources of energy. China is the second largest energy consumer, after the United States, surpassing Japan for the first time in 2003. At present, coal makes up 65 of China's primary energy consumption. While coal's share of Chinese energy consumption is projected to fall, coal consumption will still increase in absolute terms. The demand for oil...

Nuclear Energy Policy

The development of nuclear energy policy deserves special mention because it has been guided by the federal government since the initial discovery of nuclear power. The government has subsidized much of the research and development of nuclear technology, has controlled the allocation and distribution of nuclear fuel, and has established various programs for the storage of radioactive waste. In short, nuclear energy is unique because the entire fuel cycle is regulated by the federal government. This section describes the various nuclear energy policies that have been enacted. The 1970s were a difficult decade for the development of nuclear power. The Ford administration significantly changed the structure of federal energy agencies with the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974. This legislation dissolved the Atomic Energy Commission and created the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) in its place. The ERDA took over the research and development of all energy forms, and...

Key Influences on Energy Policymaking in New York City

First, there is no question that concerns over the anticipated energy shortfall dominate local policy debates, because the economic impacts could be so severe. This was made clear during the citywide 29-hour blackout in August 2003, when economic losses to New York City businesses and individuals were in the vicinity of 1 billion (Herman et al. 2003). Frequent blackouts or brownouts could discourage local business expansion or drive businesses out of the city, dramatically harming the city's long-term economic prospects. The decision of the mayors' Energy Policy Task Force to emphasize this problem is thus a rather logical one. It is noteworthy that the Task Force report essentially ignores renewables as a partial solution to this problem. The bulk of the report focuses on new power plant siting and construction, or on the development of new transmission lines which can import power to the city. In the section on distributed resources, renewable power technologies are identified as a...

National Energy Policy

Because so many different interests are involved in energy issues, it has been difficult for the United States to implement a comprehensive energy policy. Prior to the late 1940s, federal involvement in energy policy was limited to regulatory oversight of utility distribution (discussed later in this chapter) and intervention in energy supply during times of war. In World War I, a mandatory energy conservation program was necessary to overcome a fuel crisis that occurred from lack of foresight in coal production. During World War II, a rationing program issued gasoline coupons to U.S. motorists (Melosi 1985, 187). Subsidies for electricity infrastructure are another way that the federal government intervened in energy production. For instance, many of the large dams in the western United States were built using federal funds. The federal government also played a large role in developing nuclear energy policy, both through subsidies and regulations regarding the purchase of nuclear...

Energy Star and Tax Credits

The Energy Star program from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides guidelines for construction materials and appliances, as you may remember from elsewhere in this book. The program also includes a comprehensive set of requirements for an entire new house to earn an Energy Star rating. To qualify, a new house must be at least 15 percent more energy efficient than one built to the 2004 International Residential Code (IRC). It must also include additional energy-saving features to become 20 to 30 percent more efficient than standard houses. For the purposes of Energy Star ratings, the systems that make a house energy efficient include effective insulation, high-performance windows, tight construction and ducts, and efficient heating and cooling equipment. By using Energy Star qualified lighting fixtures, compact fluorescent bulbs, ventilation fans, and appliances, a new house can provide even greater comfort, savings, and environmental benefits. Not all Energy Star...

Trends and trend breaks with regard to direct energy consumption in the period

The trends in gas and electricity consumption are related to changes in these factors. First, trends relating to 'opportunities' (i.e., the connection of households to the natural-gas pipeline system and to the electricity grid and the availability of household appliances and heating systems) partly explain the substantial increase in the direct household energy use. But the increase in the 'abilities' of households (related to the rise of personal income and the increase of interior space per household member) is also important in explaining the rise of direct household energy use. Another interesting factor is the observed feedback from the 'opportunities' and 'abilities' factors to the 'needs' factor. The needs also changed during this period a need for privacy related to the increased availability of (heated) space, a need for higher standards of hygiene and cleanliness because of the opportunities to achieve such higher standards. So with regard to the direct energy use in...

Energy consumption in the US

The United States is the world's largest consumer of energy, and the disparity in energy use per capita is growing. In 1950 the U.S. was energy independent, consuming only 35 Quads of energy. Fifty years later, the U.S. population had increased 189 percent while energy consumption grew 280 percent. While U.S. energy consumption overall has grown, the energy sources the U.S. relies on have changed, as Table 4-3 shows. Table 4-4 shows the four major sectors of the U.S. economy that use energy and the amount of oil consumption that each sector uses. Note that transport uses a majority of oil while representing only around a quarter of the total energy consumption. Table 4-4 shows the four major sectors of the U.S. economy that use energy and the amount of oil consumption that each sector uses. Note that transport uses a majority of oil while representing only around a quarter of the total energy consumption. Table 4-5 shows projected fossil fuel energy consumption for the United States,...

Efficiency Consumption and the Energy Market

Efficiency is not the main factor in reducing energy consumption. While it seems only logical that rising efficiencies will result in reduction in demand, the truth seems to be that increasing efficiency actually increases demand. So if efficiency isn't the main factor, what is Price. The only way that consumption will ever be reduced is by raising the price of energy. Because efficiency gains result in increased energy consumption, it's up to the government to tax consumption to the point where people use less energy. This is a difficult proposition, because Americans have become used to low energy prices. Plus, it will take bravery on the part of politicians to push such policies there doesn't appear to be much of that commodity on hand in today's politicians. In the following sections, I walk you through the different pieces that make up the puzzle of the energy market, and I give you enough basic info to demystify the factors that impact the market and the ability of society to be...

Direct and indirect energy consumption by households

In the Dutch energy statistics the energy consumption by households constitutes only a minor part (20-25 per cent) of the total energy consumption in The Netherlands. These household energy consumption figures only reflect the use of electricity and natural gas by households. The figures do not include energy use for private and public transport and the energy use required for the production and distribution of goods and services acquired by households. In our analysis we adopt the central assumption that all production takes place to serve consumption. So the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of the various production sectors are attributed to the households in relation to the volume of goods and services consumed by Dutch households. With this method, we follow the energy use and emissions during the complete chain of Dutch household consumption production, transport, trade and sale, use in households and disposal. household effects are the most important indirect...

Drivers Of The Transition To A Cleaner And More Energy Efficient World

Changes in global energy use will be driven by increasing concern with the detrimental effects of the continued use of petroleum and coal among fossil fuels on the environment and as a result conditions on earth. There are major drivers that are expected to help veen mankind from dependence on these traditional fuels. These major drivers, enablers, and changers of our energy world will affect future energy consumption and in parallel cause a radical change away from the use of oil and solid coal. We will address these issues by addressing the effects of the following Energy Saving Methods and Improvements in Energy Use Efficiency Carbon sequestration, thermal conversion, energy efficiency, energy generation, conversion, delivery reliability, availability, energy innovation, nuclear fusion Science issues and databases, policy, public good policy, energy economics, survey results, corporate policy, political inertia, real world solutions, special and policy opportunities, supply chain...

Final Energy Consumption

Total final energy consumption increases at a similar rate to primary energy demand, more than doubling between 2005 and 2030. At 3.0 , the annual rate of growth is lower than that from 1990 to 2005, when it averaged 3.5 . Total final consumption of coal grows by 4.4 per year on average between 2005 and 2015, before easing off after 2015. Most of the increase in coal use to meet final energy demand comes from industry. Final gas consumption increases nearly four-fold by 2030. Final oil demand rises by 4.0 per year, driven mainly by transport. Oil accounts for 96 of total energy for transport in 2030, an almost unchanged share. Electricity use increases three-and-a-half times between 2005 and 2030, with its share in final energy consumption rising from 15 to 26 . The use of biomass and waste declines, mainly with households switching to modern fuels. Other renewables, including wind and solar technologies, grow rapidly, but their combined share in total final energy consumption reaches...

