Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

Power Efficiency Guide

The Power Efficiency Guide is a step-by-step guide showing the users how to create their own Home Power Plant. The E-book was created just to explain and help people out of the problem they face because of the lack of electricity. The guide was made to help the users use about 90% of the tools they use regularly in their various houses for the creation of a power generator, which will beneficial to them and their family. The device uses the endless power principle used to make the electric cars constantly charge themselves from the wheels when not being accelerated. It is a unique concept that can be used in every home. It was created in such a way that it would be a quick fix for the users' electricity problem. In other words, when the users purchase it during the day, the users will be able to make use of it before night falls. The process is so easy that even a little child can fix it up. The guide is such that comes at a cheap price and would help in the reduction of the amount the users might have to pay for regular electricity bill due to the number of appliances used at home. Read more here...

Power Efficiency Guide Summary

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Author: Mark Edwards
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Highly Recommended

The writer presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this manual are precise.

When compared to other ebooks and paper publications I have read, I consider this to be the bible for this topic. Get this and you will never regret the decision.

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General energy consumption

During the past few decades, the East Asian countries have experienced many changes in their energy consumption patterns both in quantitative and qualitative terms. This can be explained by two factors. The first is the natural increase caused by population growth and demographic changes such as age groups and household size. Another factor is the increase in economic activity and development. The population of the region is expected to reach about 1,646 million in 2025 and substantial economic growth is expected. Therefore, energy consumption will continue to increase in the next few decades and there will be an increasing demand on external sources of energy. China is the second largest energy consumer, after the United States, surpassing Japan for the first time in 2003. At present, coal makes up 65 of China's primary energy consumption. While coal's share of Chinese energy consumption is projected to fall, coal consumption will still increase in absolute terms. The demand for oil...

Nuclear Energy Policy

The development of nuclear energy policy deserves special mention because it has been guided by the federal government since the initial discovery of nuclear power. The government has subsidized much of the research and development of nuclear technology, has controlled the allocation and distribution of nuclear fuel, and has established various programs for the storage of radioactive waste. In short, nuclear energy is unique because the entire fuel cycle is regulated by the federal government. This section describes the various nuclear energy policies that have been enacted. Despite these efforts, support for nuclear plant construction remained low. Nuclear energy was still very expensive to develop, and the prevailing idea in industry was that nuclear power would cost more to produce than could be gained from profit. Additionally, the potential damage that would result from a nuclear accident substantially increased the liability for private operators of nuclear power plants. In an...

Key Influences on Energy Policymaking in New York City

First, there is no question that concerns over the anticipated energy shortfall dominate local policy debates, because the economic impacts could be so severe. This was made clear during the citywide 29-hour blackout in August 2003, when economic losses to New York City businesses and individuals were in the vicinity of 1 billion (Herman et al. 2003). Frequent blackouts or brownouts could discourage local business expansion or drive businesses out of the city, dramatically harming the city's long-term economic prospects. The decision of the mayors' Energy Policy Task Force to emphasize this problem is thus a rather logical one. It is noteworthy that the Task Force report essentially ignores renewables as a partial solution to this problem. The bulk of the report focuses on new power plant siting and construction, or on the development of new transmission lines which can import power to the city. In the section on distributed resources, renewable power technologies are identified as a...

What Is A Nuclear Power Plant

So far in our story, we have a reactor with steam being produced. How do we make a power plant how do we generate electricity Let us discuss the last component of a power plant the electrical generator. The discovery of how to build such a machine was made 150 years ago. If you wind copper wire into a circular coil and rotate the coil inside a magnet, you can generate electricity. Stationary brushes rub against the coil and carry the electricity away. A sketch of a generator is shown in Fig. 7. A complete nuclear power plant is illustrated in Fig. 9. Figure 9 Boiling Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plant Figure 9 Boiling Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plant The Kewaunee and Point Beach Nuclear Power Plants in Wisconsin are located on Lake Michigan they take water from the lake, use it for condensing steam, and return it to the lake. In the condenser, the lake water flows inside metal tubes and the steam flows on the outside of the tubes. Heat passes through the tube walls from the steam to...

Present Controversy Over a Proposed Coalfired Power Plant

The focus of our research was to identify and map social networks of residents in order to establish the flow of information about issues associated with a particular county's economic development. This study was designed initially to examine the impacts of rapid energy development within the county because it had experienced a major oil strike. While this was important to residents, an overriding concern was a proposed coal-fired power plant in the county which has resulted in considerable community conflict. This paper will address the following 1) how a sample of respondents involved in economic development describe their county, 2) how they network with each other over the proposed coal-fired power plant issue, 3) how these network alignments are related to rationales for support or non-support of the plant, and 4) how the general public has responded to the plant issue. The relationship of NIMBY LULU factors with positions on the power plant will also be presented.

Traditional coalburning power plant technology

The traditional coal-fired power plant comprises two basic components. The first component is a furnace boiler designed to burn the coal and capture the heat energy released using a system of circulating water and steam. The second part of the system is a steam turbine generator which Figure 3.1 Flow diagram of a traditional coal-fired power plant Figure 3.1 Flow diagram of a traditional coal-fired power plant

Utility scale power plants

At the heart of every thermal power plant is the combustion of fossil fuel energy sources. Coal is by far the most prevalent type of power plant in the United States, followed by natural gas. Coal-fired power plants Coal is mined, then cleaned and de-gassed, then transported to the power plant site via railroad. (All coal plants are located next to railroad tracks because there simply is no other way to transport the massive amounts of coal needed for large scale utility production of power.) Coal is loaded into the hopper which feeds the raw fuel through a pulverizer that turns the hard chunks into a fine dust. A blower forces this dust into the combustion chamber (along with the prescribed amount of oxygen) where it burns at a carefully controlled temperature and pressure. The resulting heat converts liquid water into a very high energy steam, which in turn spins a large turbine connected to an electrical generator. The steam is condensed back into liquid water form, which...

Advanced coalburning power plant technology

The traditional coal-fired power plant suffers two primary drawbacks. Firstly, its overall efficiency is limited and secondly it is a major source of pollution. There are strategies that can be applied to the traditional plant to dramatically reduce the levels of pollution produced. However there is little that can be done to increase its efficiency apart from raising the steam pressure and temperature. This requires expensive materials and may not be cost effective in the near future.

Reducing Emissions From Power Plants

There are several ways to remove pollutants from power plant emissions. Scrubbers eliminate particulates, SO2, hydrogen sulfide, and other pollutants from waste gases as they pass through a solution before leaving the smokestack of coal-firing and other plants. Bag-houses, enclosed structures that run emissions through filter bags in the same way as a vacuum cleaner, collect more than 98 of dry particulates. Cyclones collect toxic gases and particulates by using centrifugal forces, which are motions that proceed outward from a center. Electronic precipitators use static electricity to collect and remove unwanted substances that are suspended in very hot gases. Technologies are being developed that will reduce power-plant emissions even more. One exciting new technology is that of gasification, which has been tested but has not yet been used in a full-scale power plant. Gasification produces clean coal, which is more efficient and produces far fewer emissions than normal coal. In...

Geothermal Power Plants

Geothermal power plants use steam or hot water from geothermal reservoirs to turn turbines and generate electricity. Dry steam power plants use steam directly from a geothermal reservoir to turn turbines. Flash steam power plants allow higher-pressure hot water from a geothermal reservoir to flash to steam in lower-pressure tanks. The resulting steam is used to turn turbines. A third type of geothermal power plant called a binary-cycle plant uses heat from moderately hot geothermal water to flash a second fluid to the vapor phase. The second fluid must have a lower boiling point than water so that it will be vaporized at the lower temperature associated with the moderately hot geothermal water. There must be enough heat in the geothermal water to supply the latent heat of vaporization needed by the secondary fluid to make the phase change from liquid to vapor. The vaporized secondary fluid is then used to turn turbines.

Point to Ponder Why arent solar power plants more popular in sunny deserted areas

One of the major advantages of solar power plants is that the energy is free. There are, however, several issues to consider that impact cost and social acceptability. The free energy from the Sun has to be collected and transformed into commercially useful energy. Solar power plants to date cover the area of several football fields and produce approximately 1 of the power associated with a fossil fuel fired power plant. This means that solar power plants will cover relatively large areas and may be considered eyesores by some people. In addition, the technology of maintaining the collectors, and collecting, transforming, and transmitting solar energy is still relatively expensive. Fanchi, 2004, Exercises 7-11 and 7-12

How Power Plant Emissions Stack Up

Carbon to achieve the goal of keeping carbon dioxide in the atmosphere below 450 to 550 parts per million by volume. (Higher levels could have disastrous consequences for the global climate.) Improvingenergy efficiency and developing renewable sources can be faster, cheaper and cleanerand provide more security than developing new gas supplies. Electricity from a wind farm costs less than that produced by a natural gas power plant if the comparison factors in the full cost of plant construction and forecasted gas prices. Also, wind farms and solar arrays can be built more rapidly than large-scale natural gas plants. Most critically, diversity of supply is America's greatest ally in maintaining a competitive and innovative energy sector. Promoting renewable sources makes sense strictly on economic grounds, even before the environmental benefits are considered. D.M.K.

