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Energy Security in a Global Market

In a global energy market, changes in the supply demand balance and fuel mix in one country inevitably affect all other market participants. Energy security is one aspect of the change. Rising energy needs in China and India on top of rising demand in all other regions will call for increased investment in developing indigenous and external resources. Mobilising this investment so as to expand capacity will be crucial to the world's long-term energy security. Energy trends in China and India (summarised in Chapter 2), like those in the OECD, mean rising dependence on imports of hydrocarbons in the coming decades, as demand outstrips indigenous production unless radical new policies are introduced that go well beyond those of the Alternative Policy Scenario or unless there are major technological breakthroughs. These trends carry increased threats to supply security, both in terms of the long-term adequacy and price of supply and the risk of short-term supply disruptions. The...

Global Concerns Regarding Energy Security

The traditional interpretation of energy security had its beginnings during the 1973 oil crisis. Seen from energy-importing nations' perspective, it was defined in terms of sufficient supplies at affordable prices, in the wake of the disruption of oil supplies from producing countries. Viewed from the energy-exporting countries' standpoint, ''energy security'' focuses on ''security of demand'' for their exports, which generate the majority of their governments' revenues. As discussed earlier in the chapter, political uncertainties have destabilized this confidence in some exporting countries, including Russia and Bolivia. More recently, power outages in North America and Europe, as well as chronic shortages of electricity in India and China, put a broader perspective on the meaning of energy security, both in terms of geographic range and the entire energy chain. The destruction of infrastructure in the 2005 hurricane season in the United States presents another dimension of energy...

Impact of Chinas and Indias Energy Security Policies

China's and India's policies on energy security will have important implications for the security of other consuming countries. Any improvement to China's and India's security would generally yield benefits for all other consuming countries. Equally, efforts by other consuming countries could bring important benefits to China and India. The success of all countries' efforts to save energy, diversify away from oil and, thus, curb their need to import hydrocarbons will clearly affect the energy security of others. The extent to which the policies that China and India are currently considering to enhance their energy security and tackle environmental problems could reduce their prices to all consuming countries might be driven higher (USCESRC, 2006). However, it may be that China's and India's overseas investments will actually improve global energy security by bringing to market oil that might not otherwise have been developed and thereby augmenting global oil supplies (Andrews-Speed,...

Addressing Energy Security and Climate Challenges W

In the absence of rigorous new action by governments, the twin threats to energy security and climate will, indeed, grow with rising global demand for energy services regardless of what happens in China and India. But the inexorable emergence of these two countries as major players in global energy markets makes it all the more vital that all countries, IEA members and non-members, including China and India, take decisive and urgent action to reconcile the need to meet rising demand for energy services worldwide with ensuring energy security and protecting the environment. All these approaches to reducing emissions can also contribute to energy security, insofar as they lead to less reliance on imported energy that may be vulnerable to disruption or to more supply diversity. For example, improving the efficiency of cars by cutting fuel consumption reduces emissions and the need to import oil. But, in some cases, there are trade-offs switching from coal to gas in power generation will...

Do Chinas and Indias Equity Oil Acquisitions Improve Energy Security

For both China and India, acquisitions of equity oil overseas by state companies have formed a central plank of energy-security policy for several years. Yet it is far from obvious that the availability of equity oil would, in practice, enhance either country's physical oil supply or protect them from the effects of higher prices in the event of a supply crisis. For both China and India, energy diplomacy involving the development of a broad network of bilateral relationships with producer countries is considered an important element of energy-security strategy. Diplomatic efforts have been focused on the Middle East and Africa. Policy makers in both countries believe that, in an oil or gas crisis, relationships with producers will count for more than just ownership of assets or ability to pay. Energy diplomacy is intended to help improve security by assisting domestic companies to win deals involving equity oil, ensuring privileged treatment in the event of a supply disruption and...

Energy Security The New Cold

I think most people fail to really understand the significance of energy security issues, or what I call the new cold war. This new cold war isn ' t a war in the traditional sense, although we have entered into armed conflict many times to a significant degree because of oil issues (Gulf Wars I and II are the most recent). This new cold war is, in fact, an energy war. It's an oil war. Perhaps the two biggest thorns in the side of the West come from Iran and Venezuela. Both of these countries' respective leaders, the fanatical but cunning Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and the boisterous and belligerent Hugo Chavez, have at their disposal a large portion of the world's crude oil supplies. These are men who have philosophical as well as strategic interests at odds with the West, and their hold on oil supplies is just one more reason energy security is one of the Big Three catalysts driving our push toward green energy sources. Ybu see, the key here is that if we can wean ourselves off of petroleum...

The Energy Security Policies of China and India

China and India have differing perceptions and concerns related to the security of their energy supplies. There are nonetheless important similarities between the two countries' energy-security policies. The policy focus in both countries is on oil, reflecting increasing imports in recent years and the expectation that this trend will continue in the medium term. Chinese and Indian leaders are worried that growing dependence on imported oil will bring foreign-policy and economic pressures that might threaten national security and social and political stability. Those concerns have grown since the events of 11 September 2001 and the US-led military intervention in Iraq in 2003. Both countries have stepped up their military and naval capabilities, but recognise that they will continue to rely to a large degree on the United States for protection of international sea lanes in the Middle and Far East for many years to come. 4. The IEA collaborates actively with China and India on a range...

The Fossil Fuel Sector And Energy Security

In short, there were substantial differences between the parties concerning the the price of coal which were reinforced by concerns over energy security, since many nations clearly were paying such large subsidies because strategic concerns reinforced the demands of coal producers and mining unions.

But Threats to the Worlds Energy Security Must be Tackled

Rising global energy demand poses a real and growing threat to the world's energy security. Oil and gas demand and the reliance of all consuming countries on oil and gas imports increase in all three scenarios presented in this Outlook. In the Reference Scenario, China's and India's combined oil imports surge, from 5.4 mb d in 2006 to 19.1 mb d in 2030 - more than the combined imports of Japan and the United States today. Ensuring reliable and affordable supply will be a formidable challenge. Inter-regional oil and gas trade grows rapidly over the projection period, with a widening of the gap between indigenous output and demand in every consuming region. The volume of oil trade expands from 41 mb d in 2006 to 51 mb d in 2015 and 65 mb d in 2030. The Middle East, the transition economies, Africa and Latin America export more oil. All other regions - including China and India - have to import more oil. As refining capacity for export increases, a growing share of trade in oil is...

The Role of Nuclear Power in Energy Security and Climate Change in Vietnam

Abstract The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of nuclear power in terms of energy security and climate change in Vietnam. To facilitate comparison with Vietnam's energy development plan, the paper also discusses the Korean experience from various perspectives past history of nuclear energy supply among other energy sources, energy consumption, energy policy and nuclear power development, consumer reactions and corporate social responsibility. The study shows that nuclear power will play an important role in Vietnam's energy security and greenhouse gas mitigation (GHG) in the future. However, the paper also argues that such an ambitious nuclear development plan may also contain risks due to poor infrastructure and the lack of human resources. As a conclusion, a more cautious nuclear power development plan can be regarded as suitable for Vietnam. Keywords Climate change Energy security Nuclear power

Measuring Energy Security

There is no single universally recognised way of measuring a country's level of energy security. Such assessments are normally a matter of expert judgment, as the perceived risk of a serious disruption or shortfall in investment for any given country or at any given time depends on a large array of different factors. For a given consuming country, what matters is both its own situation with respect to these indicators and that of all consuming countries. A given country may have a geographically highly diversified mix of imports from what are considered politically stable and reliable producing countries, but it still faces the risk of a price shock from a disruption to supplies from less stable producing countries to other consuming countries. For this reason, a reduction in a given country's imports does not necessarily enhance its own overall energy security, if the world's reliance on supplies from politically unstable countries is increasing. Likewise, rising import dependence...