Guide to Energy Management

Guide to energy management by Barney L. Capehart, Wayne C. Turner, William J. Kennedy--5th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-88173-477-2 (print) -- ISBN 0-88173-478-0 (Electronic) 1. Energy conservation--Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Energy consumption--Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Turner, Wayne C., 1942- II. Kennedy, William J., 1938- III. Title. Guide to energy management by Barney L. Capehart, Wayne C. Turner, William J. Kennedy Fifth Edition

Global energy consumption and use

As Table 4-1 shows, the combustion of hydrocarbons (fossil fuels, like petroleum, natural gas, and coal) comprised 86 percent of the world's energy consumption a number that has grown in the last decades as China and India come on line, it will continue to grow and 80 percent of the U.S. consumption. Hydroelectric, nuclear, and renewable fuels account for the alternative contributions, and amount to only around 14 percent of the world's energy sources the U.S. does slightly better with alternatives, coming in at about 18 percent. Note This percentage does not include alternative sources like solar room heating (that is, using direct sunlight for warmth) and bicycle riding, however. And where did all this energy go Table 4-2 gives a sampling of countries. From this table you can see that the U.S., despite the fact that it represents only 4 percent of the world's population, consumes about 24 percent of world energy consumption and uses about 25 percent of the world's oil. Percentage of...

Energy consumption in growing economies

There is direct correlation between the per capita usage of energy in a nation and its corresponding GNP (Gross National Product). As less developed countries, interested in catching up economically with the world leaders, industrialize, their energy consumption increases. As the Chinese and Indian economies, for example, require more energy to power their development, global energy usage will increase. Today this growing demand is being met primarily through fossil fuels. Efficiency may alter this trend toward more energy usage, but until efficient solutions are economically feasible, many developing countries will continue to rely on relatively cheap fossil fuels for power, despite the environmental costs.

Political posturing over energy policy

On one side are those who oppose a lot of new energy plants and dictate which type of plants can be built and where. Their concern is primarily with the effects that energy consumption imposes on the environment, not the least of which is global warming. And the existence of global warming is a political question. For my part, I'm very much a political centrist. I find the partisanship and stubbornness of the fanatical fringes of all stripes curious. Here, I take no active position in the global warming debate. Instead, I present data that shows how our current energy consumption is affecting the planet, and I make only a nonpartisan observation that we should be doing better at not affecting our planet.

Energy Markets and Pricing

The global market for energy is the means by which energy resources are traded among countries and within entities that supply, produce, and distribute energy. Most nations do not have domestic natural resources available to support their energy needs, so they buy energy from other countries. These transactions are most often carried out by large energy companies. Transactions are complex and constantly changing to reflect variable energy prices and investor attitudes. Energy giants, such as the oil companies of BP, Shell, and Exxon-Mobil, dominate the global energy markets. Oil is not the only thing sold by energy companies, which make an incredible amount of money selling energy resources and services. It is important to consider the power wielded by energy giants when thinking about the problems associated with global energy dynamics. This section describes why energy pricing is important and how governments work to stabilize prices. Peak of energy intensity GDP increasing, energy...

Industrial Energy Systems Analysis

In practice, unfortunately, the analysis of industrial energy systems is often reduced to checking the efficiency of main utilities, such as boilers, chillers or air compressors and the environmental impacts thereof. It is obvious that a simplified form of analysis can yield only partial results and cannot provide full benefits and inputs to a comprehensive energy and environmental management program. Often, the role and impacts of the human factor in energy and environmental performance are completely neglected. Therefore, to avoid a piecemeal approach, the required scope for consideration of the industrial energy systems is given in Figure 1.3. It is obvious and common sense, that this covers all aspects of energy supply including distribution, metering and monitoring control arrangements, end-use and recycling if there is any. On top of this are people and everyday housekeeping, maintenance and operational practices. The energy system analysis aims at identifying opportunities to...

Energy Saving Initiatives

THE ENERGY STAR, EPEAT, and 80Plus are complementary programs designed to improve the quality of computing equipment. Their goal is to reduce costs through reduced energy consumption without reducing performance. These government supported initiatives have transformed the design of computers and how they are used. ENERGY STAR is a program developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to promote the use of efficient technologies to reduce the amount of energy wasted through inefficient design. It encompasses more than 50 areas, ranging from construction to office appliances. An ENERGY STAR certified computer uses between 30 and 75 less power to perform the same work as one that is not ENERGY STAR certified. The Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT) provides a comprehensive environmental impact rating for computers. EPEAT, a U.S. government funded program, describes a device's conformance to 23 mandatory and 28 optional criteria, which include energy...

Meeting Energy Demand through Energy Efficiency

The most critical area for immediate policy action in a new Apollo energy project is the improvement of our nation's energy efficiency. Energy efficiency has been called the first fuel because it is the area of our economy that offers the greatest amount of low-hanging fruit. The best energy source is the energy you don't have to use. It is energy there for the taking. Our mantra should be It's energy efficiency, stupid Progressive American businesses are using such a mantra to drive product development. Leaders at GE exhort their managers to use their ecomaginations in developing new energy-efficient systems. Costco is dramatically reducing its power consumption through a host of com-monsense measures, from using daylight to using energy-efficient lighting systems. The MagnaDrive company near Seattle is manufacturing a transmission system that can increase the efficiency of electric motors by up to 70 percent in hundreds of industrial applications. The majority of homes and...

Centralized Energy Systems

The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989 is an important example of how economies are linked to energy systems. The Communist regime developed many energy-intensive industries with little regard to environmental effects. The Soviet republics pursued many years of rapid economic growth without developing means to increase energy efficiency. Energy resources were state-owned and heavily subsidized by the government to promote economic growth. This promotion led to excessive consumption without regard to conservation. Because measures were never taken to improve energy efficiencies, energy intensities in the region remained very high. In other words, despite producing only a fraction of the GDP that was produced by the European Union (EU), energy consumption in the republics was many times greater. Even though it has been over twenty-five years since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the energy systems in former Soviet bloc countries remain inefficient. In addition, ecological damage...

A comparison of the energy systems in the two visions

This section summarizes some of the main choices, differences and quantitative aspects to be found in the envisioned energy systems of the future. Figure 2.2 summarizes the extent to which greenhouse gas emissions would be reduced with the various main categories of options (efficiency measures, renewables, CO2 storage) compared to 1990 levels and a baseline development where the growing energy demand arising from economic growth is covered by the present-day fuel mix which is dominated by fossil fuels. Clearly, greenhouse gas emission levels will soar to unacceptable levels if nothing is done to counteract increasing fossil fuel use to drive economic growth. On the other hand, the two very different visions and the strategies that it is assumed will be implemented do meet the target of 80 per cent emission reduction. Table 2.2 shows that improvements in energy efficiency in all sectors of society are a key factor in achieving this. Even though economic growth is very high over the...

Using energy efficiently

With Low-Energy Motors with Low-Energy Motors High-efficiency, new technology can save companies money in the long run, reducing their energy consumption considerably, but the technology isn't cheap to obtain. Companies in developing countries, especially, might balk at the expense of high-efficiency equipment, and understandably so developing countries often simply don't have the budgets and financial support for energy-effective technology. Subsidies from national governments for energy-efficient practices can help industries make big changes in how they operate. The Kyoto Protocol offers two programs to help developing countries obtain these new technologies The Clean Development Mechanism and joint implementation.

Preindustrial Energy Consumption

Throughout most of human history, energy consumption has been relatively low. Human and animal labor provided most of the energy used for agriculture, transportation, and societal growth. Wind, water, and biomass sources were the primary means by which domestic and trade needs were met. This section examines the use of these resources by humans until the 1850s.

Effects of energy consumption on the environment at local and regional levels

Energy consumption results in emissions of pollutants. Local pollution, characteristic of urban areas or caused by emissions from an industrial plant (factory, cement works, refinery, etc.), is converted into regional pollution through accumulation of pollutants in the atmosphere.

Environmental and energy policy

Energy policy targeted at industry can focus on the energy efficiency of production processes and distribution, possible co-operation in CHP and energy supply and the choice of renewable energy. The actual policy concentrates on improving energy efficiency through voluntary agreements mainly based on energy conservation methods. These agreements are intended to be incorporated in firms' environmental permits. Research has shown that these voluntary agreements are generally effective, although the level of annual efficiency improvement (approx. 1.7 per cent in the period 1989-1995) will not be sufficient in the context of reducing emissions by 80 per cent (Glasbergen et al., 1997, p3, p76). The most recent generation of agreements is intended to have a wider scope, including wider implementation of potential methods of improving energy efficiency life cycle management, regional co-operation (industrial ecology), reduction of use of virgin resources and increased use of renewable...