Coalfired power plants

Coal is the cheapest of fossil fuels, another reason why it is attractive to power generators. However it is expensive to transport, so the best site for a coal-fired power plant is close to the mine that is supplying its fuel. In consequence, coal has developed a bad environmental image. But developments since the 1980s aimed at controlling emissions from coal-fired plants, combined with new coal-burning technologies, mean that a modern coal-fired power plant can be built to meet the most stringent environmental regulations, anywhere in the world. Techniques for capturing sulphur, nitrogen emissions and ash are well established. The next challenge it to develop cost-effective ways of removing and storing carbon dioxide, for of all fossil fuels, coal produces the largest quantity of this greenhouse gas. Modern coal-fired power plants, with emission-control systems, are more expensive than the older style of plant common before the mid-1980s. Even so, coal remains the cheapest way of...

Recognizing raw energy costs

Comparing Raw Energy Costs Comparing Raw Energy Costs As Table 2-1 shows, electricity is by far the costliest energy source. This is because the power transmission grid, the huge matrix of power wires and transformers used to get the power from the utility generators to your home, is so big and unwieldy. Think of it this way When you generate solar power on your roof, it's created and used within a space of a hundred feet, maybe less. But when you use electricity from the grid, the production chain begins in a coal mine, then the coal must be transported to a power plant, and then power is generated in huge, expensive machines. This electrical power gets transmitted over long lengths of wire until it finally reaches your home. Several companies are involved a coal mining company, a transport company, and a utility company with linesmen, managers, secretaries, lobbyists, and lawyers not to mention that a whole host of governmental regulations have to be met, and taxes and tariffs need...

Nuclear Power Plant Financing

Fact that many plants had design differences and, in some cases, significant design flaws. The due diligence required to review all nuclear power plant designs, both online and still under planning, lengthened the time period that was already materially longer than originally anticipated. Compounding the time delay was the financial environment that characterized the mid- and late 1970s. The oil embargo of 1973-1974 sensitized the general public to energy costs (those related primarily to transportation) and the consequences of relying on foreign oil, but given the relatively lesser share of electricity from oil-fired plants (except along the East Coast) the impact on electricity was to halt the growth of oil-based generation (its peak was in 1978, 365 billion kilowatt-hours versus 115 billion kilowatt-hours in 2005). In addition, the coincident rise in inflation as measured by the consumer price index (CPI), shown in Figure 2.3, and in interest rates (both long and short term), meant...

Gas turbines and combined cycle power plants

A number of factors contributed to this change of fashion. Deregulation of gas supplies, particularly in the Europe and the USA, and the rapid expansion of natural gas networks have increased the availability of gas while conspiring to keep prices of natural gas low. More and more stringent emission-control regulations have pushed up the cost of coal-fired power plants making relatively pollutant-free natural gas look more attractive. Power sector deregulation has also contributed, by attracting a new type of generating company seeking quick returns. Gas-turbine-based power stations can be built and commissioned extremely rapidly because they are based around standardised and often packaged units and the capital cost of gas turbines has fallen steadily, making then economically attractive to these companies. The most potent factor, however, has been the development of the combined cycle power plant. This configuration, which combines gas and steam turbines in a single power station,...

Nuclear Power Plant Safety

Consequently, the focus of nuclear power plant safety is simply (a) to keep the reactor running at a steady level while in operation, and (b) to keep adequate water flowing over the fuel rods so they stay cool and solid, both during operation and after shutdown. Attention is also given to preventing the release of The effectiveness of our nuclear power plant safety efforts can be shown by citing our actual experience. In the 36 years of commercial nuclear power plant operation in the United States involving about 120 reactors, there has been only one major accident at the Three Mile Island plant in Pennsylvania in 1979. The reactor was destroyed. However, as stated earlier, the amount of radiation released from the plant was so small that no plant worker or member of the public was harmed by it. That reactor and similar ones built in the former Soviet Union are of a unique design they are much inferior to those used in most power plants throughout the world. For example,

Drivers Of The Transition To A Cleaner And More Energy Efficient World

Changes in global energy use will be driven by increasing concern with the detrimental effects of the continued use of petroleum and coal among fossil fuels on the environment and as a result conditions on earth. There are major drivers that are expected to help veen mankind from dependence on these traditional fuels. These major drivers, enablers, and changers of our energy world will affect future energy consumption and in parallel cause a radical change away from the use of oil and solid coal. We will address these issues by addressing the effects of the following Energy Saving Methods and Improvements in Energy Use Efficiency Carbon sequestration, thermal conversion, energy efficiency, energy generation, conversion, delivery reliability, availability, energy innovation, nuclear fusion Science issues and databases, policy, public good policy, energy economics, survey results, corporate policy, political inertia, real world solutions, special and policy opportunities, supply chain...

Guide to Energy Management

Guide to energy management by Barney L. Capehart, Wayne C. Turner, William J. Kennedy--5th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-88173-477-2 (print) -- ISBN 0-88173-478-0 (Electronic) 1. Energy conservation--Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Energy consumption--Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Turner, Wayne C., 1942- II. Kennedy, William J., 1938- III. Title. Guide to energy management by Barney L. Capehart, Wayne C. Turner, William J. Kennedy Fifth Edition

Role of Energy Conservation

Energy conservation can and must play an important role in future energy strategy, because it can ameliorate adverse impacts on the environment rapidly and economically. Figure 1.18 and Figure 1.19 give an idea of the potential of energy efficiency improvements. Figure 1.18 shows that per capita energy consumption varies by as much as a factor of three between the U.S.A. and some European countries with almost the same level of human development index (HDI). Even taking just the OECD European countries combined, the per capita energy consumption in the U.S.A. is twice as much. It is fair to assume that the per capita energy of the United States could be reduced to the level of OECD Europe of 4.2 kW by a combination of energy efficiency improvements and changes in the transportation infrastructure. This is significant because the U.S.A. uses about 25 of the energy of the whole world. The present per capita energy consumption in the U.S.A. is 284 GJ, which is equivalent to about 9 kW...

Energy Conservation

Through the energy efficiency efforts of the public and the government, Japan has achieved the highest level of energy efficiency anywhere in the world since the oil crises 2 . However, the weakness of Japanese energy supply structure remains unchanged, and the level of dependency on Middle-East crude oil is higher now than at the time of the oil crises. With increasing energy consumption in commercial residential and transportation sectors in recent years, it is essential to promote energy efficiency measures for the future. In 1998, aiming to achieve Japan's COP3 energy efficiency goal, a conservation target of 56 million kiloliters (crude oil equivalent) was formulated. This target value was revised in 2001 to 57 million kiloliters including an additional 7 million kiloliters for the rapidly increasing demand in residential commercial and transportation sectors. Future measures for energy conservation include Improved energy efficiency of houses and buildings. Promotion of energy...

Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy in India

Energy conservation received greater attention in India since the mid 1970s. Structural changes in the economy during the last few years have led to the expansion of the industrial base and infrastructure in the country, and subsequently to increase in demand for energy. Any effort to enhance energy generation brings issues of available energy sources and systems. India recognizes, as anywhere else, a need to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and transition to an era where many cost-effective and efficient energy choices are available. There has been a vigorous search during the last three decades for alternatives to fossil fuels that would ensure energy security and eco-friendly sustainable development. The energy conservation efforts in India have to be viewed in terms of coal and lignite being the long-term sustainable local energy resources. Small resources of petroleum and natural gas may be exhausted shortly and in the medium and long term, the import of oil will increase....

Evaluating just how energy efficient a home is or isnt

In addition to the usual pest, roof, and other inspections normally done for a real estate transaction, you need to have energy audits and solar potential inspections if you're thinking about buying an already existing energy-efficient home. Specifically, you need to evaluate how energy-efficient the home is, identify the kind of energy-efficiency (especially solar) equipment it has, and determine the condition of that equipment. Energy-efficiency equipment increases the maintenance responsibility of any house. You need to know what you're doing and how to use the equipment, even if it's all in perfect working order. Unfortunately, because energy-efficiency concepts are relatively new, most realtors and market professionals don't thoroughly understand the ins and outs. So it's up to you to arm yourself with the information you need to understand exactly what you're getting into. A relatively quick look-see can tell you quite a bit about how effective the energy-efficiency features of...

Determining the value of an existing efficient home

If you like the home and everything seems to be on the up and up, you're ready to make an offer. An energy-efficient home costs more than a comparable conventional home, most of the time. To determine what's reasonable, you need to know what a comparable conventional home would cost and then add the value associated with the energy-efficiency equipment. You should be able to get an accurate estimate on how much a conventional home is worth from your realtor. The tricky part is determining the value of the efficiency equipment. Why Because to do so, you really have to determine two values the value to you (what you're willing to offer for the house) and what a bank will value the property at. Some banks are completely ignorant of energy efficiency and may not add any value at all for efficiency equipment, while others understand its value (see Chapter 4 for more on financial issues). Here are some things to do and consider as you try to determine the value of an energy-efficient home i...