Defining Energy Security

Energy security, broadly defined, means adequate, affordable and reliable supplies of energy. It matters because energy is essential to economic growth and human development. Yet no energy system can be entirely secure in the short term, because disruptions or shortages can arise unexpectedly, whether through sabotage, political intervention, strikes, technical failures, accidents or natural disasters. In the longer term, under-investment in crude oil production, refining or transportation capacity, or other market failures can lead to shortages and consequently unacceptably high prices. So energy security, in practice, is best seen as a problem of risk management, that is reducing to an acceptable level the risks and consequences of disruptions and adverse long-term market trends. Secure energy supply is a public good, as the benefit derived from it by one consumer does not reduce the benefit to everyone else. Markets alone do not reflect the cost to society of a supply failure...

Overview Of The Dprk Energy Crisis

The DPRK relies heavily on indigenous sources of power, predominantly coal and hydropower, and has no known reserves of oil or natural gas. Since the end of the Cold War, chronic shortages have developed for all forms of modern energy supply, with petroleum products, coal, and electricity all reduced by more than 50 percent after 1990. These shortages have affected all sectors of the economy, especially transportation, industry, and agriculture. The North Korean energy crisis results from the loss of subsidized Soviet oil imports, failure to Sources James H. Williams, David von Hippel, and Peter Hayes, Fuel and Famine Rural Energy Crisis in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation, IGCC Policy Papers, Paper No. 46, March 2000, http repositories.cdlib.org igcc PP pp46.

Energy Crisis

The energy crisis that emerged during the 1970s resulted from increasing tensions in the Middle East and a growing concern for Throughout the 1960s, the Middle East became the center of world oil, accounting for 38 percent of world production and 90 percent of international trade (Melosi 1985, 249). The Yom Kippur War of 1973 provided the catalyst for OPEC's emergence as the leader in oil production and pricing. When Egypt and Syria launched a surprise attack on Israel in October 1973, the United States airlifted weapons to aid the Israeli defense. In response, members of OAPEC initiated an oil embargo against the United States and other allies of Israel. Saudi Arabia participated in the embargo, and ARAMCO was ordered to cut production by 25 percent and cease shipments to the United States. Additionally, OPEC increased world prices of oil from 3.00 per barrel to 11.65 per barrel (Hatch 1986, 32). Although the major oil-producing companies responded by increasing production in other...

Energy Security

Energy, like water and air, serves essential needs of mankind. It is a most important factor as it contributes to a meaningful quality of life, freedom of movement, and access to comfortable shelter. Now at the crossroads after a near century of dependence on and irresponsible use of fossil fuel to supply global energy needs, we are at the beginning of a new era. Energy security, affordability, environmental quality and renewability are the new driving forces identified in this book. It describes all the opportunities toward independence of fossil fuel and the road towards a cleaner, healthier, secure, and cheaper, largely renewable energy system. Overall the Future Energy Balance Analysis presented shows clearly that we are on the verge of not only reducing our dependence on oil but at the beginning of a radically new energy future which will assure greater energy security, more equitable access to and use of energy, and a cleaner, more livable environment.

Smith Street Enron Emerges

Other misdeeds was about to come to a head. Twenty years before, he was standing at the threshold of a dream. Five years ago, like a king addressing his subjects from the castle, he sat at the energy pinnacle of the world. He was advising the Vice President Dick Cheney on how to solve the California energy crisis, and energy calamities in other parts of the country. President Bush fondly referred to him as Kenny Boy.

Numerous Value Buckets

The first value bucket is national energy security. Our electricity system is vulnerable to threats and attacks as described in earlier chapters. Strategically placed and well-protected storage assets should be considered vital to this country's ability to survive and recover from terrorist attacks or reliability events. Remember Figure 1.1, which showed how electricity is the juice that feeds the rest of the energy, water, communications, and transportation infrastructure. It is nothing short of embarrassing that we maintain such fleet preparedness for our military arsenal but do almost nothing to protect the electricity assets.

The Lure Of The Supply Side

The cult of economic growth, consumer technology innovation, and the confused and impossible desire for universal prosperity are collectively taken to be progress. Anything going the opposite way is taken to be retrogression and failure. This may well be how supply side solutions to the energy crisis are thought about in the fossil energy intensive societies, but on the ground, in the Middle East and Central Asia, the hunt for cheap oil and gas results in military invasion, civil war, and devastation. This barbarous strategy of military domination to ensure future supplies of oil and gas is the ultimate supply side policy, and events in Iraq and Afghanistan, Lebanon, and Palestine show that it is a failure. Impacts on world

Farther out on the Network

It means that the DG system operates in parallel with the utility system. For the most part today, if a building has a power-generating unit, it operates instead of the utility as a backup or standby supplier of electricity. Within the intelligent grid, this small power generator operates with the grid, not instead of it. The key enabling technologies for this to occur are A solid-state power converter that allows power sharing, power flow, and waveform control and a static isolation switch that allows a seamless transition between the facility's DG device and the grid connected operation. The Mad River Park microgrid can connect eight commercial and industrial facilities and up to 14 residences into a power network service area. The DG devices include propane-fueled engines, gas-fired microturbines, a solar photovoltaic array, and even a small wind-turbine generator. All of these units are operated as a system in distinct modes total isolation from the local utility distribution...

Middle East Oil Not So Secure After

Even a seemingly small 5 per cent dependency could have drastic ramifications, as became evident during the energy crisis of 1973-1974. In the twelve-month period beginning in April 1973, the western world witnessed a continuation of the creeping nationalisation of foreign oil interests throughout the Gulf and North Africa, a major war between Israel and Egypt Syria, an embargo on oil supplies to the USA, unprecedented queuing for gasoline in the USA and a 350 per cent increase in world oil prices.25 In the words of one of the main protagonists in this drama, Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, 'Never before had nations so weak militarily - and in some cases politically - been able to impose such strains on the international system'.26 Later, Kissinger also observed that a century earlier the consuming nations would have responded by seizing the oilfields. According to Kissinger, 'From time to time the United States threatened to do just that but never received any support from the...

The collapse of soil fertility mining the soil

The calamitous decline in fertilizer production is a result of fertilizer factories being out of operation or operating at minimal levels. This was reported to be at least partly due to the poor condition of Soviet-built plants, natural disasters having perhaps caused some of the damage. Prior to 1990, the DPRK is said to have operated three fertilizer factories, capable of a total annual production of over 400,000 tonnes of nitrogen nutrient. This would have provided for self-sufficiency if the plants had been able to run at capacity.24 The important nitrogen fertilizer plant at Hamhung had apparently been inoperable since at least 1994, and the DPRK government had requested international assistance to refurbish the plant. Notwithstanding problems of damage or disrepair, the energy crisis would have had several important effects on fertilizer production. The DPRK nitrogen fertilizer production process uses coal as both energy source and chemical feedstock. Coal is hydrogenated to...

Gaps from Tectonic Movement

A change in presidential administrations certainly had much to do with it as well. One of the first things President Bush did after taking office was to convene an Energy Task Force under Vice President Dick Cheney to address the California energy crisis and other serious supply demand situations in other parts of the country. As I noted earlier, Republicans tend to solve energy crises with a production mindset, while Democrats tend to seek solutions from the demand side. And supply was precisely the tack Cheney's task force took.

The Oilfields Of The Gulf

OIL AND AMERICA THE DRIVE FOR ENERGY SECURITY BEGINS In response to the anticipated energy crisis, men like V.H. Manning, Director of the US Bureau of Mines, concluded that the government should set up its own international oil corporation, following the British Government's initiative in acquiring majority control over the Anglo-Persian oil company in 1914. Others, however, feared the precedent which this might set, at a time when socialist ideas were fuelling opposition to capitalist business throughout the world and not least in America itself. Instead, Franklin K. Lane, Secretary of the Interior from 1913 to 1920, advocated a more laissez-faire approach. In his annual report of 1919 he acknowledged the rapidly expanding demand for oil in the USA which would have to be met by gaining access to foreign oilfields. However, he argued that the government should refrain from any direct intervention in the oil business, either at home or abroad and should let the oil companies themselves...

And International Atomic Energy Agency Iaea

With the unpleasant picture painted in Subchapter 7.1, one asks how one can best prevent or minimize the proliferation and use of nuclear weapons by unfriendly sovereign nations. We have already argued that inhibiting the expansion of nuclear electric power will set the stage for an enormous world energy crisis when oil runs out. Only with nuclear electricity is it feasible to produce sufficient future supplies of oil-replacing synfuels for our transportation fleets and enough power for our heavy industries, without global warming. By sharing man's accumulated knowledge and the planet's resources with everyone, more people in the third world will have hope for a tolerable existence, and chances are less that warfare will break out for control of the last remaining fossil fuels on earth.