Transforming energy systems a labour market opportunity

Transforming global energy systems towards more efficient end use and renewable energy sources also improves general employment prospects. In many cases, investments in the relevant fields lead to macroeconomic growth in employment in net terms - i.e. taking account of all the adjustments triggered by the investments. One adjustment commonly to be expected is that if renewable energies are increasingly promoted jobs will be lost in fossil energy production (substitution effect). Similarly, the still relatively high market price for some forms of renewable energy supply may lead to temporarily reduced disposable household income (income effect), with a negative impact on consumer demand and thus on employment. Both effects, however, are outweighed by additional jobs in sustainable energy generation and in the sectors concerned with energy efficiency. One reason for the positive overall employment effect is that supplying renewable energies and carrying out efficiency improvement...

Buying an Existing Efficient Home

If you want an energy-efficient home, you can build your own (Chapter 21 explains how), but that's a long, arduous task. An easier and generally less time-consuming solution is to buy an existing efficient home. Unfortunately, not a lot of energy-efficient homes are out there at least not today. This situation will change quite a bit in the coming years, but for now, if you want an efficient home, you're going to have to look hard for one, and you may be disappointed with what you find. Restricting yourself to buying an existing efficient home will probably mean making some big compromises on the type and style of home you want. When looking for existing energy-efficient homes, heed the maxim Let the buyer beware. If you find an energy-efficient home that you're interested in, you need to make sure the equipment is sound and does what it's supposed to do. The following sections tell you how to evaluate an energy-efficient home. If you live in an area where solar communities are...

Evaluating just how energy efficient a home is or isnt

In addition to the usual pest, roof, and other inspections normally done for a real estate transaction, you need to have energy audits and solar potential inspections if you're thinking about buying an already existing energy-efficient home. Specifically, you need to evaluate how energy-efficient the home is, identify the kind of energy-efficiency (especially solar) equipment it has, and determine the condition of that equipment. Energy-efficiency equipment increases the maintenance responsibility of any house. You need to know what you're doing and how to use the equipment, even if it's all in perfect working order. Unfortunately, because energy-efficiency concepts are relatively new, most realtors and market professionals don't thoroughly understand the ins and outs. So it's up to you to arm yourself with the information you need to understand exactly what you're getting into. A relatively quick look-see can tell you quite a bit about how effective the energy-efficiency features of...

Building an Energy Efficient Home from the Ground Up

Finding the right lot for your energy-efficient home Drumming up your new home's design Getting into the specifics of materials Biting the bullet and getting started m f you can do it, starting from scratch is the best possible way to go with an energy-efficient home. You have the world at your fingertips, and you can design your new home to your heart's content. You can buy energy-efficient appliances and light fixtures, and you can install an energy-efficient HVAC system, including geothermal or solar power. If you think you can't afford it, keep in mind that building an energy-efficient home costs no more than building a conventional home. Add the fact that your energy bills will be dramatically lower, and a green home can actually costs less on a monthly cash-flow basis. But building from scratch is also a demanding process, full of unanticipated surprises some good, some bad. (To get an idea of the difficulties as well as the rewards, read Building Your Own Home For Dummies, by...

Taking Action in Your Backyard Improve your energy efficiency

One of the best ways to lessen your contribution to global warming pollution is to use more energy-efficient products and reduce your household's electricity and gasoline consumption. In your backyard alone, there are a number of actions you can take Replace regular light bulbs with compact fluorescent bulbs. If every American household replaced just one regular incandescent light bulb, either outside or in, with an Energy Star rated compact fluorescent bulb, it would prevent more than

Buying and Selling an Energy Efficient Home

Appraising and buying existing energy-efficient homes Looking for a conventional home to transform into an efficient home Selling your energy-efficient home for the most profit 7 he bulk of this book is dedicated to defining energy-efficiency projects you can do in or around your home. But perhaps you're interested in moving into an existing efficient home where everything has already been done for you. Or perhaps you want to move into a conventional home suitable for energy-efficiency updates that you plan on either installing yourself or contracting out for. Maybe you're looking to sell your energy-efficient home. Whether buying or selling, your goal is always to get the best deal you can. With conventional homes, maneuvering for the best deal is a well-defined game played by the buyer, the seller, and both agents. But things gets a little trickier with an energy-efficient home because the market is relatively untested, and things are changing fast. You need to understand how...

Looking at Community Solutions to Energy Efficiency

Seeing what constitutes a green community Gauging the advantages of energy-efficient communities Taking a back-to-nature approach ifferent types of communities have different attributes that can make becoming energy efficient more or less accessible. With the interest in green living on the upsurge, many cities and states have taken steps to make themselves havens for environmentally conscious citizens. But maybe you don't want to live in a community at all. Perhaps you want to join a commune or you're interested in going off-grid, or back to nature. Each situation has its pros and cons, though more cons are associated with going it completely alone.

Determining the value of an existing efficient home

If you like the home and everything seems to be on the up and up, you're ready to make an offer. An energy-efficient home costs more than a comparable conventional home, most of the time. To determine what's reasonable, you need to know what a comparable conventional home would cost and then add the value associated with the energy-efficiency equipment. You should be able to get an accurate estimate on how much a conventional home is worth from your realtor. The tricky part is determining the value of the efficiency equipment. Why Because to do so, you really have to determine two values the value to you (what you're willing to offer for the house) and what a bank will value the property at. Some banks are completely ignorant of energy efficiency and may not add any value at all for efficiency equipment, while others understand its value (see Chapter 4 for more on financial issues). Here are some things to do and consider as you try to determine the value of an energy-efficient home i...

Step One Improve Energy Efficiency

The easiest and quickest way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is to radically improve energy efficiency. Encouraging conservation, sup -porting the use of more energy efficient technologies, and developing better technologies are some of the ways to reduce emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Encouraging Energy Efficiency Money is often an effective motivator, and economists agree that a good way to encourage energy conservation is with taxes. A carbon tax is a surcharge that is placed on the use of energy sources that release CO2 into the atmosphere. This tax can, for example, be added to the pump price of gasoline or onto the electrical bill for households and businesses that rely on coal fired power plants. The more energy con sumers use, the more tax they pay. The less energy they use, the less their tax bill. The tax gives people an economic incentive to be more energy efficient by driving less, purchasing fuel efficient vehicles, buying energy efficient appliances, and...

Selling Your Efficient Home for Big Bucks

You want the most you can get for your efficient home, of course. To get top dollar, you need to know what buyers look for when they're in the market for an existing energy-efficient home. The first section in this chapter, Buying an Existing Efficient Home, goes into detail on what buyers should look for. As a seller, here's what you need to know I Keep good records of everything. If you can't validate your energy-efficiency claims, your systems may be worthless. Or even more detrimental to your cause, you may cast yourself as untrustworthy in general why else would you be making claims that you can't back up i Find a realtor who knows efficient houses, and how best to offer them for sale to the market. You want to capitalize on buzz in this regard, some market strategies work and some don't. The right realtor will let the right buyers know you've got an efficient home for sale. I Target the right market. At present, most people have no clear idea what energy efficiency means, beyond...

Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships NEEP

The Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships is a nonprofit organization that works to promote the use of energy-efficient products and services in the Northeast region of the United States. Formed in 1996, the NEEP has worked as an advocacy organization to increase the commercial availability of Energy Star products, promote information and technology exchange, and improve the efficiency of lighting, HVAC systems, and motors in industrial, commercial, and residential settings. The NEEP Web site provides information on efficiency standards for schools and businesses, offers materials for Building Operator Certification (BOC), and explains regional initiatives in energy efficiency.