Sample Ordinance For Adoption Of The International Energy Conservation Code Ordinance No

An ordinance of the JURISDICTION adopting the 2009 edition of the International Energy Conservation Code, regulating and governing energy efficient building envelopes and installation of energy efficient mechanical, lighting and power systems in the JURISDICTION providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor repealing Ordinance No. of the JURISDICTION and all other ordinances and parts of the ordinances in conflict therewith. Section I.That a certain document, three (3) copies ofwhich are on file in the office of the TITLE OF JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS of NAME OF JURISDICTION , being marked and designated as the International Energy Conservation Code, 2009 edition, as published by the International Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Energy Conservation Code of the JURISDICTION , in the State of STATE NAME for regulating and governing energy efficient building envelopes and installation of energy efficient mechanical, lighting and power systems...

Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy Budget and Tax Policy

Do you support increasing, maintaining, or reducing the funding levels for the U.S. Department of Energy's energy efficiency and renewable energy programs (likely to be funded at approximately 1 billion in fiscal Year 2004) 2. Do you support federal tax incentives to encourage consumers to purchase products such as cars, homes, appliances, and heating and cooling systems that are very energy efficient but which might otherwise be more expensive

Effective Use of the International Energy Conservation Code

The International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) is a model code that regulates minimum energy conservation requirements for new buildings. The IECC addresses energy conservation requirements for all aspects of energy uses in both commercial and residential construction, including heating and ventilating, lighting, water heating, and power usage for appliances and building systems. The IECC is a design document. For example, before one constructs a building, the designer must determine the minimum insulation R-values and fenestration V-factors for the building exterior envelope. Depending on whether the building is for residential use or for commercial use, the IECC sets forth minimum requirements for exterior envelope insulation, window and door V-factors and SHGC ratings, duct insulation, lighting and power efficiency, and water distribution insulation. Energy efficiency for residential buildings Energy efficiency for commercial buildings The following is a chapter-by-chapter...

Why is energy efficiency important

Energy efficiency or how well the fuels are used. This chapter examines the role energy efficiency can play. We will argue that energy efficiency alone can not provide the solution to meet targets for abatement of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This is because the simultaneous and interacting effects of changes in global population, growth or shrinkage in the world economy, and the proportions of various fuels employed to meet energy needs, have a much greater potential to raise or lower GHG emissions. However, we will also argue that energy efficiency is an essential part of the solution to abating GHG emissions to meet global energy demands at a realistic cost. Changes in energy efficiency are affected by a host of technological, social, economic, and political factors. This necessitates that the processes of technological, social, economic, and political change be made an endogenous feature of any model of energy use, whether for specific activities or aggregated for the whole...

The Fundamental Laws Governing Energy Consumption

There are a number of basic fundamentals to all energy processes, and in order to understand why some processes are better than others, it's worth looking into the basics. There is only so much that can be done to improve the energy situation, and there are hard limits. Most people seem to believe that energy efficiency and conservation can lead us out of the wilderness, but in this section I explain why this is going to be a very difficult road to travel.

Energy Management and Measurement

An energy management system (EMS) controls how energy is used and how building equipment operates. Measurement and monitoring of buildings and building systems with an energy management system is a critical tool for successful management of complex university facilities, tracking trends, comparing buildings, identifying problems, and providing efficient building management. EMSs may be sophisticated or simple. Sophisticated systems can be used to regulate temperature, increase or decrease fresh air, identify problems, and monitor conditions. Systems may also change the temperature to which hot water is heated based on the outside temperature (lower temperature when outside temperatures are higher). Energy management systems alone are not necessarily a guarantee of energy efficiency, but they are a tool for managing energy on a campus and in a diverse set of buildings. In general, EMSs save and manage energy by controlling equipment so that Scheduling EMSs are very effective for...

Looking at Energy Costs Raw and Otherwise

Some types of energy are more expensive than others. How costly an energy source is depends on what it takes to deliver the energy to your home (raw energy costs) and what it takes to convert the raw energy into fuel you can use (conversion costs). By understanding where a particular energy source falls on the cheap-to-dear scale in both of these areas, you can gain a better understanding of how you can plan and control your energy usage to attain better efficiency.

Goal To hedge against rising energy costs

Suppose that energy costs rise 12 percent per year instead of staying flat. If you put in the solar water heater, each year your savings grow. If you save 26 per month the first year, as in the earlier example, the next year your savings will grow to 30.24 per month ( 27 x 1.12). Then 33.87 ( 30.24 x 1.12), then 37.93, then 42.48, and so on. In this case, the payback is 44 months, down from 52 months. Regardless of how high energy costs go, the amount that you'll spend on heating water is locked in at zero. This is a form of hedging. Here's another form, not quite as tangible but still very real You won't have to take shorter showers or skimp on that bath, no matter how high energy costs may go. This may be translated into peace of mind.

Making Energy Markets Work

Advancing technology, rising energy prices, and the growing move to place a price on carbon emissions in many parts of the world have created an extraordinarily favorable market for new energy technologies. Reaching a true economic tipping point will depend on more than these simple variables, however. Energy markets virtually everywhere are regulated, complex, often inefficient, and rarely predictable. What happens to the energy economy, and to the world's climate, in the years ahead will be heavily influenced by hundreds of policy decisions made at interna Because energy markets have been shaped more than most others by government policy, institutional constraints, and the power of large industrial enterprises, simple economic theory provides minimal insight about how to spur change. The electric power industry is particularly far from the neoclassical model, governed as it is by extensive government regulation that is intended to facilitate development of large, reliable electric...

Energy Policy Issues And International Impacts

At the same time energy markets have become more volatile with oil and gas prices fluctuating by as much as 50 within a year. These price uncertainties have made the energy markets more speculative. In part the uncertainties were driven by fears of terrorist or political interference in the free global markets for oil and gas. But other factors also intervened, such as cartelization, nationalization, and consolidation of producers and traders. As a result, these fuel markets have become much less predictable.

Ga applications in solar energy systems

Genetic algorithms were used by the author in a number of optimization problems the optimal design of flat-plate solar collectors (Kalogirou, 2003c), predicting the optimal sizing coefficient of photovoltaic supply systems (Mellit and Kalogirou, 2006a), and the optimum selection of the fenestration openings in buildings (Kalogirou, 2007). They have also been used to optimize solar energy systems, in combination with TRNSYS and ANNs (Kalogirou, 2004a). In this, the system is modeled using the TRNSYS computer program and the climatic conditions of Cyprus. An artificial neural network was trained, using the results of a small number of TRNSYS simulations, to learn the correlation of collector area and storage tank size on the auxiliary energy required by the system, from which the life cycle savings can be estimated. Subsequently, a genetic algorithm was employed to estimate the optimum size of these two parameters, for maximizing life cycle savings thus, the design time is reduced...

Lost in Option Space Risk Partitioning to Guide Climate and Energy Policy

Every action taken or not taken, every investment made or not made, every capability gained or lost brings consequences that reach far into the future and remain unforeseen and unforeseeable. Yet, policy choices must be made, and even inaction becomes, in reality, another form of strategic choice. Climate and energy policy, strongly linked through the combustion of carbonaceous fuels, requires planners to persuade a properly skeptical public and their elected officials that the policy bets they must place now will perform well far into an unknowable future. To accomplish this fully, they must consider the full spectrum of likelihoods and outcomes, and employ analytical tools better suited to the task. Two modes of thought tend to underlie the choices made or implied by energy and climate policies a focus on the likelihood of some future event or a focus on the possible outcomes of future events. Likelihood thinking provides the foundation for much of the technology-based regulation...

Using chip cards and electricity bills to incorporate consumers

Replenish the card or withdraw from the account if the permit balance is positive. For stationary sources the transfer of permits is linked to the annual gas and electricity bill from the distribution company. If a household does not have sufficient permits the distributor has the right to buy the required permits, and to recover the costs from the client.

Thermal Analysis Of Solar Power Plants

Net Analysis Solar Power Plant

Thermal solar power plants are similar to the conventional ones with the exception that a field of concentrating solar collectors replaces the conventional steam boiler. In hybrid plants, a conventional boiler is also present, operating on conventional fuel, usually natural gas, whenever there is a need. Therefore, the thermal analysis of solar power plants is similar to that of any other plant and the same thermodynamic relations are applied. The analysis is greatly facilitated by drafting the cycle on a T-s diagram. In these cases, the inefficiencies of pump and steam turbine should be considered. In this section, the equations of the basic Rankine power cycle are given and two of the more practical cycles, the reheat and the regenerative Rankine cycles, are analyzed through two examples. To solve the problems of these cycles, steam tables are required. Alternatively, the curve fits shown in Appendix 5 can be used. The problems that follow were solved by using steam tables. FIGURE...