Brief Future Global Energy

The sad part is that an escalating energy crisis is avoidable. Wise governments should start immediately investing in the synfuel research and development programs listed above and concurrently commence the design, development, and construction of avanced breeder reactors. As a bonus, it brings many new high-tech jobs and reduces unemployment, much like president Franklin Roosevelt accomplished with his national hydro-electric and road-work programs during the great depression of the 1930's. Environmentalists should join nuclear engineers to demand expansion of abundant non-air-polluting nuclear energy. Benjamin Franklin said at the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 'We must all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang separately'.

Geodestinies And Geodeterminism

When I was thinking of a way to reintroduce this part, taking account of the time which had passed between the first and the second edition, I focused on Battle of the Titans, by the late Mark Jones. Mark, once an adviser to LUKoil (Russia), wrote the chapter in 2002 for the first edition of The Final Energy Crisis. His chapter identifies economic and political pressures which make and break geopolitical hegemonies. Mark thought the US had a window of only a few years to try to gain control of foreign oil reserves before it would lose its economic and military advantages to China. As editor I wondered how to update this article or follow it up, without Mark. Then I thought about the surprising new geopolitical hub at the mouth of the exotic and threatened Amazon, where an unexpected realignment of factions is being led by Venezuela's almost mythologized President, Hugo Chavez. I have described this situation in a chapter later in this part about Chavez and Latin American Oil.

America Gets Control Of The Gulf

Meanwhile, however, America's political and business leaders of the early 1960s were supremely confident that control of Middle East oil would underpin the future petroleum requirements of this new and remarkably vibrant economic, social and cultural way of life. It would guarantee the nation's energy security and with it the newly affluent lifestyle of America's consumers, epitomised by its steel and chrome gas-guzzlers. But those US leaders could not imagine that in little more than ten years this energy security solution would unravel in a great world oil crisis that within thirty years the USA would have to fight a major war in the Gulf to protect its 'energy security' and that within forty years, New York and Washington would be under attack by fanatical young men from Saudi Arabia invoking the old creed of Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab. 4 Energy Security and the Gulf From Solution to Problem RIVAL VERSIONS OF 'ENERGY SECURITY'

Needed Actions And Risks To Overcome The Pending Nooil Crisis

This book should convince most technologists that there is an urgent need for more nuclear power to overcome the pending energy crisis. However environmentalists, public policy makers, and financiers like to see a risk assessment of the nuclear option compared to other possible solutions Refs 50, 51, 52 . Such stakeholders want to be convinced that an expansion of nuclear power plants can be done safely and economically before they will give it their support. They are apprehensive because a multitude of fear-instilling misrepresentations have been circulated in the media about nuclear power (see Chapter 2). Many of these stakeholders favor development of more solar, wind, and biomass energy at the exclusion of nuclear energy without considering the scale, cost, and feasibility of these so-called 'renew-ables' to replace the vast quantities of portable fuels presently extracted from the oil fields. In the present case we want to find the best means of overcoming the pending no-oil...

Big Oil Versus The Independents

By the late 1940s, the Middle East oilfields acquired by the Americans over the preceding two decades had at last begun to export significant amounts of oil, a growing portion of which started to enter the US market. Although Venezuela still remained the largest source of US oil imports, supplying 265,975 barrels per day in 1949, the second largest supplier was now Kuwait with 52,269 b d, and with the Middle East oilfields as a whole supplying America with 99,642 b d. As these Middle East supplies began to arrive at US refineries in growing quantities - but at half the cost of domestic oil - those government officials, oil industry leaders and military men who were attempting to formulate a national energy security policy at a time of growing cold-war confrontation faced a perplexing dilemma. Since foreign oil was so much cheaper than domestic, US consumers would obviously prefer to buy the latter. But since foreign oil would then inevitably displace domestic oil, the eventual result...

Declaration Of Independence From

Teckningar Att Rgl Gga

Who have handled power generation for decades. They are funding studies of alternative energy programs currently in vogue such as wind farms and solar collectors, corn-derived ethanol, etc. This lulls the public into believing that everything is under control while it is not. These 'renewable' power-generation schemes can only be supplemental as discussed later. Compared to nuclear, they are economically much inferior to provide the large amounts of electric energy needed for the manufacture of synthetic fuels to replace present oil-derived fuels consumed by the world's transportation fleets. New nuclear energy programs must be funded now to prevent a serious energy crisis in the near-future.

Reducing Dependence On The Gulf

The Iranian Revolution of 1978 reduced the flow of Middle Eastern oil by around 3.5 million b d for six months, and was followed by a second world oil price surge the following year. Coming on top of the 1973 Arab oil embargo, this seemed to further underline America's now problematic dependence on Middle Eastern oil. Although the Carter Doctrine offered a robust challenge to any force which contemplated a threat to America's position in the Gulf, to many it now appeared that what had originally been a means of ensuring energy security -importing Middle East oil - was now a poisoned chalice which could ultimately prove highly toxic to America's interests, especially its long-standing interest in supporting the state of Israel. In short, America might now have to trade its support for Israel against its need for oil. for Exxon and the Federal Energy Administration's Assistant Administrator for International Affairs during the 1973-1974 oil crisis, published the first comprehensive...

Oil and America

Thus, the accession to power of the Bush Administration occurred at a time when the interests of US oil companies and oil consumers were rapidly moving closer together. In these circumstances a relentless drive for 'Energy Security' dictated a new strategic focus on the Middle East, one which might accommodate the interests of both groups unfettered access to new, highly profitable reserves for the companies guaranteed security of supply at moderate prices for the consumers. The objectives of oil capitalism we have already discussed. We now turn to the factors underlying the American consumer's voracious demand for oil. Gradually, however, the USA moved towards full capacity production. In 1970 domestic oil production peaked at 11.3 million b d, and by 1972 every oil well in the country was producing at its full capacity rate. Then in 1973-1974 the world experienced the great 'energy crisis' induced by the actions of the Arab However, by the second half of the 1980s, America's 'oil...

United States

Discovery in the US peaked in 1930, followed 40 years later by the corresponding peak in production. Alaska provided a secondary cycle, but was insufficient to reverse the decline, and the new deepwater Gulf of Mexico offers a third (see Figure 4.8). It is doubted if the Alaska Natural Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) area, which is closed for environmental reasons after the drilling of one very confidential borehole, would make any material difference if opened. US oil imports already run at about US 130 billion a year and are set to rise unless the government can somehow introduce draconian policies to cut demand. Its gas supply is even more critical, as already discussed. It is hard to avoid the conclusion that this looming energy crisis will spell the end of the American dream and US global economic hegemony, even if the country goes down with all guns blazing.

Oil And Motorisation

Unfortunately, this completely motorised 'American Way' made the USA uniquely vulnerable to the forces of radical Islamism which, nurtured by the very regimes upon which America had come to depend for its energy security, now threatened the lifeblood of modern US capitalism.33 American consumers needed Gulf oil and American oil companies intensely desired it but political circumstances in the region threatened the interests of the former and obstructed the objectives of the latter.


Much their forests mean to them in terms of long-term survivability. In the case of a sudden food and energy crisis, as occurred in the DPRK in the mid-1990s, forest resources will come under immense pressure. Only a great deal of wisdom and foresight can prevent an ecological tragedy from occurring.

Mark Jones

It is clear to both these powers, and any interested observer, that the keystone of US global power is Middle Eastern oil. This was true throughout the last century and is even truer today, as the US confronts a proven domestic oil reserve base of around 30 giga-barrels (Gb), and consumes 6.5 Gb per year. The US energy crisis is both structural and accelerating. In the short to medium term these energy supply difficulties might be met partly by conservation measures, because the phenomenal wastefulness of US society leaves much scope for saving. But this is not necessarily compatible with robust economic growth despite the baying of Amory Lovins on the virtues of the unproven hydrogen economy. Above all, the US cannot afford to lose the economic race with China that at present it is losing. As I have already said, China's gross industrial output will probably exceed that of either the US, Japan, or Europe this decade. This will leave military control of Arabian oil as the remaining...