Energy efficiency technologies

A vast amount of energy is wasted in heating and cooling unnecessary space due to the energy inefficient design and construction of buildings. This has arisen because traditional building regulations have paid little, if any, attention to energy efficient design. Studies have shown that energy conservation potentials of between 40 and 50 can be achieved merely by modification of building regulations.5 A variety of conservation measures, such as the installation of ceiling and wall insulation, weatherstripping, water heater blankets, low-flow shower-heads, caulking, duct wrap and solar water heaters, can have a dramatic impact on the amount of energy consumed for heating and cooling purposes. In the case of owner-occupied buildings, the cost of installing energy efficient measures is compensated by the economic benefit resulting from the energy saved. However, a particular problem arises where the buildings, whether residential or commercial, are rented.6 In rental buildings, neither...

Energy Efficient Mortgages EEMs

There are two types of Energy Efficient Mortgages (EEMs) one for existing homes and another for new ones. Here's a quick breakdown of who's providing what, but keep in mind that we're talking about the government here, so terms and programs are subject to change at the whim of a congressperson from the boondocks

Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy Budget and Tax Policy

Do you support increasing, maintaining, or reducing the funding levels for the U.S. Department of Energy's energy efficiency and renewable energy programs (likely to be funded at approximately 1 billion in fiscal Year 2004) 2. Do you support federal tax incentives to encourage consumers to purchase products such as cars, homes, appliances, and heating and cooling systems that are very energy efficient but which might otherwise be more expensive

Why is energy efficiency important

Energy efficiency or how well the fuels are used. This chapter examines the role energy efficiency can play. We will argue that energy efficiency alone can not provide the solution to meet targets for abatement of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This is because the simultaneous and interacting effects of changes in global population, growth or shrinkage in the world economy, and the proportions of various fuels employed to meet energy needs, have a much greater potential to raise or lower GHG emissions. However, we will also argue that energy efficiency is an essential part of the solution to abating GHG emissions to meet global energy demands at a realistic cost. Changes in energy efficiency are affected by a host of technological, social, economic, and political factors. This necessitates that the processes of technological, social, economic, and political change be made an endogenous feature of any model of energy use, whether for specific activities or aggregated for the whole...

Economics of energy efficiency adoption

The discussion so far has illustrated the bumpy route of economic and operational factors that leads to new efficient technologies and stressed the importance of institutional support to create a cycle of continued use with resultant technical improvement and cost reductions. But all of these insights into the process of increasing energy efficiency lead to naught if consumers and firms do not adopt these energy efficient technologies. Of course costs play a pivotal role in the uptake of energy efficiency. Individual efficiency investments have been shown to be induced by rising energy prices (Newell et al., 1999). When analyzing the uptake of energy efficiency innovations, these technologies have historically poor levels of adoption despite the high projected rates of returns. This has been called the Energy Paradox (Jaffe and Stavins, 1993). Explanations have included the additional costs that it poses to organizations to change their method of operation (Cebon, 1992), or that for...

Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Matters

The Protocol imposes more meaningful obligations in relation to energy efficiency, although there are still many shortcomings. Like article 19 of the Treaty, the Protocol adopts the principle of sustainable development. One of the stated objectives of the Protocol is stated by article 1(2)(a) to be 'the promotion of energy efficiency policies consistent with sustainable development'. Another major objective, in article 1(2)(b) is that energy markets should be based on 'a fuller reflection of environmental costs and benefits'. A similar wording is repeated in the Preamble to the Protocol and in article 3(2)(a). This makes obvious reference to the polluter pays principle. As in the case of article 19 of the Treaty, the commitment to this principle is only partial as the word 'fuller' indicates that a total adherence to the principle is neither demanded nor expected. Surprisingly, there is no reference anywhere in the Protocol to the precautionary principle. In this regard the commitment...

Strides in Energy Efficiency

Many examples exist of communities that are taking a much more aggressive stance toward promoting energy efficiency and demand reduction. Often, this starts with improvements in the energy efficiency (and re s o u rce efficiency more generally) of public buildings. Saarbr cken, for example, which has made tremendous strides at reducing energy consumption in the city, first undertook a significant eff o rt to enhance the e fficiency of its own buildings and reduce its own consumption of energ y. It saw this as an area where it had immediate control, and it recognized that such actions would set positive examples for citizens. It did a number of things to reduce energy consumption. One important step was to give clear direction to housekeepers and building managers about the a p p ropriate levels of heating (e.g., in offices, school rooms, and so forth, heating was to be set at 20 C and at 12 C for stairwells) during the day, with adjustments to be made for the time of day. The...

Definition of energy efficiency

Before defining energy efficiency it is instructive to define what energy provides. Units of energy are not valued in themselves rather the economic value of energy is derived from the services that it provides keeping the lights on, heating a room or transporting goods and people to a destination. Therefore, energy efficiency is a measure of the energy used in providing a particular level of energy services. Secondly, a general paradigm in which to consider energy efficiency is not one whereby technological innovation offers energy savings that are then limited by high costs, social inertia or political maneuvering. Energy efficiency is instead a complete analysis of how the technical, political and social aspects of some societal undertaking interact both within the specific activity and with other activities. Therefore, some of the most promising mechanisms for energy efficiency may be video-conferencing over the Internet, a firm's drive to ensure lights are switched off in...

Integrating Energy Efficiency Into Sustainable Energy Planning And Environmental Trading

Energy efficiency and demand-side management programs, while proven effective and much applauded, have generally been isolated from the mainstream of energy planning and use. However, there are hopeful signs of their integration into sustainable energy planning and programs to address climate change. In the U.S., Pennsylvania became the first state with a clean energy portfolio standard that includes demand-side management, and some utilities have begun to seek power supply proposals that include demand-side resources. In California, a proposed rule would require the reporting of carbon dioxide emissions reduction associated with energy efficiency measures. In Italy, Britain, and New South Wales (Australia), there are white or energy efficiency certificate trading schemes that are part of the overall GHG abatement efforts (see Chapter 6). Further, there is ongoing work to develop these approaches as well as explore their interactions integration with other certificate trading schemes...

European Energy Network ENR

The European Energy Network is an association of European organizations involved in the development, management, and provision of energy programs in the areas of renewable energy and energy efficiency. It facilitates communication and collaboration between member organizations and provides technical support to the European energy community. The ENR Web site serves as an information exchange for member organizations and includes summaries of ongoing and completed projects.

What Are The Obstacles To Promoting Energy Efficiency

Often times, energy efficiency seems arrested in the demonstration project mode of operation.5 While three, four, and even ten demonstration projects contribute toward sustainable energy, institutional change is unlikely to take off at that level of activity. Furthermore, the perpetual demonstration mode of energy efficiency makes potential host country investors suspect that these approaches to energy management either cannot take root in economies in transition, or that they are flawed in some manner. While neither is the case, if these perceptions are to be overcome, it would be well to follow the maxim Nothing succeeds like success A second problem confronted by advocates of energy efficiency and renewable energy is the dominance of NGOs as recipients of funding in target countries. While part of the mainstream of Western civil society, NGOs are only now developing some influence in many of the transitional economies. This is not to suggest that NGOs have no role in promoting...

Energy Efficiency as a Resource

Energy efficiency measures the amount of useful work derived from each unit of energy consumed. The greater the efficiency, the less energy needed for a given task. Energy efficiency is an energy resource because saved energy is available to do other useful work. Large efficiency improvements are possible on the supply side through improved energy conversion and transmission technologies and on the demand side through changes in residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation end-use technologies. Amory B. Lovins, founder and research director of the Rocky Mountain Institute, has calculated that the United States wastes 300 billion of the 505 billion spent annually on energy. He estimates that 75 percent of all electricity generated in the United States could be saved for less than the cost per kilowatt-hour of operating a coal power plant. Significant gains are possible on the demand side as well. Thirty-eight percent of U.S. energy is consumed in buildings and appliances,...

Reduce Energy Consumption in our Homes and Businesses

Dramatic improvements in energy efficiency are possible in virtually every aspect of American life. Studies show that we could reduce our electricity consumption by as much as 20 at no net cost (and probably great savings) to the economy.61 The U.S. can encourage the greening and weatherization of buildings, deployment of more efficient appliances and equipment, and efficiency improvements in industry. Using new technologies, such as those in zero-energy homes, we can transform the way we consume energy and achieve even larger improvements in efficiency.