Adopt complementary clean energy policies to reduce global warming emissions To

Emissions Country

Achieve these reductions, the United States should adopt strong policies and financial incentives to improve energy efficiency and increase the use of clean, renewable energy. Power plants are the nation's largest source of carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption, contributing 40 of emissions in 2005 (Figure B). A third of domestic carbon dioxide emissions come from passenger vehicles (20 ) and other transportation sources (13 ). The Figure B. Sources of U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Consumption, 20056 Figure B. Sources of U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Consumption, 20056

Novel Catalysts for Gasification of Biomass with High Energy Efficiency

Gasification Catalysts

We have developed novel catalysts for gasification of biomass with much higher energy efficiency than conventional methods (non-catalyst, dolomite, commercial steam reforming Ni catalyst). It is found that novel Rh CeCVSiCh catalyst exhibited higher performance than conventional other systems, especially at low temperature (873 K). In addition, the catalyst was stable for 4 h in the gasification of cedar wood. The sketch diagram of the single bed reactor is shown in Figure 1. The reactor is made of quartz glass. An inner tube is inserted from the top. Cedar wood was supplied from the top of the reactor together with N2. The biomass feeder consisted of a glass vessel with a small pore at the bottom and it was vibrated by the vibrator and the vibration rate controlled the feeding rate. The gasifier consisted of a fluidized bed section at the middle of the reactor. In the gasification of biomass with oxygen, O2 and N2 were supplied from the bottom of the reactor. The sample of the...

Boyle G. Everett B. Ramage J. 2003. Energy Systems And Sustainability. Oxford Oup 619pp

Ramage, eds. 2003. Energy Systems and Sustainability. Oxford, England Oxford University Press. 619 pp. This book provides an overview of energy systems and their social, political, economic, and environmental impact. It examines the various energy resources used throughout most of the world, provides a basic overview of how energy systems work, explains the economics involved in energy provision and distribution, and assesses the use of these resources within the context of sustain-ability. This is a good reference for students who require a broad overview of current energy dynamics. Convery, F. J. 1998. A Guide to Policies for Energy Conservation The European Experience. Cheltenham, England Edward Elgar Publishing. 169 pp. This book analyzes energy conservation initiatives and policies in Europe. It examines case studies of government investment and subsidies in energy conservation measures, the European Union's experience with combined heat and power,...

Levels of Energy Accounting

Number Family Member From 1978

As in financial accounting, the level of sophistication or detail of energy accounting systems varies considerably from company to company. A very close correlation can be developed between the levels of sophistication of financial accounting systems and those of energy accounting systems. This is outlined in Figure 1-11. Most companies with successful energy management programs have passed level 1 and are working toward the necessary submetering and reporting systems for level 2. In most cases, the subsequent data are compared to previous years or to a particular base year. However, few companies have developed systems that will calculate variations and find causes for those variations (level 3). Two notable exceptions are General Motors and Carborundum. To our knowledge, few companies have yet completely developed the data and procedures necessary for level 4, a standard Btu accounting system. Some examples of detailed energy accounting can be found in 6 . Effective metering,...

An American Energy Policy

We can't know for sure which technologies will sweep the energy market we can't point to the innovators who will concoct them. They may come from government laboratories or industry partnerships. They will often come from the outliers, small businessmen, and regular fellows with a good idea. That is why, when we design our national R&D programs, we ought to ensure a place for the small, the new, and the cutting-edge. The current program for the FutureGen advanced coal project puts our entire national investment in a single billion-dollar project, rather than diversifying efforts to sequester CO2. Similarly, as we move to commercialize cellulosic ethanol, we should drive greater investment into a range of experiments, some at smaller scales and even locally owned, to broaden our chance of success. In solar a range of strategies can build cheaper, more efficient panels and drive down costs the race between Miasole and Nanosolar to commercialize thin-film panels illustrates this arc of...

Combined cycle power plants

Solar Power Plant Block Diagram

New developments, such as those falling under the auspices of the US DOE's ATS programme aim to push the simple cycle efficiency as high as 41 without cycle adaptation, 43 with adaptation such as recuperation. This is still marginally lower than a modern coal-fired power plant can hope to achieve. There is a second strategy which can be employed. The exhaust heat can be captured in a steam boiler - normally called a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) - where it generates steam which is used to drive a steam turbine and create additional electricity. This is the basis for the combined cycle power plant. Combined cycle plants may employ one, or several gas turbines. Normally each gas turbine is equipped with its own waste-heat boiler designed to capture the exhaust heat as efficiently as possible. In a power plant with more than one gas turbine, each may have its own steam turbine, or the units may be grouped so that several gas turbines supply steam for a...

Typical Energy Savings

Disconfirmation Theory Model

The energy management coordinator (EMC) should be strong, dynamic, goal oriented, and a good manager. Most important, management should support that person with resources including a staff. The energy management coordinator should report as high as possible in the organization without losing line orientation. A multiplant or multidivisional corporation may need several such coordinators one for each plant and one for each level of organization. Typical scenarios are illustrated in Figure 1-8. Typical organization designs for energy management programs Typical organization designs for energy management programs

An Example Energy Accounting System

General Motors Corporation has a strong energy accounting system which uses an energy responsibility method. According to General Motors, a good energy accounting system is implemented in three phases (1) design and installation of accurate metering, (2) development of an energy budget, and (3) publication of regular performance reports including variances. Each phase is an important element of the complete system. Phase 1 Metering. For execution of a successful energy accounting program, energy flow must be measured by cost center. The designing of cost center boundaries requires care the cost centers must not be too large or too small. However, the primary design criterion is how much energy is involved. For example, a bank of large electric induction heat-treating furnaces might need separate metering even if the area involved is relatively small, but a large assembly area with only a few energy-consuming devices may require only one meter. Flexibility is important since a cost...

Energy Efficiency The Promise and the Challenge

Here's a funny truth by far the cheapest new source of energy supply isn't supply. It's energy savings, also known as energy efficiency, or what Amory Lovins calls negawatts. In short, energy saved through efficient lightbulbs, pumps, and motors, good building design, and refined industrial processes provides utilities with more available capacity for others who need it. So instead of building a new coal plant, many utilities can (and do) try to save energy first by distributing efficient technologies, assisting businesses with big efficiency retrofits, and helping homeowners use less power. This makes sense a so-called demand-side management program might cost a few million dollars, but a new power plant might cost a few billion. It costs much less per unit of energy to save electricity (to generate negawatts) than to make it from fuel. For example, California has been saving energy for years at a cost of between two and three cents per kilowatt-hour, which is the energy it takes to...

Brief History Of Energy Consumption

Emergence Agriculture Circa 5000

The choices we make today will affect generations to come. What kind of future do we want to prepare for them What kind of future is possible We can make the best decisions by being aware of our options and the consequences of our choices. In this book, we consider the location, quantity and accessibility of energy sources. We discuss ways to distribute available energy, and examine how our choices will affect the economy, society, and the environment. Our understanding of each of these issues will help us on our journey to energy independence. We begin by finding out where we are. We begin with a review of our history of energy consumption. Historical Per Capita Energy Consumption The history of energy consumption shows how important energy is to the quality of life for each of us. Societies have depended on different types of energy in the past, and societies have been forced to change from one energy type to another. Global energy consumption can be put in perspective by...

Operating and New Solar Power Plants

The first concentrating trough-type solar power plant in the United States was built in 1988. It is the 1 mW Saguaro plant located north of Tucson, Arizona, and was built for Arizona Public Service (APS). It covers 1 km2 and has parabolic trough-shaped mirrors. Today, the largest solar power plant in the United States is the 22-year-old thermal plant in California's Mojave Desert, which has a combined total capacity of 354 mW. At Kramer Junction, California, nine solar power plants, each 30 mW or larger, have been in operation for two decades. The yearly insolation in the area is 2,940 kWh m2. Plant efficiencies range from 10 to 17 , and their capital costs range from 2,500 to 3,500 per kWp.* The cost of generated electricity from these plants drops as their size increases, and ranges from 10 to 17 kWh. Other installations include one by a Spanish company named Acciona Energy, which recently started up a 64-mW solar thermal power plant near Boulder City in Nevada. This company is also...

General public support for the National Wind Energy Policy

Involving the local population in the early stages of the planning of wind turbines (e.g. Hammarlund, 1997 Swedish Energy Agency, 1998). Energy policy documents typically stress the environmental advantages of wind power compared to other power sources, particularly the fact that it does not generate emissions of any harmful substances. Nevertheless, much of the opposition towards wind power has targeted different negative attributes of wind power, such as visual intrusion, noise pollution and impacts on flora and fauna. For this reason, we also comment briefly on the results from a so-called choice experiment whose aim was to elicit the respondents' preferences towards the different attributes of wind power.9 When the attributes included in the experiment were selected, the results from previous research efforts constituted an important input (e.g. Hammarlund, 1997 SOU, 1999 Pedersen and Persson Wayne, 2002). According to this research, the amenity effects are of major importance for...