Cost of renewable energy

Some forms of renewable energy, like hydroelectricity and biomass, have been cost-competitive for many years in certain applications and provide a substantial energy supply worldwide. Others, like passive solar building design, are cost competitive, but haven't yet overcome all the market factors that currently preclude their widespread use. Technologies like wind and geothermal are currently cost competitive at their best resource sites, but need further improvements and support to reach their full market potential. A few, like photovoltaics, have identified niche off-grid electric markets that the industry is building to the point where it can competitively address retail power markets. Still others, like ethanol from biomass, are evolving both in the laboratory and the marketplace to the point where they will be competitive without price supports. Table 5.1 provides a summary of the general renewable energy technologies and their economics.

Sustainable Housing Building a Greener Future

The bricks and mortar we live and work in are no longer keeping us safe as houses. Almost half the UK's carbon dioxide emissions come from heating and running commercial and residential buildings, and three million new homes are expected to be built by 2020. There is an urgent need to ensure new and existing homes are more sustainable in terms of both mitigating climate change (reducing carbon emissions), and adapting to the changing climate. There is no shortage of ideas - and practical demonstrations - about how this might be done, from high-tech smart houses which use the latest 'modern' construction methods and carefully monitor and adjust energy use in the home, to more 'down and dirty' low-tech solutions such as simple off-grid dwellings made of recycled consumer waste, and new social arrangements with shared neighbourhood facilities to promote social capital and cut resource use.

Understanding your offgrid options

You have choices when you go off-grid. If you want to rough it, you can use propane. It works well for heating, cooking, and refrigeration. Wood stoves Off-grid solar power systems Off-grid solar power systems (including hydropower, wind power, and PV systems) provide electrical power, but it's relatively expensive. Using PV electrical generating systems connected to the grid (intertie) enables you to sell your excess generating capacity back to the utility and therefore use 100 percent of your system's productive capacity (Chapter 16 has the details). Conversely, when you install an off-grid solar PV system, you don't get anywhere near 100 percent utilization, plus you need batteries, charge controllers, and more. All this extra equipment is expensive and maintenance intensive. From a pollution standpoint, using an intertie PV system does the world more good because more usable power is generated. Each kWh of energy you generate with an intertie system offsets that much energy from...

Box Access to Electricity in China

Although rural electrification programmes have been particularly successful (Box 8.4), the level of supply of electricity to a large proportion of the rural population is modest. The availability of clean-burning gaseous fuels is also very limited in rural areas and they are not affordable to many families. These issues are addressed in the 11th Five-Year Plan, which promotes the development of off-grid renewables, biogas and solar thermal technologies, among others, supported by technical outreach, grants and credit facilities. For cooking and hot water, large integrated biogas programmes have been carried out through the rural energy centres of the Ministry of Agriculture. Nevertheless, many millions of rural households will continue to rely on traditional biomass to meet much of their energy needs, even as China's cities swell with citizens whose patterns of consumption are converging with those of their counterparts in already developed countries.

Promoting green communities

Different types of communities have different attributes that can make becoming energy-efficient more or less accessible. With the interest in green living on the upsurge, many cities and states have taken steps to make themselves havens for environmentally conscious citizens. But maybe you don't want to live in a community at all. Perhaps you want to join a commune or you're interested in going off-grid, or back to nature. Each situation has its pros and cons, though more cons are associated with going it alone.

Realizing the ramifications of going offgrid

Going off-grid takes commitment and knowledge. You need to understand what you're doing with an off-grid system you can't just plug and play. So before you sign on, give careful consideration to the following facts I Going off-grid takes work. It means you have to take care of batteries, monitor system performance, and adjust your habits on a daily basis, depending on how much power your system is generating. I Going off-grid is expensive. In general, off-grid PV systems cost at least twice as much per kWh as intertie systems and take ten times more attention on your part. I Conservation measures are required with off-grid systems. Although conservation is integral to the beginning of any efficient lifestyle, it's even more important with off-grid systems because the economics dictate it. The best way to start is by building an energy-conserving house, with maximization of solar potential (see Chapter 21). Efficient appliances and personal habits are also a must. I Most banks will not...

Roughing It by Going Off Grid

Being off-grid means not being connected to a public utility for your electrical power. This also usually means that you're not connected to gas, water, and sewer utilities. If you're thinking about going off-grid, keep these things in mind I You don't have any utility power available, period. Going off-grid seems to be a romantic notion, but it's not necessarily the most efficient way to go. If you don't get much sunshine or have enough wind or water to make alternative energy sources viable, being efficient and pollution-wise off-grid is very difficult.

Electricity from Solar Cells

PV power is not only simple to use and produces few environmental impacts but is an extremely versatile technology. Solar modules and arrays provide commercial electricity for utility-scale power plants they generate on-site power for grid-connected homes, offices, and schools and they serve off-grid homes and remote power needs. They are cost-competitive for those remote uses against diesel generators and for myriad specialty applications, such as providing power for satellites, highway call boxes, traffic signs, street lights, signal buoys, and offshore oil drilling platforms. PV modules are also cost-competitive for peak period residential use. For example, whereas residential users in the Pacific Gas and Electric service area of California currently pay 11.7 cents kwh, their peak power costs are 31 cents kwh. Solar electric panels therefore are already competitive against peak rates in some areas of the United States (and in many foreign lands). In addition, solar electric panels...

Emissions reduction projects Fossil fuel emissions reduction projects

The burning of fossil fuels is the leading cause of human-generated GHG emissions therefore, reducing the use of fossil fuels is critical to decelerating the rate of climate change. As described in Chapter 3, projects may reduce the use of fossil fuel directly or indirectly. Projects reducing emissions directly do so at the source. They include energy efficiency projects, fuel switches, power plant upgrades and off-grid renewable energy projects, such as small-scale hydro, wind and biomass. For example, the Climate Trust creates offsets generated by a paper manufacturing efficiency project, which reduces CO2 emissions over a 'business-as-usual' scenario by utilizing recycled paper feedstocks and equipment retrofits to increase the energy efficiency of the manufacturing process. The Solar Electric Light Fund (SELF) generates emissions reductions from solar energy projects that replace diesel generators in countries around the world, from Nigeria to the Solomon Islands. (See Chapter 3...

Expanding Access to Electricity in India

Table 20.3 provides an estimate of the cost of providing access to electricity to the 412 million people without access in 2005. The costs are broken down for central grid, mini-grid and off-grid technologies. Off-grid diesel generators have the lowest investment cost per kW, followed by mini-grid hydro-based electrification. However, generators entail an additional annual expense for diesel of about 20 per person. Central-grid electrification involves an additional annual expense of 4 per person. Off-grid Off-grid Providing access to electricity for all 412 million people who do not yet have it would require a mix of central grid, mini-grid and off-grid options. Assuming that the investment cost per person is in the range of 40 to 60, the total investment cost would be between 16 billion and 25 billion. This is very low compared with the total power infrastructure investment needs of almost a trillion dollars in the Reference Scenario over the Outlook period.

Implementing Regulations

The Law also specifically supports the use of renewable energy for remote rural areas. In 2002, NDRC initiated the Township Electrification program to electrify those remaining 1061 townships that lack electricity with PV, wind, and small hydropower 11 . Approximately, US 340 million was spent on the PV- and wind-powered townships. NDRC is now expanding this program to the village level and will electrify those remaining 25-30 million people in the 20,000 villages which do not yet have electricity. The Village Electrification program will cost an estimated US 5 billion and will be implemented over the next ten years. These off-grid users will be cross-subsidized by the grid-connected users so that they will pay a tariff equivalent to the provincial grid price. To fund the incremental costs of renewably generated power (above the provincial coal power price) as well as the operations and maintenance of the off-grid systems, a surcharge will be applied to all end users (except for those...

Forecast Windy And Profitable

One important factor to bear in mind about the prospects for the wind industry is that, as we've already mentioned in Chapters 1 and 2, as far as we have seen, nobody takes into account fossil fuel depletion in their projections. Studies do place certain constraints on fossil fuels in their models, based on assumptions about the future of emissions controls, geopolitical factors, climate change, historical production rates, industry investment, and so on, but it appears that most analysts have yet to fully grasp the coming energy crisis or if they do, they aren't saying so.