Raising Energy Efficiency

If rising temperatures continue to shrink harvests and begin driving up food prices, public pressure to stabilize climate by cutting the carbon emissions that cause the greenhouse effect could become intense. The goal is to cut these emissions enough to stabilize climate and eliminate the threat to world food security from rising temperatures. Cutting emissions enough to stabilize atmospheric CO2 levels is an ambitious undertaking, but given the technologies now available to both raise energy efficiency and develop renewable sources of energy, it can be done and quickly, if need be.

Model Energy Management Program

An excellent example of a longtime successful energy management program in a large corporation is that of the 3M Company, headquartered in St. Paul, Minnesota 5 . 3M is a large, diversified manufacturing company with more than 50 major product lines it makes some fifty thousand products at over fifty different factory locations around the country. The corporate energy management objective is to use energy as efficiently as possible in all operations the management believes that all companies have an obligation to conserve energy and all other natural resources. Energy productivity at 3M improved over 63 percent from 1973 to 2004. They saved over 70 million in 1996 because of their energy management programs, and saved a total of over 1.5 billion in energy expenses from 1973 to 2004. From 1998 through 2004, they reduced their overall energy use by 27 in their worldwide operations 8 . Their program is staffed by six people who educate and motivate all levels of personnel on the benefits...

The Fundamental Laws Governing Energy Consumption

There are a number of basic fundamentals to all energy processes, and in order to understand why some processes are better than others, it's worth looking into the basics. There is only so much that can be done to improve the energy situation, and there are hard limits. Most people seem to believe that energy efficiency and conservation can lead us out of the wilderness, but in this section I explain why this is going to be a very difficult road to travel.

Energy Management and Measurement

An energy management system (EMS) controls how energy is used and how building equipment operates. Measurement and monitoring of buildings and building systems with an energy management system is a critical tool for successful management of complex university facilities, tracking trends, comparing buildings, identifying problems, and providing efficient building management. EMSs may be sophisticated or simple. Sophisticated systems can be used to regulate temperature, increase or decrease fresh air, identify problems, and monitor conditions. Systems may also change the temperature to which hot water is heated based on the outside temperature (lower temperature when outside temperatures are higher). Energy management systems alone are not necessarily a guarantee of energy efficiency, but they are a tool for managing energy on a campus and in a diverse set of buildings. In general, EMSs save and manage energy by controlling equipment so that Scheduling EMSs are very effective for...

Saving Energy and Money

In new construction, spray-foam insulation can seal a house well enough for a smaller, more fuel-efficient boiler or furnace to provide all the heat the house needs. This may also help the homeowner qualify for favorable mortgage rates, rebates on heating equipment, or even tax advantages. The payback period is short, and, amount you save on fuel will only increase as energy prices rise. And, any house built for energy efficiency will both cost less to own and bring a higher resale price.

Preliminary Identification of Energy Management Opportunities

Identifying EMOs requires a good knowledge of the available energy efficiency technologies that can accomplish the same job with less energy and less cost. For example, over-lighting indicates a potential lamp removal or lamp change EMO, and inefficient lamps indicate a potential lamp technology change. Motors with high use times are potential EMOs for high efficiency replacements. Notes on waste heat sources should indicate what other heating sources they might replace, and how far away they are from the end use point. Identifying any potential EMOs during the walk-through will make it easier later on to analyze the data and to determine the final EMO recommendations.

International Energy Agency

The International Energy Agency (IEA) is an autonomous body which was established in November 1974 within the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to implement an international energy programme. It carries out a comprehensive programme of energy co-operation among twenty-six of the OECD thirty member countries. The basic aims of the IEA are I To maintain and improve systems for coping with oil supply disruptions. I To promote rational energy policies in a global context through co-operative relations with energy sources and increasing the efficiency of energy use. I To promote international collaboration on energy technology. I To assist in the integration of environmental and energy policies.

Weve Got the Power International Energy Agency

If you get energized thinking about the possibilities for power that exist beyond fossil fuel, check out the Web site for the International Energy Agency (IEA), www.iea.org. The IEA acts as an energy consultant for its 27 member countries, which include the United States, Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom. Originally created during the energy crisis of the mid-1970s to deal with oil supply emergencies, the IEA's focus has changed with the times, and it now deals with all sources of energy. 1 Country-by-country data The IEA Web site indicates how much energy each country uses, where this energy goes, and the source it comes from. You can select a country name from a list or click a region on the site's map. Each country's page contains links to the amount of oil and type of renewable energy used by that country, as well as the country's energy policies.

International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA

The International Atomic Energy Agency was established in 1957 as an international nuclear watchdog organization. It provides technical support for the development of peaceful nuclear programs, ensures the safety and security of nuclear facilities, and verifies that nuclear programs worldwide are not used for military purposes. The IAEA Web site provides access to information about its programs and activities, a database of nuclear energy information, and nuclear standards, development reports, and technical publications.

Energy Efficiency Information

ENERGY STAR www.energystar.gov Public Housing Authority Energy Efficiency Toolbox www.globalgreen.org pha-energytoolbox U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Building Technologies Program www.eere.energy.gov buildings U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's Energy Efficient Rehab Advisor www.rehabadvisor.pathnet.org

The Energy Star Program

ENERGY STAR is a joint program of the EPA and the DOE, designed to save money and protect the environment through energy-efficient products and practices. In 1992, the EPA introduced ENERGY STAR as a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The first products to receive ENERGY STAR recognition were computers and monitors. In 1995, the EPA expanded the program to include office equipment. Today, the ENERGY STAR label appears on a diverse range of products from major appliances to office equipment to lighting and home electronics. The program has made significant inroads since its inception through partnerships with more than 12,000 public and private organizations. It educates both organizations and consumers about energy-efficient practices and green living. Recently, the issue has become even more critical as the prices of energy fluctuate wildly in the marketplace. The program provides helpful and...

Energy Star Adapter Label

The ENERGY STAR requirements for desktop or office printers are somewhat complex because of the many technologies that can be used. Monochrome laser printers, color laser printers, inkjet printers, and many points in between make it difficult to determine the standby power level and when an idle printer should shift to standby mode. In times past, printers printed whatever was sent their way. Now, they may use internal hard drives and extensive RAM arrays they may also print complex graphics. ENERGY STAR's goal is efficiency of operation. How efficient a device is depends on its underlying technology. It is up to the purchaser to select the particular technology that fits his or her application. Laser printers use significantly more power and cost less in supplies per printed page than inkjet printers. However, inkjet printers consume less energy while being used and while in idle mode. Some technologies are more energy intensive than others. Laser printers use around 350 watts of...

Measuring Data Center Energy Usage

To gauge the energy usage of a data center, inventory all of the equipment in it. Then look up the energy rating for each model and variation on the manufacturer's Web site. Because servers may have varying amounts of RAM, select a typical unit. Web sites generally do not provide energy usage to the individual upgrade. Equipment to list includes Unlike desktop units, data center equipment tends to run around the clock every day of the year. This makes calculating energy usage easy. It is 8,760 hours (in a year) multiplied by the hourly electricity usage multiplied by the number of years of its useful life. This can be doubled to estimate the energy used for cooling. The energy used by the air handling equipment can be estimated using the manufacturer's power rating. Energy savings in the data center can be significant, but it requires careful planning. It involves the purchase of energy-efficient equipment and an understanding of workloads for those servers that are only needed dur

Looking at Energy Costs Raw and Otherwise

Some types of energy are more expensive than others. How costly an energy source is depends on what it takes to deliver the energy to your home (raw energy costs) and what it takes to convert the raw energy into fuel you can use (conversion costs). By understanding where a particular energy source falls on the cheap-to-dear scale in both of these areas, you can gain a better understanding of how you can plan and control your energy usage to attain better efficiency.

Goal To hedge against rising energy costs

Suppose that energy costs rise 12 percent per year instead of staying flat. If you put in the solar water heater, each year your savings grow. If you save 26 per month the first year, as in the earlier example, the next year your savings will grow to 30.24 per month ( 27 x 1.12). Then 33.87 ( 30.24 x 1.12), then 37.93, then 42.48, and so on. In this case, the payback is 44 months, down from 52 months. Regardless of how high energy costs go, the amount that you'll spend on heating water is locked in at zero. This is a form of hedging. Here's another form, not quite as tangible but still very real You won't have to take shorter showers or skimp on that bath, no matter how high energy costs may go. This may be translated into peace of mind.