Energy Charter Treaty and Protocol on Energy Efficiency

International law in respect of energy efficiency has its origin in the Energy Charter Treaty81 and its associated Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Environmental Aspects82 (hereafter referred to as the Treaty and the Protocol, respectively).83 The origin of these documents was the European Energy Charter (hereafter referred to as the Charter). This non-binding document was negotiated in 1990-91 between a number of western European nations and other developed countries, on the one hand, and eastern European and other nations which were formerly part of the USSR, on the other hand. The purpose of the Charter was to encourage investment and trade in the energy markets of eastern Europe after the collapse of communism in the late 1980s.84 The Charter was signed on 17 December 1991 at The Hague by 47 nations, consisting of most western and eastern European nations, together with the United States, Canada, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. treaty, and also agreed to open...

Solar thermal energy systems

One way of utilizing solar energy is to use it directly as a source of thermal energy, either to provide space heating for residential and commercial buildings, or to generate electricity using a conventional Rankine steam cycle. As we have seen, a great deal of energy is used to provide basic comfort in buildings, and in the populous mid-latitude countries this is primarily used for heating during the winter months. The use of both active and passive solar thermal energy systems for these applications could provide a significant reduction in the need for non-renewable primary energy sources. Passive solar heating simply refers to architectural design techniques which enable the building structure to absorb as much solar energy as possible during daylight hours in the winter months, and then using this stored energy to replace heat that would normally be provided by a fossil fuel-fired furnace, or by electric heating. Design concepts can be as simple as ensuring that windows are...

Energy efficiency vs energy intensity

It is easy to confuse energy efficiency and energy intensity. Energy efficiency as we describe it above is a bottom-up view applied to individual activities. We describe energy intensity as a top-down or aggregated look at energy use in an economy. For consistency and clarity, the rest of this chapter will use the term efficiency for specific activities and intensity for aggregated energy use. However, the relationship between the two is far more complex and controversial than a simple aggregation. One measure in common usage to define energy intensity is primary energy supply divided by GDP (E GDP). For most OECD countries, this is between 7 and 14 mega-joules per US dollar (MJ US ) with the US and Sweden in the upper part of this range and Japan in the lower range (Azar and Dowlatabadi, 1998). However, energy intensity is not simply the inverse of energy efficiency. Energy intensity is also affected by a nation's climate, heating and cooling requirements, amount of indoor space,...

Reforming Industrial Practice From Pariah to an Energy Star

Efficiency is not merely a private virtue. It is also a hard-nosed business proposition. In the 1960s, Dow Chemical Corporation was widely reviled for its role in producing Agent Orange, which defoliated the environmentally devastated country ofVietnam. In 1984, Dow was involved in the Bhopal tragedy in India. It was an environmental pariah. But by 2006, the 46 billion company, with offices in nearly every country on the planet, was awarded the Galaxy Star of Energy Efficiency, marking the most aggressive energy-efficiency program in the U.S. business world, for its environmentally successful work. Why and how did Dow's leadership obtain a 42 percent savings in energy across their operations between 1990 and 2005 15 The company made changes because it realized that energy efficiency is good business. As John Dearborn, energy business vice president, said, We recognize that all energy consumers have a role to play in effectively managing the world's precious energy resources, and...

And International Atomic Energy Agency Iaea

What still appears to be the best international solution to the nuclear weapons proliferation dilemma is the so-called Non-Proliferation-Treaty (NPT), and the NPT monitoring and enforcement program of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) headquarterd in Vienna under the auspices of the United Nations. The NPT is an international agreement signed by many (but unfortunately not all) countries in the world who pledge not to 'divert' uranium or plutonium fuel from use in nuclear reactors to use in nuclear weapons. By signing the NPT, countries also allow periodic and random inspections of their nuclear facilities by officers of the NPT enforcement arm of the IAEA. Any plant or facility in the nuclear fuel cycle that handles uranium or plutonium is defined to be a nuclear facility. Thus nuclear reactors, fuel element fabrication plants, reprocessing plants, enrichment plants, uranium mines, and radiowaste disposal facilities all qualify as nuclear facilities. Of these, the main...

Buildings energy conservation and efficiency

If we turn lights off in our homes when we do not need them, if we turn down the thermostat by a degree or two so that we are less warm or less cool or if we add more insulation to our home, we are conserving or indeed saving energy. To illustrate what might be possible, let us consider the efficiency with which energy is currently used. The energy available in the coal, oil, gas, uranium, hydraulic or wind power is primary energy. It is either used directly, for instance as heat, or it is transformed into motor power or electricity that in turn provides for many uses. The process of energy conversion, transmission and transformation into its final useful form involves a proportion of the primary energy being wasted. For example, to provide one unit of electrical power at the point of use typically requires about three units of primary energy. An incandescent light bulb is about 3 efficient in converting primary energy into light energy unnecessary use of lighting reduces the overall...

Energy policy in the UK

A number of important reports concerned with energy policy have been published in the UK since the year 2000. Many studies have shown that in most developed countries improvements in energy efficiency of 30-50 or more can be achieved at little or no net cost and often with overall saving (see Figure 11.26). But industry and individuals will require not just encouragement, but incentives if the savings are to be realised. 4 Estimate annual energy saving for your country as a result of (1) unnecessary lights in all homes being switched off (2) all homes changing all light bulbs to low-energy ones (3) all homes being maintained 1 C cooler during the winter. 7 Visit a large electrical store and collate information relating to the energy consumption and the performance of domestic appliances refrigerators, cookers, microwave ovens and washing machines. Which do you think are the most energy efficient and how do they compare with the least energy efficient Also how well labelled were the...

Attacks on Nuclear Power Plants

Nuclear power plants have two vulnerable components the reactors themselves and the spent fuel that is stored on-site, near the reactor. The example of September 11, 2001 raises the spectre of an airplane crash into a nuclear power plant. The containment structure enclosing the plant is designed to withstand the impact of a small plane but, in most cases, not that of a large airliner. However, even if an airliner could be hijacked, a nuclear power plant is relatively difficult to hit directly because of its low height and small target area. The potential results of such an impact are being studied, but the results are classified 25, p. 42 . Nonetheless, it is likely that they would vary widely, depending on the precise point of the impact and the unpredictable good fortune the attacker might have in disabling the cooling system and breaching the reactor vessel. Concerns about the dangers associated with terrorist attacks on nuclear power plants have, in some cases, led to calls that...

Americas First Fuel Discovering Energy Efficiency

When some of us think of energy, our first thought is of giant gas turbines and huge hydroelectric dams, massive structures turning out megawatts of electricity. If you've ever stood under a 50,000-volt transmission line, you have felt the thrumming power of a thousand tons of falling water concentrated into a four-inch-thick high-tension line. But the power on that transmission line can be rivaled by the power of the silent absence of wasted energy. Fifty thousand air conditioners running on one less kilowatt each because of increased efficiency are just as powerful as a power plant churning out 50,000 kilowatts of power. The only difference is that the conserved energy is quieter, safer, and almost always cheaper. This is, ironically, good news We live atop a vast reserve of energy efficiency. Take the example of California. It initiated a bold efficiency plan in the 1990s. Speaking about that plan, Brian Prusnek of California's Energy Commission predicted success, saying, This...

Chinese energy policy and its environmental implications

The global warming issue in China has been intimately linked with efforts to modernize the economy and the energy strategy employed to fuel that modernization. With over 1.2 billion people, China is the most populous country in the world it is also one of the poorest. Economic growth has been accelerating in recent decades, averaging over 9 percent annually since the early 1980s, raising per capita GDP to approximately 800 in 1999 (though enormous regional disparities persist). Energy use increased 208 percent between 1970 and 1990, with coal rising from 69.9 percent of total energy consumption in 1976 to 78 percent by 1995 (World Resources Institute 1994 61, 66 World Bank 1997 46), making China the single largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Moreover, with further rises in population, greater urbanization, and sustained economic development, this trend is expected to continue (Summary Report 1994 22). Translated into figures relevant to the global warming debate, China...

Energy policy in China

Before the late 1970s, energy policy in China - to the extent that one existed -was dominated by production interests and focused almost exclusively on expanding supply. With the beginning of economic reforms, however, a reevaluation of the energy situation was initiated through a series of national symposia organized by the SSTC. These resulted in a report critical of past energy policies and brought to the attention of the leadership the serious energy shortages facing the country as a consequence of those policies (Lieberthal and Oksenberg 1988 79 Lu 1993 3-9). Concerned about the potential impact of such shortages on the economy, by the mid-1980s the SPC and SSTC created a number of research institutes to explore such issues as alternative energy sources, fuel-switching and energy conservation (Christoffersen 1992 43). The ministries responsible for energy policy also went through a series of organizational reshuffles throughout the 1980s. Separate ministries responsible for coal,...