Governments role in achieving per cent reduction

Divergent views were articulated on efficiency improvement in the National Dialogue. On the one hand, this can be explained by the fact that efficiency is a package including a diversity of options and issues. Some are already available and can be implemented soon. Others require fundamental research and technology development. This might lead to the conclusion that the policy instruments needed to improve efficiency should therefore also be very diverse. However, other participants in the dialogue put forward opposing views, which may justify the inference that the dialogue has articulated conflicting views on one and the same issue. The view that technological barriers constitute the main obstacle at this moment can be addressed by a strategy as proposed in cell D, non-competitive co-operation and strong government support for R&D. By contrast, there is the observation that in the past efficiency has increased rapidly in response to external pressures (energy crisis, price...

Green Plan Predecessor

First of all, California is heavily resource-dependent. Tourism, agriculture, and timber production are three of its largest industries, and its fisheries have traditionally been important as well, although they have suffered badly in recent years as wild fish populations have declined. In addition, California is a heavy consumer of energy and water for agricultural, industrial, and residential uses. When I took the job, my goal was to promote the idea of stewardship of resources as a public trust. I felt that, in California and the nation as a whole, we had thought only of harvesting and consuming the cornucopia of our natural resources. We had failed to understand, or had chosen to ignore, the fact that these natural systems require sensitive management to keep them healthy. I did not set out to develop a comprehensive, integrated plan for dealing with California's resources I realized the importance of such a plan only when forced to confront the pressures that the energy crisis of...

Security Issues and Conflict

Central Intelligence Agency is working to secure the favor of a fictional Middle Eastern country. Tension arises when a new member of the royal family of the country is chosen to ascend the throne. The movie unveils the corruption involved in the oil industry and how oil deals between countries can be tied to terrorist activities. Although the movie was fictional, it illustrates the importance of energy security issues. Conflict between countries is historically linked to resource acquisition. Chapter 1 reveals that many of the energy crises in the latter half of the twentieth century were caused from military conflicts. First, the 1956 Suez Crisis brought about an energy emergency in Europe. Then, the Arab Oil Embargo in 1973 caused the worst energy crisis in U.S. history. While energy resources were not the cause of these conflicts, energy supply was greatly impacted, raising alarm over the extent of U.S. reliance on imported fuels. Not only are...

System change initiated outside the dominant system

The gas turbine illustrates how new technological routes may start within a dominant system. The gas turbine was a hybrid technology incorporating the potential to meet the needs of the current system, but at the same time incorporating a potential to develop a new technological route deviating from the current system. Apart from within the system, system change can also start outside the current system. Here too the modern electricity system provides a good example. The climate change problem calls for a significant increase of renewables as an energy resource for thermal-based electricity systems (see both visions in Chapter 2). Despite the early recognition of the need to develop alternative renewable-based technologies for power generation, for a long time in The Netherlands their development was rather hesitant. Politically, the need for their development was first expressed in the aftermath of the first energy crisis in the early 1970s. The political ambitions were almost...

The Efficiency Advantage

Amory Lovins coined the term negawatts in 1989 to describe the concept of energy you don't have to generate. An accomplished author and Chief Scientist at the Rocky Mountain Institute, Lovins is perhaps one of the most influential voices when it comes to conservation and efficiency. Over the past few years, the emergence of the energy crisis has sparked renewed interest in negawatts among the world's most forward-thinking investors.

Urgency of the actions to be undertaken

The urgency of the measures to be taken is therefore evident. Given the contribution of fossil energies to CO2 emissions, it is vital to initiate without delay the energy transition which will allow us to prevent a major energy crisis as well as an irreversible climatic catastrophe. Strong action by the Public Authorities is therefore necessary, firmly backed by public opinion in the various countries.

The priorities of European policy

The first major piece of legislation was the 1975 framework directive on waste, which was designed to harmonize national waste measures, encourage member states to draw up national waste management plans, prevent waste generation and encourage waste recovery. The energy crisis of 1973 emphasized the importance of reducing waste generation and prompted renewed interest in recycling, so the new waste directive proved less politically contentious in the Council than did the directives on air and water quality that were then under discussion (Johnson and Corcelle, 1995, p. 184).

American Civil Society in Revolt Breaking Ranks with the National Government

As with Chicago, the city of San Francisco is taking major steps to alter its energy future by promoting energy efficiency and utilizing the savings to invest in renewable energy development. San Francisco' s effort in this regard has been motivated by several factors. First, the community - like much of California - was subjected to the 2000-2001 energy crisis in the state, following the implementation of electricity sector restructuring (Beck 2002). At that time, service interruptions and escalating electric prices had major impacts on the residents and economy of the city. In more technical realms, San Francisco' s location on a peninsula means that the city must rely significantly on electric imports into the community. With mounting demands on its limited energy infrastructure due to population and economic growth, local officials have expressed concern that existing transmission capacity may not prove sufficient to area needs, with the potential for both reliability and price...

United States California Case Study

One of the key elements of reforming the electricity industry in the United States has been the introduction of competition into the retail sector of the electricity industry. As of August 2002, twenty-five states and the District of Columbia had passed laws or regulatory orders to implement retail competition. Of these twenty-five states, six have experienced a delay in the restructuring process, while in September 2001 California suspended its laws allowing consumers direct retail access following the energy crisis in that state. Twenty-six states are not undertaking restructuring activities.6

Colorado River Basin Development

Headlines and politicians are focused directly on the drought water supply issue. Generally, focusing events like this expose critically vulnerable conditions and, although they warn of potential crisis, are also opportunities for innovation. Potential water resource-related focusing events across the western United States include (1) extreme climatic conditions (e.g., drought and floods) (2) large-scale inter-basin transfers (3) quantification of tribal water rights (4) an energy crisis (5) changing transboundary responsibilities and (6) regulatory mandates such as the Endangered Species and Clean Water Acts. Crisis conditions can be said to be reached when focusing events occur concurrently with public awareness of a finite time necessary for effective response. In this context, institutional conditions that limit flexibility tend to exacerbate the underlying resource issues.

Fossil Cities the Contemporary Conundrum

The mounting dependence on the advanced - and by definition fragile - artefact city is a major risk in itself, but the present energy crisis threatens the very foundation of modern urbanity. This risk reaches deeper than mere infrastructure dependencies. Hermann Scheer enumerates the multiple energy crises engulfing the world today global poverty levels are tied to the fossil fuel economy - some 40 of the poorer countries spend more on petroleum imports than their export earnings nuclear crises loom due to misguided hankerings for atomic power on the part of a number of developing countries water depletion crises brought about by pandemic pollution, abuse and global-warming induced precipitation changes - and glacial melting. These are magnified by the enormous thirst of old-fashioned thermal power stations still prevailing today health crises are endemic to most industrialized and technologically emerging societies through fossil-based air, water and soil pollution and agricultural...

Sources for map and commentary

Agarwal, Bina, Cold Hearths and Barren Slopes The Fuelwood Crisis in the Third World, Riverdale, MD Riverdale Press, 1986 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Map of the Fuelwood Situation in the Developing Countries, Rome FAO, 1981 FAO, Yearbook of Forest Products, 1982, 1984 Richard Hosier, University of Pennsylvania, personal communication Smil, V. & W.E.Knowland, eds., Energy in the Developing World The Real Energy Crisis, Oxford Oxford University Press, 1980 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Environmental Data Report, 2nd ed. 1989-90, Oxford Blackwell, 1989 United Nations Statistical Office, Energy Statistics Yearbook 1985,1987 and Energy Statistics Yearbook 1986, 1988.

Why We Must Focus on Climate Change and Do It

Our Arctic neighbors have sent us clear images of what is in store for the rest of the planet if we delay. Climate change demands attention. The unwillingness of political leaders in either major political party in Washington to ratify the Kyoto Protocol was the catalyst for the initial commitment at Tufts, but it is not the sole factor sustaining the effort. The energy crisis of the 1970s motivated many colleges and universities to take aggressive efficiency measures, many of which were subsequently relegated to the dustbin of institutional memory as fuel costs decreased. Energy costs and reliability are again a concern for institutional decision makers technological developments since the 1970s have brought many new long-term operational savings. For the university of the future, lower energy costs and increased reliability can be a significant competitive advantage.