Establishing objectives in an Energy Management Program

Creativity is a vital element in the successful execution of an energy management program, and management should do all it can to encourage creativity rather than stifle it. Normally, this implies a laissez-faire approach by management with adequate monitoring. Management by objectives (MBO) is often utilized. If TQM is being implemented in a facility, then employee teams should foster this interest and creativity. Goals need to be set, and these goals should be tough but achievable, measurable, and specific. They must also include a deadline for accomplishment. Once management and the energy management coordinator have agreed on the goals and established a good monitoring or reporting system, the coordinator should be left alone to do his her job. Each plant in the division will have an active energy management program by the end of the first year. The energy management coordinator must quickly establish the reporting systems to measure progress toward the goals and must develop the...

Making Energy Markets Work

Advancing technology, rising energy prices, and the growing move to place a price on carbon emissions in many parts of the world have created an extraordinarily favorable market for new energy technologies. Reaching a true economic tipping point will depend on more than these simple variables, however. Energy markets virtually everywhere are regulated, complex, often inefficient, and rarely predictable. What happens to the energy economy, and to the world's climate, in the years ahead will be heavily influenced by hundreds of policy decisions made at interna Because energy markets have been shaped more than most others by government policy, institutional constraints, and the power of large industrial enterprises, simple economic theory provides minimal insight about how Although this economic model has been broadly successful in delivering affordable electricity to billions of people, it has done so mainly by making it easy to add energy supply but providing much less incentive or...

The corporate greenhouse Privatization of energy markets

To understand the dynamics of the emissions trading world we need to go back to the privatization and globalization of energy markets during the 1980s and 1990s, a process that began back in the early 1970s when the USA began to deregulate its domestic energy sector. At the same time Margaret Thatcher's government in the UK had begun to privatize various utility companies and other public institutions. In the 1980s, structural adjustment programmes in Latin America recommended the sale of public and state-owned companies in order to reduce government-accrued debt, and foreign investors were encouraged to buy them. In the 1990s, formerly Communist countries in central and eastern Europe privatized their state-owned energy and utilities companies. In the early 2000s, China and several Southeast Asian countries began to privatize and deregulate their energy markets.54 For many countries, privatization was the only effective method of raising investment capital. High levels of...

Energy Policy Issues And International Impacts

At the same time energy markets have become more volatile with oil and gas prices fluctuating by as much as 50 within a year. These price uncertainties have made the energy markets more speculative. In part the uncertainties were driven by fears of terrorist or political interference in the free global markets for oil and gas. But other factors also intervened, such as cartelization, nationalization, and consolidation of producers and traders. As a result, these fuel markets have become much less predictable.

Calculating Equipment Energy Usage

Many free tools are available on-line for calculating computer equipment energy usage ENERGY STAR Computer Power Management Savings Calculator. Use this simple calculator (in Microsoft Excel) to estimate typical cash flow opportunity from ENERGY STAR qualified computers and or power management features. This well-documented spreadsheet explains the data to enter and how to interpret the results. It can be found at www.energystar.gov ia business cfo_calculator.xls - 2006-08-16 Life Cycle Cost Estimate for ENERGY STAR Qualified Desktop Side Computer(s). This spreadsheet asks a few questions about the local electrical rate and how the computer is used. The results show the lifetime energy expense, as well as the amount of CO2 created. It can be found at www.energystar.gov ia business The U.S. EPA provides a spreadsheet for calculating the greenhouse gas equivalent for energy usage. Figures calculated using EPA Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator available on-line at calculator.html....

Comparing Computing Power To Cpu Energy Usage

The Average CPU Power (ACP) metric is used by AMD to give customers a more accurate idea of the power consumed by the processor. It rates energy usage while running the sorts of programs that a typical desktop might use. ACP allows customers to more realistically forecast their power budget assessments to estimate how much power might actually be consumed at the wall and, more accurately, plan their data center power and cooling infrastructure. This tool will be handy when estimating power requirements for data centers

Renewable Energy Systems

Renewable energy systems are defined as complete energy supply and demand systems based on renewable energy as opposed to nuclear and fossil fuels. They include supply as well as demand. The transition from traditional nuclear and fossil fuel based systems to renewable energy systems involves coordinated changes in the following Demand technologies related to energy savings and conservation Changes such as insulation and efficiency improvements of electric devices leading to changes in the energy demand for heat, electricity, or fuel are defined as changes in the demand system. In addition to the preceding renewable energy technologies, renewable energy systems include both technologies, which can convert from one form of energy into another for example, electricity into hydrogen as well as storage technologies that can save energy from one hour to another. Mathiesen (Mathiesen and Lund 2009) and Blarke (Blarke and Lund 2008) comprise these technologies under the designation...

Marketing solar energy systems

Market transformation for solar energy systems is gaining increasing importance as we move through the second decade of green building practice (using the formation of the USGBC in 1993 as a starting point). Recent project experience illustrates the opportunities and challenges facing marketers for solar energy products and systems in commercial and institutional projects. The US Navy in San Diego installed one of the largest systems for a commercial or institutional setting, with a nearly 1-megawatt (peak rating) system, as shown in Figure 7.3. The PV system also serves as the canopy for a carport, used for long-term parking of vehicles. Survey participants who decided not to go ahead with a solar project overwhelmingly (55 percent) said cost was too high and (52 percent) the payback period was too long. The plain fact is that most solar applications (even in the sunny Southwest) cannot compete with other building energy-efficiency measures that have a much higher economic return....

Carbonless Transportation and Energy Storage in Future Energy Systems

By 2050 world population is projected to stabilize near ten billion. Global economic development will outpace this growth, achieving present European per capita living standards by quintupling the size of the global economy - and increasing energy use, especially electricity, substantially. Even with aggressive efficiency improvements, global electricity use will at least triple to 30 trillion kWh yr in 2050. Direct use of fuels, with greater potential for efficiency improvement, may be held to 80 trillion kWh (289 EJ) annually, 50 above present levels (IPCC, 1996). Sustaining energy use at these or higher rates, while simultaneously stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels, will require massive deployment of carbon-conscious energy systems for electricity generation and transportation by the mid 21st century. These systems will either involve a shift to non-fossil primary energy sources (such as solar, wind, biomass, nuclear, and hydroelectric) or continue to rely on fossil...

Ga applications in solar energy systems

Genetic algorithms were used by the author in a number of optimization problems the optimal design of flat-plate solar collectors (Kalogirou, 2003c), predicting the optimal sizing coefficient of photovoltaic supply systems (Mellit and Kalogirou, 2006a), and the optimum selection of the fenestration openings in buildings (Kalogirou, 2007). They have also been used to optimize solar energy systems, in combination with TRNSYS and ANNs (Kalogirou, 2004a). In this, the system is modeled using the TRNSYS computer program and the climatic conditions of Cyprus. An artificial neural network was trained, using the results of a small number of TRNSYS simulations, to learn the correlation of collector area and storage tank size on the auxiliary energy required by the system, from which the life cycle savings can be estimated. Subsequently, a genetic algorithm was employed to estimate the optimum size of these two parameters, for maximizing life cycle savings thus, the design time is reduced...

Key Influences on Londons Energy Policy

There are several factors influencing both the content and form of London's Energy Strategy and the mayor's energy policy decision-making. First and foremost is the tremendous influence of Parliament and central government. Since 1855 Parliament has abolished and then reformulated regional government in London four times. Travers attributes this to ongoing struggles over who should control the destiny of the UK's capital city (Travers 2004) . During the crafting of the GLA Act 1999, he noted Whitehall bureaucrats deliberately authored the legislation in a way so their own powers were not diminished. The implications for the GLA's renewable energy policymaking have been profound. The new Climate Change Agency presents the mayor with one vehicle for circumventing this funding problem, through its capacity to provide direct energy services delivery. As previously noted, the Thamesway model on which the LCCA is based recycles financial savings attributable to past energy system...