Energy Efficiency in Industry and Transportation

Increasing energy efficiency conserves fossil fuels, cuts down on pollution, and saves money. Steam turbine power plants reduce their energy or heat loss by insulating pipes and by returning condensed steam to the boiler for reheating. New combined-cycle plants increase energy efficiency by using hot exhaust from gas turbines to produce steam for steam turbines in the same plant. On-site electricity generators often increase energy efficiency by cogeneration, or by combined heat and power (CHP), in which waste heat is captured to heat buildings. Cogeneration is employed in many different industries, with chemical, paper, and petroleum refining plants being the largest users. A number of colleges have also installed CHP generators. Improved technologies, the use of catalysts, renewable or recycled raw material, and recovery and reuse of waste in industry increase energy efficiency. In transportation, fuel efficiency or miles per gallon (MPG) depends on vehicle design, on reducing air...

The Energy Star Program

One way in which individuals and business managers can increase energy efficiency is by using Energy Star products. Energy Star is a voluntary labeling program, introduced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1992, that identifies energy-efficient products. Manufacturers must test all major appliances to meet energy-efficiency standards set by the Department of Energy. These are displayed on an EnergyGuide label that specifies how much energy the appliance uses, compares this with the energy use of similar products, and notes the approximate annual operating cost. To warrant the Energy Star certification, often displayed on the EnergyGuide label, products must meet stricter energy-efficiency guidelines, set by the EPA and the Department of Energy. For example, Energy Star homes must be at least 30 percent more energy efficient in terms of heating, cooling, and water heating than comparable homes built to the 1993 Model Energy Code. Homeowners can save energy by using...

Marketing solar energy systems

Market transformation for solar energy systems is gaining increasing importance as we move through the second decade of green building practice (using the formation of the USGBC in 1993 as a starting point). Recent project experience illustrates the opportunities and challenges facing marketers for solar energy products and systems in commercial and institutional projects. The US Navy in San Diego installed one of the largest systems for a commercial or institutional setting, with a nearly 1-megawatt (peak rating) system, as shown in Figure 7.3. The PV system also serves as the canopy for a carport, used for long-term parking of vehicles. Survey participants who decided not to go ahead with a solar project overwhelmingly (55 percent) said cost was too high and (52 percent) the payback period was too long. The plain fact is that most solar applications (even in the sunny Southwest) cannot compete with other building energy-efficiency measures that have a much higher economic return....

Direct and indirect energy consumption by households

In the Dutch energy statistics the energy consumption by households constitutes only a minor part (20-25 per cent) of the total energy consumption in The Netherlands. These household energy consumption figures only reflect the use of electricity and natural gas by households. The figures do not include energy use for private and public transport and the energy use required for the production and distribution of goods and services acquired by households. In our analysis we adopt the central assumption that all production takes place to serve consumption. So the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of the various production sectors are attributed to the households in relation to the volume of goods and services consumed by Dutch households. With this method, we follow the energy use and emissions during the complete chain of Dutch household consumption production, transport, trade and sale, use in households and disposal. household effects are the most important indirect...

New York State Energy Research and Development Authority Nyserda

The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority is a public benefit corporation created to administer the Energy Smart Program in the State of New York. It provides energy-efficient services and implements research and development projects in the area of energy efficiency and environmental protection. The NYSERDA Web site provides information on incentives for creating energy efficient businesses and homes, descriptions of authority programs, and links to funding opportunities, state energy regulations, and news and data on energy prices and weather.

Legal preconditions for implementing the National Wind Energy Policy at the local level

The installation of wind turbines is largely conditional upon the requirements of the law. Swedish law grants a significant amount of discretion to the local authorities. In the case of wind power development, the system of rules governing the use of land (and water) areas, as well as the assessment of the environmental impacts of turbines, is of particular interest. In Sweden, the development of wind turbines is primarily regulated in the Environmental Code. The code states that the installation of large and medium-sized turbines can be permitted only if they are in compliance with certain environmental requirements, among which are the basic and special resource management provisions and the so-called localization requirement. Also of importance are the rules on physical planning in the Planning and Building Act and the specific legal prerequisites for offshore wind turbine installations. The following analysis shows that although national energy policy promotes increased reliance...

Energy markets are not free

Efficient markets also require clear and accurate price signals, which allow both producers and consumers to make optimal choices about their investments and consumption, yet energy prices ignore an array of costs. Health and environmental expenses associated with power-plant pollution, for instance, are paid by taxpayers and healthcare consumers. The government of Ontario, Canada, estimates that the health and environmental costs of electricity from Ontario's coal-fired generation plants total C 120 per megawatt-hour. Yet, power in the province is sold for just C 60 per megawatt-hour, which covers only fuel and capital amortization. Selling power at one-third its full cost (which includes additional operating expenses, overhead and profit) obviously distorts the market and motivates both producers and consumers to make decisions that are suboptimal for society. Despite these economic realities, virtually every new power plant has been of the centralized type. There is now, however,...

Key Influences on Londons Energy Policy

There are several factors influencing both the content and form of London's Energy Strategy and the mayor's energy policy decision-making. First and foremost is the tremendous influence of Parliament and central government. Since 1855 Parliament has abolished and then reformulated regional government in London four times. Travers attributes this to ongoing struggles over who should control the destiny of the UK's capital city (Travers 2004) . During the crafting of the GLA Act 1999, he noted Whitehall bureaucrats deliberately authored the legislation in a way so their own powers were not diminished. The implications for the GLA's renewable energy policymaking have been profound. The new Climate Change Agency presents the mayor with one vehicle for circumventing this funding problem, through its capacity to provide direct energy services delivery. As previously noted, the Thamesway model on which the LCCA is based recycles financial savings attributable to past energy system...

International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA

The International Atomic Energy Agency was established in 1957 as an international nuclear watchdog organization. It provides technical support for the development of peaceful nuclear programs, ensures the safety and security of nuclear facilities, and verifies that nuclear programs worldwide are not used for military purposes. The IAEA Web site provides access to information about its programs and activities, a database of nuclear energy information, and nuclear standards, development reports, and technical publications.

Building an Energy Efficient Home from the Ground Up

Finding the right lot for your energy-efficient home Drumming up your new home's design Getting into the specifics of materials Biting the bullet and getting started m f you can do it, starting from scratch is the best possible way to go with an energy-efficient home. You have the world at your fingertips, and you can design your new home to your heart's content. You can buy energy-efficient appliances and light fixtures, and you can install an energy-efficient HVAC system, including geothermal or solar power. If you think you can't afford it, keep in mind that building an energy-efficient home costs no more than building a conventional home. Add the fact that your energy bills will be dramatically lower, and a green home can actually costs less on a monthly cash-flow basis. But building from scratch is also a demanding process, full of unanticipated surprises some good, some bad. (To get an idea of the difficulties as well as the rewards, read Building Your Own Home For Dummies, by...

Transforming energy systems a labour market opportunity

Transforming global energy systems towards more efficient end use and renewable energy sources also improves general employment prospects. In many cases, investments in the relevant fields lead to macroeconomic growth in employment in net terms - i.e. taking account of all the adjustments triggered by the investments. One adjustment commonly to be expected is that if renewable energies are increasingly promoted jobs will be lost in fossil energy production (substitution effect). Similarly, the still relatively high market price for some forms of renewable energy supply may lead to temporarily reduced disposable household income (income effect), with a negative impact on consumer demand and thus on employment. Both effects, however, are outweighed by additional jobs in sustainable energy generation and in the sectors concerned with energy efficiency. One reason for the positive overall employment effect is that supplying renewable energies and carrying out efficiency improvement...

Energy Efficiency Information

ENERGY STAR www.energystar.gov Public Housing Authority Energy Efficiency Toolbox www.globalgreen.org pha-energytoolbox U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Building Technologies Program www.eere.energy.gov buildings U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's Energy Efficient Rehab Advisor www.rehabadvisor.pathnet.org

Weve Got the Power International Energy Agency

If you get energized thinking about the possibilities for power that exist beyond fossil fuel, check out the Web site for the International Energy Agency (IEA), www.iea.org. The IEA acts as an energy consultant for its 27 member countries, which include the United States, Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom. Originally created during the energy crisis of the mid-1970s to deal with oil supply emergencies, the IEA's focus has changed with the times, and it now deals with all sources of energy. 1 Country-by-country data The IEA Web site indicates how much energy each country uses, where this energy goes, and the source it comes from. You can select a country name from a list or click a region on the site's map. Each country's page contains links to the amount of oil and type of renewable energy used by that country, as well as the country's energy policies.