Bridging the gap between policy and pollution

The U.S. does not have an energy crisis. It has an environmental energy policy crisis. To make my point, I go back to solar. There is no shortage of solar power, but the vast majority of it is simply an incoherent barrage of unordered photons. You can lay in the sun, and warm yourself, but you can only do this on a warm, sunny day. In order to harness solar power, you need intelligent machines that can convert the incoherent barrage of photons into ordered, intelligent electrical signals that work with our appliances. And even then, you're limited by the availability of sunshine. At night, you're out of luck, so you need energy storage mechanisms. It's easy to store a gallon of gasoline, but it's impossible to store a roomful of photons.

How Saudi Arabia Helped The Markets Cope With Previous Oil Crises

Meanwhile, in the oil industry, changes were taking place as well. U.S. oil production peaked in 1970, as per Hubbert's prediction 20 years earlier, and the energy crisis made a return engagement in 1979. The 1973 oil crisis started on October 17 when Arab members of OPEC, during the Yom Kippur War, announced that they would no longer ship oil to the United States and Western Europe because these regions supported Israel in its conflict with Syria and Egypt. At the same time, OPEC members agreed to use their leverage over the world price-setting mechanism for oil in order to quadruple world oil prices. The complete dependence of the industrialized world on oil, much of which was produced by Middle Eastern countries, became painfully clear to the United States, Western Europe, and Japan, requiring Western policymakers to respond to international economic constraints that were basically dissimilar to those faced by their predecessors. The oil crisis of 1979 was sparked by the Iranian...

The Problem is Liquid Fuels

Oil peaking represents a liquid fuels problem, not an energy crisis in the sense that term has been used. Motor vehicles, aircraft, trains, and ships simply have no ready alternative to liquid fuels. Non-hydrocarbon-based energy sources, such as solar, wind, photovoltaics, nuclear power, geothermal, fusion, etc. produce electricity, not liquid fuels, so their

Factors That Can Cause Delay

For the U.S. to attain a lower level of dependence on liquid fuel imports after the advent of world oil peaking, a major paradigm shift will be required in the current approach to the construction of capital-intensive energy facilities. Federal and state governments will have to adopt legislation allowing the acceleration of the development of substitute fuels projects from current decade time-scales. During World War II, facilities of all types were constructed on a scale and schedules that would have previously been inconceivable. In the face of the 1973 energy crisis, the Alaska oil pipeline was approved and constructed in record time.102 102On the other hand, even in the midst of the energy crisis, the Alaska oil pipeline was approved by only one vote in the U.S. Senate and, currently, EIA anticipates that an Alaska gas pipeline will not be completed prior to 2020 - see U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2004 Annual Energy Outlook, February, 2004.

Technology Cooperation and Collaboration

The development and deployment of cleaner, more efficient energy technologies serve the common objectives of energy security, environmental protection and economic growth. Existing technologies can take us some of the way down the path towards more sustainable energy use a central finding of the Alternative Policy Scenario. But technological breakthroughs that change profoundly the way we produce and consume energy will almost certainly be needed to achieve a truly sustainable energy system in the long term. incentives and regulatory requirements, as well as the availability of the most up-to-date technologies and knowledge of how best to use them. In some cases, trade restrictions notably import tariffs impede market penetration. Most appliances and equipment that either use energy or are used in the production of energy are subject to tariffs in both China and India, though in both countries tariffs have lowered in recent years. In China, for example, the government requires all new...

Another agreement The Asia Pacific Partnership APP

The Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (APP) is a coalition of Australia, Canada, China, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the United States. The stated goal is to work together to develop and utilize new technologies that reduce air pollution, increase energy security, and sustain economic growth.

Implications for Policy

And rising emissions of CO2, NOx and SO2. Prompt government action could counter these worrying trends. Implementation of the policies and measures presented in the Alternative Policy Scenario would achieve substantial energy savings and emissions reductions (see Chapter 18). In practice, it will be a considerable political challenge to put India's energy system onto a more sustainable path, both in terms of establishing as a priority the need for action and winning consensus for vigorous implementation of the required measures. The possibility of stronger economic growth, however, demonstrates the urgency of taking advantage of the energy-security and environmental benefits of more rigorous policy action.

Collective Action is Needed to Address Global Energy Challenges

The emergence of China and India as major players in global energy markets makes it all the more important that all countries take decisive and urgent action to curb runaway energy demand. The primary scarcity facing the planet is not of natural resources nor money, but time. Investment now being made in energy-supply infrastructure will lock in technology for decades, especially in power generation. The next ten years will be crucial, as the pace of expansion in energy-supply infrastructure is expected to be particularly rapid. China's and India's energy challenges are the world's energy challenges, which call for collective responses. No major energy consumer can be confident of secure supply if supplies to others are at risk. And there can be no effective long-term solution to the threat of climate change unless all major energy consumers contribute. The adoption and full implementation of policies by IEA countries to address their energy-security and climate-change concerns are...

Box Chinas Emergency Oil Stocks

The acquisition of equity stakes in oil assets overseas, which began in the late 1980s, forms another plank of China's energy-security policy. This going-out policy was at least partly motivated by the ambition of the state companies to increase their reserves, diversify their activities and increase profits, with the ultimate aim of creating internationally competitive world-scale businesses. Chinese companies' equity oil output from overseas assets amounted to about 370 kb d in 2004, most of it produced by CNPC and CNOOC in Africa and Kazakhstan (Table 10.3). An estimated 40 to 50 of this oil is shipped to China. Total Chinese equity oil production could increase to 1 mb d by the beginning of the next decade, equivalent to about 10 of the country's total oil needs, though not all of this would actually be physically shipped to China for technical and cost reasons. It is doubtful whether Chinese equity oil investments contribute materially to improving the country's energy security...

Government policies and measures

As in previous editions of the World Energy Outlook, the Reference Scenario, the results of which are set out in Part A, takes into consideration all government policies and measures that were enacted or adopted by the middle of the current year, including those that have not yet been fully implemented. The policies considered cover a wide array of sectors and a variety of instruments. Some measures not directly addressed at the energy sector nonetheless have important consequences for energy markets and have been taken into account. Most recent policy initiatives directed at the energy sector, in both OECD and non-OECD countries, are designed to improve energy security, combat climate change and address other environmental problems through improved energy efficiency, switching to lower carbon fuels and enhanced indigenous energy production. They include the Energy Independence and Security Act in the United States and the European Commission's climate action plan (the provisions of...

Box Cooperative Activities Between the IEA and India and China

Co-operation between the IEA and China is formalised in a 1996 memorandum of understanding and a 2001 agreement on a Framework for Energy Technology Co-operation. The IEA and India signed a Declaration of Co-operation in 1998. The key objectives of IEA cooperation with China and India are to contribute to the development of the energy sector in both countries. Core areas of activities are energy statistics, indicators and data management, energy security, energy efficiency and environmental issues, market reform and pricing, technology co-operation and studies of the power, coal and gas sectors. The Agency has, over the past decade, organised with the Chinese and Indian authorities a number of technical-level meetings, seminars and workshops involving experts from member countries. Perhaps most significantly, China and India have begun to send delegations to observe selected meetings of the IEA's Governing Board and committees, which oversee the activities of the Agency. In 2007 the...

Impact of Rising Energy Demand

Increasing import dependence in any country does not necessarily mean less secure energy supplies, any more than self-sufficiency guarantees uninterrupted supply. Yet rising trade does carry a risk of heightened short-term energy insecurity for all consuming countries, to the extent that geographic supply diversity is reduced and reliance on specific supply routes is increased. The degree of risk at any given time hinges on myriad technical, climatic, geopolitical and economic factors. In the long run, the prospect of increased collective dependence on the part of consuming countries on supplies of oil and gas from a small number of producers carries the risk of the latter seeking to impose higher prices through investment or production constraints or other cartel action as their market power grows. China's and India's growing participation in international trade heightens the importance of their contribution to collective efforts to enhance global energy security. Longer-term risks...