Legal preconditions for implementing the National Wind Energy Policy at the local level

The installation of wind turbines is largely conditional upon the requirements of the law. Swedish law grants a significant amount of discretion to the local authorities. In the case of wind power development, the system of rules governing the use of land (and water) areas, as well as the assessment of the environmental impacts of turbines, is of particular interest. In Sweden, the development of wind turbines is primarily regulated in the Environmental Code. The code states that the installation of large and medium-sized turbines can be permitted only if they are in compliance with certain environmental requirements, among which are the basic and special resource management provisions and the so-called localization requirement. Also of importance are the rules on physical planning in the Planning and Building Act and the specific legal prerequisites for offshore wind turbine installations. The following analysis shows that although national energy policy promotes increased reliance...

Energy Policy Challenges

While acknowledging the steps taken towards a coherent energy policy (see above), this section recapitulates the main challenges which face India in the energy sector, in order to highlight the key areas for action. To meet India's large energy infrastructure investment needs will require the mobilisation of public and private funds. To attract private investment, a transparent and predictable investment framework must be established. Reducing the number of people who do not have access to electricity and the even greater number that use inefficient, polluting fuels for cooking and heating is a huge and pressing challenge. The country's growing appetite for personal transport, which carries the double threats of environmental degradation and energy insecurity, calls for policies aimed at improving efficiency and promoting both alternative fuels and alternative methods of transport. Supply-side and demand-side approaches must go hand in hand. Successful pilot projects need to be scaled...

Energy Policy Challenges and Uncertainties

The energy-related issues that China faces are familiar the world over, although the magnitude and the speed of change the country is experiencing are unprecedented. As in any country, China's energy-policy challenges are largely framed by national socio-economic policy goals. Paramount among them is the need to sustain rapid economic development and growth in output, but in a Chinese leaders have long recognised the importance of reducing energy intensity. Technical efficiency improvements have been sought through many channels, but big changes in energy use relative to economic output may require major changes in the structure of the economy. Despite rapid transformations within sectors, the share of industry, and especially of heavy industrial activities such as iron, steel, cement and, increasingly, aluminium production, has not diminished. In the meantime, migration to cities, the growth of rural centres into new cities and gradually rising incomes in rural areas have led to much...

Lost in Option Space Risk Partitioning to Guide Climate and Energy Policy

Every action taken or not taken, every investment made or not made, every capability gained or lost brings consequences that reach far into the future and remain unforeseen and unforeseeable. Yet, policy choices must be made, and even inaction becomes, in reality, another form of strategic choice. Climate and energy policy, strongly linked through the combustion of carbonaceous fuels, requires planners to persuade a properly skeptical public and their elected officials that the policy bets they must place now will perform well far into an unknowable future. To accomplish this fully, they must consider the full spectrum of likelihoods and outcomes, and employ analytical tools better suited to the task.

Adopt complementary clean energy policies to reduce global warming emissions To

Emissions Country

Achieve these reductions, the United States should adopt strong policies and financial incentives to improve energy efficiency and increase the use of clean, renewable energy. Power plants are the nation's largest source of carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption, contributing 40 of emissions in 2005 (Figure B). A third of domestic carbon dioxide emissions come from passenger vehicles (20 ) and other transportation sources (13 ). The Figure B. Sources of U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Consumption, 20056 Figure B. Sources of U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Consumption, 20056

Novel Catalysts for Gasification of Biomass with High Energy Efficiency

Gasification Catalysts

We have developed novel catalysts for gasification of biomass with much higher energy efficiency than conventional methods (non-catalyst, dolomite, commercial steam reforming Ni catalyst). It is found that novel Rh CeCVSiCh catalyst exhibited higher performance than conventional other systems, especially at low temperature (873 K). In addition, the catalyst was stable for 4 h in the gasification of cedar wood. The sketch diagram of the single bed reactor is shown in Figure 1. The reactor is made of quartz glass. An inner tube is inserted from the top. Cedar wood was supplied from the top of the reactor together with N2. The biomass feeder consisted of a glass vessel with a small pore at the bottom and it was vibrated by the vibrator and the vibration rate controlled the feeding rate. The gasifier consisted of a fluidized bed section at the middle of the reactor. In the gasification of biomass with oxygen, O2 and N2 were supplied from the bottom of the reactor. The sample of the...

Boyle G. Everett B. Ramage J. 2003. Energy Systems And Sustainability. Oxford Oup 619pp

Ramage, eds. 2003. Energy Systems and Sustainability. Oxford, England Oxford University Press. 619 pp. This book provides an overview of energy systems and their social, political, economic, and environmental impact. It examines the various energy resources used throughout most of the world, provides a basic overview of how energy systems work, explains the economics involved in energy provision and distribution, and assesses the use of these resources within the context of sustain-ability. This is a good reference for students who require a broad overview of current energy dynamics. This book is a practical how-to guide to the installation of renewable energy systems in typical residential dwellings. It covers equipment requirements, legal issues, incentives and rebates, and permit requirements. It serves as a useful guide for people wanting to use alternative energy sources in their grid or nongrid-connected homes. This book examines the technological,...

Levels of Energy Accounting

As in financial accounting, the level of sophistication or detail of energy accounting systems varies considerably from company to company. A very close correlation can be developed between the levels of sophistication of financial accounting systems and those of energy accounting systems. This is outlined in Figure 1-11. Most companies with successful energy management programs have passed level 1 and are working toward the necessary submetering and reporting systems for level 2. In most cases, the subsequent data are compared to previous years or to a particular base year. However, few companies have developed systems that will calculate variations and find causes for those variations (level 3). Two notable exceptions are General Motors and Carborundum. To our knowledge, few companies have yet completely developed the data and procedures necessary for level 4, a standard Btu accounting system. Some examples of detailed energy accounting can be found in 6 . Effective metering,...

An American Energy Policy

We can't know for sure which technologies will sweep the energy market we can't point to the innovators who will concoct them. They may come from government laboratories or industry partnerships. They will often come from the outliers, small businessmen, and regular fellows with a good idea. That is why, when we design our national R& D programs, we ought to ensure a place for the small, the new, and the cutting-edge. The current program for the FutureGen advanced coal project puts our entire national investment in a single billion-dollar project, rather than diversifying efforts to sequester CO2. Similarly, as we move to commercialize cellulosic ethanol, we should drive greater investment into a range of experiments, some at smaller scales and even locally owned, to broaden our chance of success. In solar a range of strategies can build cheaper, more efficient panels and drive down costs the race between Miasole and Nanosolar to commercialize thin-film panels illustrates this arc...

Typical Energy Savings

The energy management coordinator (EMC) should be strong, dynamic, goal oriented, and a good manager. Most important, management should support that person with resources including a staff. The energy management coordinator should report as high as possible in the organization without losing line orientation. A multiplant or multidivisional corporation may need several such coordinators one for each plant and one for each level of organization. Typical scenarios are illustrated in Figure 1-8. Typical organization designs for energy management programs Typical organization designs for energy management programs

An Example Energy Accounting System

General Motors Corporation has a strong energy accounting system which uses an energy responsibility method. According to General Motors, a good energy accounting system is implemented in three phases (1) design and installation of accurate metering, (2) development of an energy budget, and (3) publication of regular performance reports including variances. Each phase is an important element of the complete system. Phase 1 Metering. For execution of a successful energy accounting program, energy flow must be measured by cost center. The designing of cost center boundaries requires care the cost centers must not be too large or too small. However, the primary design criterion is how much energy is involved. For example, a bank of large electric induction heat-treating furnaces might need separate metering even if the area involved is relatively small, but a large assembly area with only a few energy-consuming devices may require only one meter. Flexibility is important since a cost...

Energy Efficiency The Promise and the Challenge

Here's a funny truth by far the cheapest new source of energy supply isn't supply. It's energy savings, also known as energy efficiency, or what Amory Lovins calls negawatts. In short, energy saved through efficient lightbulbs, pumps, and motors, good building design, and refined industrial processes provides utilities with more available capacity for others who need it. So instead of building a new coal plant, many utilities can (and do) try to save energy first by distributing efficient technologies, assisting businesses with big efficiency retrofits, and helping homeowners use less power. This makes sense a so-called demand-side management program might cost a few million dollars, but a new power plant might cost a few billion. It costs much less per unit of energy to save electricity (to generate negawatts) than to make it from fuel. For example, California has been saving energy for years at a cost of between two and three cents per kilowatt-hour, which is the energy it takes to...