Carbonless Transportation and Energy Storage in Future Energy Systems

By 2050 world population is projected to stabilize near ten billion. Global economic development will outpace this growth, achieving present European per capita living standards by quintupling the size of the global economy - and increasing energy use, especially electricity, substantially. Even with aggressive efficiency improvements, global electricity use will at least triple to 30 trillion kWh yr in 2050. Direct use of fuels, with greater potential for efficiency improvement, may be held to 80 trillion kWh (289 EJ) annually, 50 above present levels (IPCC, 1996). Sustaining energy use at these or higher rates, while simultaneously stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels, will require massive deployment of carbon-conscious energy systems for electricity generation and transportation by the mid 21st century. These systems will either involve a shift to non-fossil primary energy sources (such as solar, wind, biomass, nuclear, and hydroelectric) or continue to rely on fossil...

Comparing Computing Power To Cpu Energy Usage

The Average CPU Power (ACP) metric is used by AMD to give customers a more accurate idea of the power consumed by the processor. It rates energy usage while running the sorts of programs that a typical desktop might use. ACP allows customers to more realistically forecast their power budget assessments to estimate how much power might actually be consumed at the wall and, more accurately, plan their data center power and cooling infrastructure. This tool will be handy when estimating power requirements for data centers

Energy Policy Challenges and Uncertainties

The energy-related issues that China faces are familiar the world over, although the magnitude and the speed of change the country is experiencing are unprecedented. As in any country, China's energy-policy challenges are largely framed by national socio-economic policy goals. Paramount among them is the need to sustain rapid economic development and growth in output, but in a Chinese leaders have long recognised the importance of reducing energy intensity. Technical efficiency improvements have been sought through many channels, but big changes in energy use relative to economic output may require major changes in the structure of the economy. Despite rapid transformations within sectors, the share of industry, and especially of heavy industrial activities such as iron, steel, cement and, increasingly, aluminium production, has not diminished. In the meantime, migration to cities, the growth of rural centres into new cities and gradually rising incomes in rural areas have led to much...

Step One Improve Energy Efficiency

The easiest and quickest way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is to radically improve energy efficiency. Encouraging conservation, sup -porting the use of more energy efficient technologies, and developing better technologies are some of the ways to reduce emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Encouraging Energy Efficiency Money is often an effective motivator, and economists agree that a good way to encourage energy conservation is with taxes. A carbon tax is a surcharge that is placed on the use of energy sources that release CO2 into the atmosphere. This tax can, for example, be added to the pump price of gasoline or onto the electrical bill for households and businesses that rely on coal fired power plants. The more energy con sumers use, the more tax they pay. The less energy they use, the less their tax bill. The tax gives people an economic incentive to be more energy efficient by driving less, purchasing fuel efficient vehicles, buying energy efficient appliances, and...

Economics of energy efficiency adoption

The discussion so far has illustrated the bumpy route of economic and operational factors that leads to new efficient technologies and stressed the importance of institutional support to create a cycle of continued use with resultant technical improvement and cost reductions. But all of these insights into the process of increasing energy efficiency lead to naught if consumers and firms do not adopt these energy efficient technologies. Of course costs play a pivotal role in the uptake of energy efficiency. Individual efficiency investments have been shown to be induced by rising energy prices (Newell et al., 1999). When analyzing the uptake of energy efficiency innovations, these technologies have historically poor levels of adoption despite the high projected rates of returns. This has been called the Energy Paradox (Jaffe and Stavins, 1993). Explanations have included the additional costs that it poses to organizations to change their method of operation (Cebon, 1992), or that for...

Model Energy Management Program

An excellent example of a longtime successful energy management program in a large corporation is that of the 3M Company, headquartered in St. Paul, Minnesota 5 . 3M is a large, diversified manufacturing company with more than 50 major product lines it makes some fifty thousand products at over fifty different factory locations around the country. The corporate energy management objective is to use energy as efficiently as possible in all operations the management believes that all companies have an obligation to conserve energy and all other natural resources. Energy productivity at 3M improved over 63 percent from 1973 to 2004. They saved over 70 million in 1996 because of their energy management programs, and saved a total of over 1.5 billion in energy expenses from 1973 to 2004. From 1998 through 2004, they reduced their overall energy use by 27 in their worldwide operations 8 . Their program is staffed by six people who educate and motivate all levels of personnel on the benefits...

Energy Star and Tax Credits

The Energy Star program from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides guidelines for construction materials and appliances, as you may remember from elsewhere in this book. The program also includes a comprehensive set of requirements for an entire new house to earn an Energy Star rating. To qualify, a new house must be at least 15 percent more energy efficient than one built to the 2004 International Residential Code (IRC). It must also include additional energy-saving features to become 20 to 30 percent more efficient than standard houses. For the purposes of Energy Star ratings, the systems that make a house energy efficient include effective insulation, high-performance windows, tight construction and ducts, and efficient heating and cooling equipment. By using Energy Star qualified lighting fixtures, compact fluorescent bulbs, ventilation fans, and appliances, a new house can provide even greater comfort, savings, and environmental benefits. Not all Energy Star...

Technology transfer energy efficiency and renewable energy

Transfer energy-efficient and renewable-energy technology to participating non-Annex I countries. The prospect for such a transfer of technology almost completely diverts attention from business-as-usual in the developed world. For instance, the World Business Council on Sustainable Development outlines key areas for future action on climate change, including efficiency, nuclear energy, government support for energy research and development, and technology transfer to the South, but neglects to mention any measures for phasing out fossil fuels in industrialized countries. The International Emissions Trading Association a corporate lobby group established through the cooperation of UNCTAD and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development obviously has adopted this approach and lists as its members BP and Shell, but also Chevron Texaco, Conoco Philips, and Statoil.25 The IETA in its review of the EU ETS reports its position on the carbon market and promotes a global carbon...

Environmental and energy policy

Energy policy targeted at industry can focus on the energy efficiency of production processes and distribution, possible co-operation in CHP and energy supply and the choice of renewable energy. The actual policy concentrates on improving energy efficiency through voluntary agreements mainly based on energy conservation methods. These agreements are intended to be incorporated in firms' environmental permits. Research has shown that these voluntary agreements are generally effective, although the level of annual efficiency improvement (approx. 1.7 per cent in the period 1989-1995) will not be sufficient in the context of reducing emissions by 80 per cent (Glasbergen et al., 1997, p3, p76). The most recent generation of agreements is intended to have a wider scope, including wider implementation of potential methods of improving energy efficiency life cycle management, regional co-operation (industrial ecology), reduction of use of virgin resources and increased use of renewable...

Political posturing over energy policy

On one side are those who oppose a lot of new energy plants and dictate which type of plants can be built and where. Their concern is primarily with the effects that energy consumption imposes on the environment, not the least of which is global warming. And the existence of global warming is a political question. On the other side are those who believe that Mother Nature can absorb whatever is thrown at her. These people oppose restrictions on new power plants, regardless of the type. They deny the existence of global warming and insist that the earth is in a natural state of temperature flux. In their view, mankind is far too small an effect on the earth to make a material difference. For my part, I'm very much a political centrist. I find the partisanship and stubbornness of the fanatical fringes of all stripes curious. Here, I take no active position in the global warming debate. Instead, I present data that shows how our current energy consumption is affecting the planet, and I...

A comparison of the energy systems in the two visions

This section summarizes some of the main choices, differences and quantitative aspects to be found in the envisioned energy systems of the future. Figure 2.2 summarizes the extent to which greenhouse gas emissions would be reduced with the various main categories of options (efficiency measures, renewables, CO2 storage) compared to 1990 levels and a baseline development where the growing energy demand arising from economic growth is covered by the present-day fuel mix which is dominated by fossil fuels. Clearly, greenhouse gas emission levels will soar to unacceptable levels if nothing is done to counteract increasing fossil fuel use to drive economic growth. On the other hand, the two very different visions and the strategies that it is assumed will be implemented do meet the target of 80 per cent emission reduction. Table 2.2 shows that improvements in energy efficiency in all sectors of society are a key factor in achieving this. Even though economic growth is very high over the...

Using energy efficiently

With the money saved through energy conservation, companies can adopt new, efficient technologies for applications such as electric equipment, heaters, and boiler systems with Low-Energy Motors with Low-Energy Motors High-efficiency, new technology can save companies money in the long run, reducing their energy consumption considerably, but the technology isn't cheap to obtain. Companies in developing countries, especially, might balk at the expense of high-efficiency equipment, and understandably so developing countries often simply don't have the budgets and financial support for energy-effective technology. Subsidies from national governments for energy-efficient practices can help industries make big changes in how they operate. The Kyoto Protocol offers two programs to help developing countries obtain these new technologies The Clean Development Mechanism and joint implementation.

Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy Regulatory Policy

Do you support, in federal energy legislation, a small wire charge on everyone's electric bill (e.g., 2-3 ), as previously included in most utility rate bases, to maintain funding of energy efficiency, low-income weather-ization and energy assistance, and renewable energy research, development, demonstration, and deployment programs 4. Do you support increasing, decreasing, or maintaining the current level of federal purchases of green electricity and or decentralized renewable energy technologies and energy efficiency measures

Energy Saving Initiatives

THE ENERGY STAR, EPEAT, and 80Plus are complementary programs designed to improve the quality of computing equipment. Their goal is to reduce costs through reduced energy consumption without reducing performance. These government supported initiatives have transformed the design of computers and how they are used. ENERGY STAR is a program developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to promote the use of efficient technologies to reduce the amount of energy wasted through inefficient design. It encompasses more than 50 areas, ranging from construction to office appliances. An ENERGY STAR certified computer uses between 30 and 75 less power to perform the same work as one that is not ENERGY STAR certified. The Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT) provides a comprehensive environmental impact rating for computers. EPEAT, a U.S. government funded program, describes a device's conformance to 23 mandatory and 28 optional criteria, which include energy...

European Energy Network ENR

The European Energy Network is an association of European organizations involved in the development, management, and provision of energy programs in the areas of renewable energy and energy efficiency. It facilitates communication and collaboration between member organizations and provides technical support to the European energy community. The ENR Web site serves as an information exchange for member organizations and includes summaries of ongoing and completed projects.

Preliminary Identification of Energy Management Opportunities

Identifying EMOs requires a good knowledge of the available energy efficiency technologies that can accomplish the same job with less energy and less cost. For example, over-lighting indicates a potential lamp removal or lamp change EMO, and inefficient lamps indicate a potential lamp technology change. Motors with high use times are potential EMOs for high efficiency replacements. Notes on waste heat sources should indicate what other heating sources they might replace, and how far away they are from the end use point. Identifying any potential EMOs during the walk-through will make it easier later on to analyze the data and to determine the final EMO recommendations.

Measuring Data Center Energy Usage

To gauge the energy usage of a data center, inventory all of the equipment in it. Then look up the energy rating for each model and variation on the manufacturer's Web site. Because servers may have varying amounts of RAM, select a typical unit. Web sites generally do not provide energy usage to the individual upgrade. Equipment to list includes Unlike desktop units, data center equipment tends to run around the clock every day of the year. This makes calculating energy usage easy. It is 8,760 hours (in a year) multiplied by the hourly electricity usage multiplied by the number of years of its useful life. This can be doubled to estimate the energy used for cooling. The energy used by the air handling equipment can be estimated using the manufacturer's power rating. Energy savings in the data center can be significant, but it requires careful planning. It involves the purchase of energy-efficient equipment and an understanding of workloads for those servers that are only needed dur

Energy Efficiency as a Resource

Energy efficiency measures the amount of useful work derived from each unit of energy consumed. The greater the efficiency, the less energy needed for a given task. Energy efficiency is an energy resource because saved energy is available to do other useful work. Large efficiency improvements are possible on the supply side through improved energy conversion and transmission technologies and on the demand side through changes in residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation end-use technologies. Amory B. Lovins, founder and research director of the Rocky Mountain Institute, has calculated that the United States wastes 300 billion of the 505 billion spent annually on energy. He estimates that 75 percent of all electricity generated in the United States could be saved for less than the cost per kilowatt-hour of operating a coal power plant. On the supply side, the efficiency of electric power generation can be doubled from the current global average of 30 percent. This can be...

Buying and Selling an Energy Efficient Home

Appraising and buying existing energy-efficient homes Looking for a conventional home to transform into an efficient home Selling your energy-efficient home for the most profit 7 he bulk of this book is dedicated to defining energy-efficiency projects you can do in or around your home. But perhaps you're interested in moving into an existing efficient home where everything has already been done for you. Or perhaps you want to move into a conventional home suitable for energy-efficiency updates that you plan on either installing yourself or contracting out for. Maybe you're looking to sell your energy-efficient home. Whether buying or selling, your goal is always to get the best deal you can. With conventional homes, maneuvering for the best deal is a well-defined game played by the buyer, the seller, and both agents. But things gets a little trickier with an energy-efficient home because the market is relatively untested, and things are changing fast. You need to understand how...

Selling Your Efficient Home for Big Bucks

You want the most you can get for your efficient home, of course. To get top dollar, you need to know what buyers look for when they're in the market for an existing energy-efficient home. The first section in this chapter, Buying an Existing Efficient Home, goes into detail on what buyers should look for. As a seller, here's what you need to know I Keep good records of everything. If you can't validate your energy-efficiency claims, your systems may be worthless. Or even more detrimental to your cause, you may cast yourself as untrustworthy in general why else would you be making claims that you can't back up i Find a realtor who knows efficient houses, and how best to offer them for sale to the market. You want to capitalize on buzz in this regard, some market strategies work and some don't. The right realtor will let the right buyers know you've got an efficient home for sale. I Target the right market. At present, most people have no clear idea what energy efficiency means, beyond...

Meeting Energy Demand through Energy Efficiency

The most critical area for immediate policy action in a new Apollo energy project is the improvement of our nation's energy efficiency. Energy efficiency has been called the first fuel because it is the area of our economy that offers the greatest amount of low-hanging fruit. The best energy source is the energy you don't have to use. It is energy there for the taking. Our mantra should be It's energy efficiency, stupid Progressive American businesses are using such a mantra to drive product development. Leaders at GE exhort their managers to use their ecomaginations in developing new energy-efficient systems. Costco is dramatically reducing its power consumption through a host of com-monsense measures, from using daylight to using energy-efficient lighting systems. The MagnaDrive company near Seattle is manufacturing a transmission system that can increase the efficiency of electric motors by up to 70 percent in hundreds of industrial applications. The majority of homes and...

Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships NEEP

The Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships is a nonprofit organization that works to promote the use of energy-efficient products and services in the Northeast region of the United States. Formed in 1996, the NEEP has worked as an advocacy organization to increase the commercial availability of Energy Star products, promote information and technology exchange, and improve the efficiency of lighting, HVAC systems, and motors in industrial, commercial, and residential settings. The NEEP Web site provides information on efficiency standards for schools and businesses, offers materials for Building Operator Certification (BOC), and explains regional initiatives in energy efficiency.

Renewable Energy Systems

Renewable energy systems are defined as complete energy supply and demand systems based on renewable energy as opposed to nuclear and fossil fuels. They include supply as well as demand. The transition from traditional nuclear and fossil fuel based systems to renewable energy systems involves coordinated changes in the following Demand technologies related to energy savings and conservation Changes such as insulation and efficiency improvements of electric devices leading to changes in the energy demand for heat, electricity, or fuel are defined as changes in the demand system. In addition to the preceding renewable energy technologies, renewable energy systems include both technologies, which can convert from one form of energy into another for example, electricity into hydrogen as well as storage technologies that can save energy from one hour to another. Mathiesen (Mathiesen and Lund 2009) and Blarke (Blarke and Lund 2008) comprise these technologies under the designation...

Strides in Energy Efficiency

Many examples exist of communities that are taking a much more aggressive stance toward promoting energy efficiency and demand reduction. Often, this starts with improvements in the energy efficiency (and re s o u rce efficiency more generally) of public buildings. Saarbr cken, for example, which has made tremendous strides at reducing energy consumption in the city, first undertook a significant eff o rt to enhance the e fficiency of its own buildings and reduce its own consumption of energ y. It saw this as an area where it had immediate control, and it recognized that such actions would set positive examples for citizens. It did a number of things to reduce energy consumption. One important step was to give clear direction to housekeepers and building managers about the a p p ropriate levels of heating (e.g., in offices, school rooms, and so forth, heating was to be set at 20 C and at 12 C for stairwells) during the day, with adjustments to be made for the time of day. The...

Looking at Community Solutions to Energy Efficiency

Seeing what constitutes a green community Gauging the advantages of energy-efficient communities Taking a back-to-nature approach ifferent types of communities have different attributes that can make becoming energy efficient more or less accessible. With the interest in green living on the upsurge, many cities and states have taken steps to make themselves havens for environmentally conscious citizens. But maybe you don't want to live in a community at all. Perhaps you want to join a commune or you're interested in going off-grid, or back to nature. Each situation has its pros and cons, though more cons are associated with going it completely alone.

Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Matters

The Protocol imposes more meaningful obligations in relation to energy efficiency, although there are still many shortcomings. Like article 19 of the Treaty, the Protocol adopts the principle of sustainable development. One of the stated objectives of the Protocol is stated by article 1(2)(a) to be 'the promotion of energy efficiency policies consistent with sustainable development'. Another major objective, in article 1(2)(b) is that energy markets should be based on 'a fuller reflection of environmental costs and benefits'. A similar wording is repeated in the Preamble to the Protocol and in article 3(2)(a). This makes obvious reference to the polluter pays principle. As in the case of article 19 of the Treaty, the commitment to this principle is only partial as the word 'fuller' indicates that a total adherence to the principle is neither demanded nor expected. Surprisingly, there is no reference anywhere in the Protocol to the precautionary principle. In this regard the commitment...

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