CDM and JI under the Kyoto Protocol and EU ETS

Are trying to have it both ways more fossil fuels and less climate change.1 Political and business group discussions emphasize energy security by which is meant assuring greater supplies of fossil fuels and at the same time urgent calls for action on climate change are made. For instance, oil companies such as BP and Shell continually boast of increased efforts to find and exploit new sources of fossil fuels and at the same time claim to be 'beyond petroleum'. In the same vein, the International Energy Agency, comprising mainly oil-consuming nations, recommends that the global oil industry invest over US 20 trillion in new facilities by 2030 to avoid higher oil prices. At the same time, the IEA warns that unless the world takes action to reduce energy consumption, global greenhouse-gas emissions will increase by over 50 per cent by 2030. From 1992 to 2004, the World Bank approved 11 billion worth of financing for 128 fossil-fuel extraction projects that will ultimately lead to more...

The role of energy in international law

Regulation of energy issues has been regarded as a matter of domestic, rather than international law, and a matter that is exclusively for the States to resolve on an individual basis. This traditional approach has changed for a variety of reasons, largely involving international trade. First and foremost, there has been an exponential leap in the quantum of energy use worldwide, particularly in developed countries, since the end of the Second World War. This has led to increased energy trade and increased reliance in many countries on energy imports, particularly petroleum products, which in turn has led to heightened energy security concerns. These concerns were brought to world attention by the Arab oil embargo in 1973 and the subsequent oil price increases in 1979 and 1981. Although the only direct legal consequence flowing from the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries' (OPEC) stranglehold on petroleum exports was the agreement to create a strategic petroleum reserve, to...

Renewable Energy Sources and Atomic Energy

Development of renewable and alternative energy sources through government incentives and tax credits. In the early 1980s, many of these measures were in place, but by the mid-1980s fossil fuel prices had fallen substantially and ideas of renewable energy sources had faded as the core of attention of energy policies, because of their higher costs. Recently however, European countries with few or no fossil fuel resources, as well as Japan, driven by the desire of energy independence and adopting the Kyoto Protocol that mandates greenhouse gas emission reductions, have begun to invest again intensively in renewable energy sources. The increased use of renewable energy technologies can contribute to meeting, in parts, both environmental and energy security goals. However, as the overall energy needs of mankind are enormous, this cannot alone be considered as the solution, at least for the foreseeable future. Since few of the alternate energy sources depend on combustion to generate heat...

Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy in India

Energy conservation received greater attention in India since the mid 1970s. Structural changes in the economy during the last few years have led to the expansion of the industrial base and infrastructure in the country, and subsequently to increase in demand for energy. Any effort to enhance energy generation brings issues of available energy sources and systems. India recognizes, as anywhere else, a need to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and transition to an era where many cost-effective and efficient energy choices are available. There has been a vigorous search during the last three decades for alternatives to fossil fuels that would ensure energy security and eco-friendly sustainable development.

Two conserving natural resources

Not only do they provide heat, light and electricity. Agriculture, pharmaceuticals, communications and most of the other features of life we take for granted depend on the reserves of fossil fuels, directly (e.g. for plastics) or indirectly. ASPO, the Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas, says The world faces the dawn of the second half of the age of oil, when this critical commodity, which plays such a fundamental part in the modern economy, heads into decline due to natural depletion. Some economists believe that the scarcer and more expensive a commodity becomes, the more effort will go into finding it, and that the market will ensure plentiful supplies of fossil fuel for many years ahead. But there are rational grounds for thinking we risk the exhaustion of recoverable reserves of oil and gas as well as an unpredictably warmer Earth if we do not kick the CO2 habit. By 2030, projections suggest, world energy use will probably have increased by more...

Something To Think About

The greatest investment opportunities are often spawned from extreme crisis. Our reliance on oil, coupled with decades of complacency and special-interest influence, has put the world in an extremely vulnerable position. Moreover, it has become increasingly clear over the past few decades that relying on our elected officials to make the tough decisions that need to be made when it comes to curtailing our reliance on imported oil will amount to little more than election-time promises and bipartisan bickering, neither of which seem to ever accomplish a damn thing. That is why we're convinced that it is capitalism, not bureaucracy, that will dictate the future of transportation. It will reward real solutions in fuel efficiency, energy security, and good-oldtfashioned ingenuity. In contrast, it will penalize the business t as-usual mentality that got us into this mess to begin with.

Threats to OPEC Production

Venezuela, the only South American member nation of OPEC and a founding member of OPEC, poses a geopolitical threat to U.S. energy security interests.Venezuela possesses 77.2 billion barrels of proven conventional oil reserves, the largest amount in the Western Hemisphere. In the past,Venezuela regularly exceeded its OPEC production quota. However, since his election in 1998, President Chavez has maintained a policy of strong adherence to the country's quota, seeking to increase oil revenues through higher world oil prices rather than increased production. In the past, in order to meet its quota,Venezuela occasionally shut in some production and delayed bringing new capacity on line.Venezuela is currently

Energy Supply And Policy Issues

Energy policy must consider the three pillars of energy supply effectiveness energy economics, energy security, and environmental protection. In other words, we must find ways to assure economic growth with security while continuing reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and other detrimental environmental impacts. Europe and Japan are much more dependent on energy imports than the U.S. and act accordingly. The U.S. must learn to reduce per capita consumption of energy and from other industrialized countries such as Germany which uses only half the energy per capita for roughly the same per capita economic output and standard of living. The link between economic growth and energy consumption must and can be broken without reducing consumer standards of living. To achieve this, more competition and rewards must be introduced into the energy markets to assure not only greater efficiency in power generation but also in its distribution and delivery. The objectives must be to use markets...

The Kyoto Architecture Reinterpreted Amended Completed

In the reordering of the world since Kyoto, there have been far-reaching structural transitions in major developing countries that are sure to alter the dynamics of new rounds of any international negotiation. These countries' enrichments, of course, create ground for demanding from them acceptance of emissions limitations their response will depend on whether they will consider that investing in backbone infrastructures will lock them into an unsound development pattern, and whether they will grasp the dire implications of climate change issues for energy security (Heller and Shukla 2003). The initial national communications to the UNFCCC of a number of developing A recent declaration by the G8 suggests a broadening of the negotiation paradigm ''We will act with resolve and urgency now to meet our shared and multiple objectives of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, improving the global environment, enhancing energy security and cutting air pollution in conjunction with our vigorous...

Taking Another Tack with Fuels

A coal-to-liquids program can make fuels for our cars' tanks and solve one energy security problem, but it creates a new set of concerns for the climate. In contrast, using our coal to produce electricity with IGCC and carbon capture to run plug-in hybrid cars may solve both concerns. The same ton of coal being used to produce a gallon of diesel fuel could be used to produce kilowatts of electricity for the most efficient type of engine we know of, an electric engine, and still provide a transportation fuel using existing infrastructure the grid. When we

Building On The New Enthusiasm For Renewable Energy

The irony is that the current renewable energy industry is being funded by the Pentagon which has assumed the role NASA played in the 1970s. Many of the new technologies that are being readied for deployment have been funded by the Department of Defense and, to a lesser extent, the Department of Homeland Security. The threat of energy security is now real, and energy prices have been high and will remain so. Logically, the time for renewables and alternative energy is now.

Purpose and scope of the study

This year's World Energy Outlook, as in all even-numbered years, provides a comprehensive update of long-term energy demand and supply projections to 2030, fuel by fuel and region by region. As a special feature this year, it examines how energy is used in cities and the implications for the future. The Outlook also takes a detailed look at the two headline issues that emerge from these projections the prospects for oil and gas production, and the policy options for tackling climate change after 2012, when a new global agreement is due to take effect. The results of these analyses are intended to provide policy makers, investors and end users with a rigorous quantitative framework for assessing likely future trends in energy markets and the cost-effectiveness of new policies to tackle energy-security and environmental concerns.