Brief History Of Energy Consumption

Emergence Agriculture Circa 5000

The choices we make today will affect generations to come. What kind of future do we want to prepare for them What kind of future is possible We can make the best decisions by being aware of our options and the consequences of our choices. In this book, we consider the location, quantity and accessibility of energy sources. We discuss ways to distribute available energy, and examine how our choices will affect the economy, society, and the environment. Our understanding of each of these issues will help us on our journey to energy independence. We begin by finding out where we are. We begin with a review of our history of energy consumption. Historical Per Capita Energy Consumption The history of energy consumption shows how important energy is to the quality of life for each of us. Societies have depended on different types of energy in the past, and societies have been forced to change from one energy type to another. Global energy consumption can be put in perspective by...

General public support for the National Wind Energy Policy

Involving the local population in the early stages of the planning of wind turbines (e.g. Hammarlund, 1997 Swedish Energy Agency, 1998). Energy policy documents typically stress the environmental advantages of wind power compared to other power sources, particularly the fact that it does not generate emissions of any harmful substances. Nevertheless, much of the opposition towards wind power has targeted different negative attributes of wind power, such as visual intrusion, noise pollution and impacts on flora and fauna. For this reason, we also comment briefly on the results from a so-called choice experiment whose aim was to elicit the respondents' preferences towards the different attributes of wind power.9 When the attributes included in the experiment were selected, the results from previous research efforts constituted an important input (e.g. Hammarlund, 1997 SOU, 1999 Pedersen and Persson Wayne, 2002). According to this research, the amenity effects are of major importance for...

Energy Charter Treaty and Protocol on Energy Efficiency

International law in respect of energy efficiency has its origin in the Energy Charter Treaty81 and its associated Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Environmental Aspects82 (hereafter referred to as the Treaty and the Protocol, respectively).83 The origin of these documents was the European Energy Charter (hereafter referred to as the Charter). This non-binding document was negotiated in 1990-91 between a number of western European nations and other developed countries, on the one hand, and eastern European and other nations which were formerly part of the USSR, on the other hand. The purpose of the Charter was to encourage investment and trade in the energy markets of eastern Europe after the collapse of communism in the late 1980s.84 The Charter was signed on 17 December 1991 at The Hague by 47 nations, consisting of most western and eastern European nations, together with the United States, Canada, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. treaty, and also agreed to open...

Solar thermal energy systems

One way of utilizing solar energy is to use it directly as a source of thermal energy, either to provide space heating for residential and commercial buildings, or to generate electricity using a conventional Rankine steam cycle. As we have seen, a great deal of energy is used to provide basic comfort in buildings, and in the populous mid-latitude countries this is primarily used for heating during the winter months. The use of both active and passive solar thermal energy systems for these applications could provide a significant reduction in the need for non-renewable primary energy sources. Passive solar heating simply refers to architectural design techniques which enable the building structure to absorb as much solar energy as possible during daylight hours in the winter months, and then using this stored energy to replace heat that would normally be provided by a fossil fuel-fired furnace, or by electric heating. Design concepts can be as simple as ensuring that windows are...

Energy efficiency vs energy intensity

It is easy to confuse energy efficiency and energy intensity. Energy efficiency as we describe it above is a bottom-up view applied to individual activities. We describe energy intensity as a top-down or aggregated look at energy use in an economy. For consistency and clarity, the rest of this chapter will use the term efficiency for specific activities and intensity for aggregated energy use. However, the relationship between the two is far more complex and controversial than a simple aggregation. One measure in common usage to define energy intensity is primary energy supply divided by GDP (E GDP). For most OECD countries, this is between 7 and 14 mega-joules per US dollar (MJ US ) with the US and Sweden in the upper part of this range and Japan in the lower range (Azar and Dowlatabadi, 1998). However, energy intensity is not simply the inverse of energy efficiency. Energy intensity is also affected by a nation's climate, heating and cooling requirements, amount of indoor space,...

Reforming Industrial Practice From Pariah to an Energy Star

Efficiency is not merely a private virtue. It is also a hard-nosed business proposition. In the 1960s, Dow Chemical Corporation was widely reviled for its role in producing Agent Orange, which defoliated the environmentally devastated country ofVietnam. In 1984, Dow was involved in the Bhopal tragedy in India. It was an environmental pariah. But by 2006, the 46 billion company, with offices in nearly every country on the planet, was awarded the Galaxy Star of Energy Efficiency, marking the most aggressive energy-efficiency program in the U.S. business world, for its environmentally successful work. Why and how did Dow's leadership obtain a 42 percent savings in energy across their operations between 1990 and 2005 15 The company made changes because it realized that energy efficiency is good business. As John Dearborn, energy business vice president, said, We recognize that all energy consumers have a role to play in effectively managing the world's precious energy resources, and...

And International Atomic Energy Agency Iaea

What still appears to be the best international solution to the nuclear weapons proliferation dilemma is the so-called Non-Proliferation-Treaty (NPT), and the NPT monitoring and enforcement program of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) headquarterd in Vienna under the auspices of the United Nations. The NPT is an international agreement signed by many (but unfortunately not all) countries in the world who pledge not to 'divert' uranium or plutonium fuel from use in nuclear reactors to use in nuclear weapons. By signing the NPT, countries also allow periodic and random inspections of their nuclear facilities by officers of the NPT enforcement arm of the IAEA. Any plant or facility in the nuclear fuel cycle that handles uranium or plutonium is defined to be a nuclear facility. Thus nuclear reactors, fuel element fabrication plants, reprocessing plants, enrichment plants, uranium mines, and radiowaste disposal facilities all qualify as nuclear facilities. Of these, the main...

Energy policy in the UK

A number of important reports concerned with energy policy have been published in the UK since the year 2000. Many studies have shown that in most developed countries improvements in energy efficiency of 30-50 or more can be achieved at little or no net cost and often with overall saving (see Figure 11.26). But industry and individuals will require not just encouragement, but incentives if the savings are to be realised. 4 Estimate annual energy saving for your country as a result of (1) unnecessary lights in all homes being switched off (2) all homes changing all light bulbs to low-energy ones (3) all homes being maintained 1 C cooler during the winter. 7 Visit a large electrical store and collate information relating to the energy consumption and the performance of domestic appliances refrigerators, cookers, microwave ovens and washing machines. Which do you think are the most energy efficient and how do they compare with the least energy efficient Also how well labelled were the...

Americas First Fuel Discovering Energy Efficiency

This is, ironically, good news We live atop a vast reserve of energy efficiency. Take the example of California. It initiated a bold efficiency plan in the 1990s. Speaking about that plan, Brian Prusnek of California's Energy Commission predicted success, saying, This efficiency campaign will avoid the need to build three generating plants. In terms of greenhouse gas emissions, that's the equivalent of taking 650,000 cars California's campaigns followed directly from an epiphany by physicist Art Rosenfeld, who, after the oil embargo of 1973, calculated that with the same rate of consumption as Europe and Japan, the U.S. could have been an oil exporter instead of mired in crisis. That awakening led directly to the modern movement for energy efficiency. Rosen-feld's great energy discovery three decades ago exposed a fundamental truth We have enormous savings available through efficiency. By the end of the first week of studying the energy problem , we realized that we had blundered into...

Chinese energy policy and its environmental implications

The global warming issue in China has been intimately linked with efforts to modernize the economy and the energy strategy employed to fuel that modernization. With over 1.2 billion people, China is the most populous country in the world it is also one of the poorest. Economic growth has been accelerating in recent decades, averaging over 9 percent annually since the early 1980s, raising per capita GDP to approximately 800 in 1999 (though enormous regional disparities persist). Energy use increased 208 percent between 1970 and 1990, with coal rising from 69.9 percent of total energy consumption in 1976 to 78 percent by 1995 (World Resources Institute 1994 61, 66 World Bank 1997 46), making China the single largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Moreover, with further rises in population, greater urbanization, and sustained economic development, this trend is expected to continue (Summary Report 1994 22). Translated into figures relevant to the global warming debate, China...

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