Energy Related CO Emissions Global Trends

Rising global fossil energy use will continue to drive up energy-related CO2 emissions over the projection period (Figure 5.1). A range of government policies, including those intended to address climate change, air pollution and energy security, have helped to slow the rate of growth in emissions in some countries in recent years, but have not stopped it. In the Reference Scenario, which examines the implications of governments adopting no new policies, world emissions jump by 57 between 2005 and 2030 to 41.9 gigatonnes, an average rate of growth of 1.8 per year. The increase is 27 in the Alternative Policy Scenario (1.0 per year) and 68 (2.1 per year) in the High Growth Scenario. By comparison, emissions grew by 1.7 per year over 1990-2005. Emissions in 2030 in the Reference Scenario are 1.5 Gt higher than in last year's Outlook, mainly because of higher coal use in China and India, while emissions in the Alternative Policy Scenario are lower as more policies are under...

An Intellectual Discipline Starting from the Suboptimal and Real Baselines

Managing energy demand is becoming more critical as energy security is being ever more perceived as a prime development objective by nations competing for resources at a time of explosive energy prices. Recent trends only confirm the warnings of the World Energy Conference (WEC) in 1979, that the emergence of developing countries as major oil and gas consumers will be a source of major world tensions after 2000. Ten years later, in 1989, the WEC was reminded of this prediction in Montreal by James Schlessinger. Added to the controversies over the timing of peak oil production, the conventional oil reserves have remained increasingly concentrated in politically sensitive regions.

Iraqi Oil Supply and the Battle of Baghdad

The United States-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 may have been meant to impose a much-needed democracy there, but it never turned out quite that way. The conflict is increasingly costing more in lives and other resources than was initially estimated corruption is rampant in the new Iraqi government the insurgency against U.S. occupation is growing, and many people around the world see it as a war of choice in search of oil. These critics believe that the oil industry supported the war because it stood to gain from an Iraq that posed no threat to energy security. It's important to note, however, that whatever the reasons for the war, the oil industry, just like everyone else (except President Bush and his staunch allies), is no longer very optimistic about the outcome. There's a growing belief that the motivation for going to war with Iraq was the thought that Iraq could play a central role as an alternative swing oil producer to Saudi Arabia, currently the world's only spare capacity...

Reducing Automotive Carbon Burdens

The missing part of the auto industry's role in cutting carbon burdens is a constructive stance on public policy. Government intervention is essential for resolving the inherent tension between market forces and nonmarket concerns such as global warming and energy security. As this analysis has shown, technology strategies alone are unlikely to address the auto sector's CO2 emissions problem. Automakers need to embrace balanced but meaningful regulation in order to be true to their promises to address these public concerns. There is no other way to break out of the competitive box that binds product strategies and design priorities to offering consumers almost every variation imaginable, but doing very little to address the huge, nonmarket problems of global warming and oil dependence.

The Regulatory Landscape for Transportation Energy and Climate Change

Energy companies also have a key role to play in both balancing transportation energy supply and demand and in addressing energy security issues. With respect to transportation energy, a short-term priority is to develop clean fuel technologies with lower carbon emissions. In the longer term, energy companies can assist in the gradual transition in engine technology from the conventional ICE drivetrain to hybrid electric drives, and ultimately to fuel cell systems. Whether this transition will be driven by the regulatory environment or by voluntary industry innovation is as yet uncertain (Eggar, 2005).

Introduction and Overview

Renewables provide other benefits as well. For one, they increase the diversity of energy supplies, relieving pressure on fossil fuel supplies and oil prices, and increasing energy security. In the long term, renewables are one of the few sustainable energy supply options available. Eventually they will be essential for replacing diminishing fossil fuel resources, especially given the inequitable distribution of those natural resources.

Background and Assumptions

Chinese policy makers take these challenges very seriously and have formulated a range of policies to respond to them. Chief among these are interventions aimed at diversifying the country's energy sources, improving energy efficiency and restructuring the economy away from highly energy-intensive activities. Some have already been implemented and are taken into consideration in the Reference Scenario. Other more ambitious actions are still under discussion. The Alternative Policy Scenario takes these into account, presenting a picture of the extent to which they can address China's energy-security and environmental challenges. The benefits of stronger policy action are potentially very large, provided there is effective implementation and strict enforcement on the ground. 1.e. net benefit to energy consumers and to China as a country even before the energy-security and environmental implications are taken into account.

Chinas Approaches to Oil Rich Countries

Oil diplomacy also prompted China to seek access to Canada's tar sands of Alberta. The two countries have concluded a series of energy agreements since 2004, providing China with the opportunity to develop Canada's oil and natural gas sector. Yet that deal could further exacerbate tensions between the United States and China, as well, and between the United States and Canada. U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney's 2001 national energy policy emphasized the importance of Canada's tar sands to U.S. energy security. The U.S. Congress has been nervous about China fishing in American waters as well as uneasy about China's willingness to pursue oil resources in countries that are hostile to Washington, such as Iran, Sudan, and Myanmar.

Sidebar Hybrid Upstream Emissions Trading System

Another argument in support of a hybrid vehicle trading system is that there are other benefits to reducing oil consumption, such as energy security, trade deficits, and the effect of oil price shocks on the economy. However, creating a very complex trading system, with no mandatory participation by vehicle manufacturers, is unlikely to be the optimum solution.

More Historical Oil Crisis Considertions

124Estimates range from 2 trillion to more than 7 trillion (2004 dollars) -- exclusive of military or political costs. See U.S. General Accounting Office, Energy Security Evaluating U.S. Vulnerability To Oil Supply Disruptions and Options for Mitigating Their Effects, GAO RCED-97-6, 1997 David Greene and Nataliya Tishchishyna, Cost of Oil Dependence A 2000 Update, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, May 2000 National Defense Council Foundation, The Hidden Cost of Imported Oil, October 2003.

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

As fossil fuel resources become increasingly scarce, and because energy security in the United States is threatened by its reliance on foreign energy sources, the federal government has expressed greater interest in promoting energy development on federal lands. As noted above, much of this development occurs on land leased from the federal government by resource extractive industries. However, the debate is increasingly being centered on whether or not to allow energy development on federal lands that were set aside for conservation purposes lands that are located in national parks, monuments, wilderness areas, and wildlife refuges. While energy development on federal lands is being debated for areas all over the country, development of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is the most publicized and contentious of these discussions.

How Much Oil Is There

In the last few years, huge new irreversible investments and other commitments were made in extraction and refining tar sands, extra heavy crude and shale oil, wind farms, hydroelectric plants, new and updated nuclear power plants, fuel cell and hydrogen-fueled power projects, hybrid and other efficient and often alternative fuel-using automobiles, clean coal coal gasification, natural gas, solar power, and energy conversion systems among others, that are expected to greatly replace the use of and need for petroleum that the imminent decline of global oil consumption is today no longer a plan but a fact. These developments were not only driven by the high price of oil but also global energy security.

Renaissance for Nuclear Power

There are many reasons why nuclear power might expand in the future. Energy resource availability, climate change, air quality, energy security, and independence from other nations to maintain our standard of living will likely have a combined impact on the allocation and use of a variety of energy sources. The questions in this scenario are what role nuclear power will play and whether there will be the political will and technical work force present to allow nuclear power to occupy an increasing percentage of future energy needs.

Green Power Marketing

Fifth, the utilities can act in a manner that impedes competition. For example, in California, the utilities made it more difficult for green power marketers to operate competitively by making it impossible for green power marketers to offer products such as consolidated billing refusing to allow customers to choose their green power provider at the time of first contact with the utility after deregulation failing to explain adequately or accurately about how utility and green pricing worked to consumers and, in the case of San Diego Gas and Electric, imposing price caps during the electricity crisis for all customers except those who had switched to a green power provider.31

Business Response Other Energy Technologies

Like solar PV modules, wind turbines are a clean, flexible energy source being developed mostly by smaller electricity-generating companies.22 Wind technologies can be applied in standalone or grid-connected units. Wind-generated electricity has grown by more than 20 percent per year for the past 12 years and in 1997 exceeded 12 billion kwh.23 Although this is less than 1 percent of electricity in industrialized regions, wind already is competitive with fossil fuel based generation in many markets (Table 19.1), even without including the fossil fuel externalities noted earlier. In the United States, the wind industry has relied in the past on tax credits (of about 1.5 cents kwh) and voluntary green pricing premiums, which some companies are willing to pay to reduce their CO2 emissions.24

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