Learn How To Survive Energy Crisis

DIY Survival Sanctuary

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Energy Security in a Global Market

In a global energy market, changes in the supply demand balance and fuel mix in one country inevitably affect all other market participants. Energy security is one aspect of the change. Rising energy needs in China and India on top of rising demand in all other regions will call for increased investment in developing indigenous and external resources. Mobilising this investment so as to expand capacity will be crucial to the world's long-term energy security. Energy trends in China and India (summarised in Chapter 2), like those in the OECD, mean rising dependence on imports of hydrocarbons in the coming decades, as demand outstrips indigenous production unless radical new policies are introduced that go well beyond those of the Alternative Policy Scenario or unless there are major technological breakthroughs. These trends carry increased threats to supply security, both in terms of the long-term adequacy and price of supply and the risk of short-term supply disruptions. The...

Global Concerns Regarding Energy Security

The traditional interpretation of energy security had its beginnings during the 1973 oil crisis. Seen from energy-importing nations' perspective, it was defined in terms of sufficient supplies at affordable prices, in the wake of the disruption of oil supplies from producing countries. Viewed from the energy-exporting countries' standpoint, ''energy security'' focuses on ''security of demand'' for their exports, which generate the majority of their governments' revenues. As discussed earlier in the chapter, political uncertainties have destabilized this confidence in some exporting countries, including Russia and Bolivia. More recently, power outages in North America and Europe, as well as chronic shortages of electricity in India and China, put a broader perspective on the meaning of energy security, both in terms of geographic range and the entire energy chain. The destruction of infrastructure in the 2005 hurricane season in the United States presents another dimension of energy...

Addressing Energy Security and Climate Challenges W

In the absence of rigorous new action by governments, the twin threats to energy security and climate will, indeed, grow with rising global demand for energy services regardless of what happens in China and India. But the inexorable emergence of these two countries as major players in global energy markets makes it all the more vital that all countries, IEA members and non-members, including China and India, take decisive and urgent action to reconcile the need to meet rising demand for energy services worldwide with ensuring energy security and protecting the environment. All these approaches to reducing emissions can also contribute to energy security, insofar as they lead to less reliance on imported energy that may be vulnerable to disruption or to more supply diversity. For example, improving the efficiency of cars by cutting fuel consumption reduces emissions and the need to import oil. But, in some cases, there are trade-offs switching from coal to gas in power generation will...

Energy Security The New Cold

I think most people fail to really understand the significance of energy security issues, or what I call the new cold war. This new cold war isn ' t a war in the traditional sense, although we have entered into armed conflict many times to a significant degree because of oil issues (Gulf Wars I and II are the most recent). This new cold war is, in fact, an energy war. It's an oil war. Perhaps the two biggest thorns in the side of the West come from Iran and Venezuela. Both of these countries' respective leaders, the fanatical but cunning Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and the boisterous and belligerent Hugo Chavez, have at their disposal a large portion of the world's crude oil supplies. These are men who have philosophical as well as strategic interests at odds with the West, and their hold on oil supplies is just one more reason energy security is one of the Big Three catalysts driving our push toward green energy sources. Ybu see, the key here is that if we can wean ourselves off of petroleum...

The Energy Security Policies of China and India

China and India have differing perceptions and concerns related to the security of their energy supplies. There are nonetheless important similarities between the two countries' energy-security policies. The policy focus in both countries is on oil, reflecting increasing imports in recent years and the expectation that this trend will continue in the medium term. Chinese and Indian leaders are worried that growing dependence on imported oil will bring foreign-policy and economic pressures that might threaten national security and social and political stability. Those concerns have grown since the events of 11 September 2001 and the US-led military intervention in Iraq in 2003. Both countries have stepped up their military and naval capabilities, but recognise that they will continue to rely to a large degree on the United States for protection of international sea lanes in the Middle and Far East for many years to come. 4. The IEA collaborates actively with China and India on a range...

The Fossil Fuel Sector And Energy Security

In short, there were substantial differences between the parties concerning the the price of coal which were reinforced by concerns over energy security, since many nations clearly were paying such large subsidies because strategic concerns reinforced the demands of coal producers and mining unions.

But Threats to the Worlds Energy Security Must be Tackled

Rising global energy demand poses a real and growing threat to the world's energy security. Oil and gas demand and the reliance of all consuming countries on oil and gas imports increase in all three scenarios presented in this Outlook. In the Reference Scenario, China's and India's combined oil imports surge, from 5.4 mb d in 2006 to 19.1 mb d in 2030 - more than the combined imports of Japan and the United States today. Ensuring reliable and affordable supply will be a formidable challenge. Inter-regional oil and gas trade grows rapidly over the projection period, with a widening of the gap between indigenous output and demand in every consuming region. The volume of oil trade expands from 41 mb d in 2006 to 51 mb d in 2015 and 65 mb d in 2030. The Middle East, the transition economies, Africa and Latin America export more oil. All other regions - including China and India - have to import more oil. As refining capacity for export increases, a growing share of trade in oil is...

The Role of Nuclear Power in Energy Security and Climate Change in Vietnam

Abstract The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of nuclear power in terms of energy security and climate change in Vietnam. To facilitate comparison with Vietnam's energy development plan, the paper also discusses the Korean experience from various perspectives past history of nuclear energy supply among other energy sources, energy consumption, energy policy and nuclear power development, consumer reactions and corporate social responsibility. The study shows that nuclear power will play an important role in Vietnam's energy security and greenhouse gas mitigation (GHG) in the future. However, the paper also argues that such an ambitious nuclear development plan may also contain risks due to poor infrastructure and the lack of human resources. As a conclusion, a more cautious nuclear power development plan can be regarded as suitable for Vietnam. Keywords Climate change Energy security Nuclear power

Measuring Energy Security

There is no single universally recognised way of measuring a country's level of energy security. Such assessments are normally a matter of expert judgment, as the perceived risk of a serious disruption or shortfall in investment for any given country or at any given time depends on a large array of different factors. For a given consuming country, what matters is both its own situation with respect to these indicators and that of all consuming countries. A given country may have a geographically highly diversified mix of imports from what are considered politically stable and reliable producing countries, but it still faces the risk of a price shock from a disruption to supplies from less stable producing countries to other consuming countries. For this reason, a reduction in a given country's imports does not necessarily enhance its own overall energy security, if the world's reliance on supplies from politically unstable countries is increasing. Likewise, rising import dependence...

Defining Energy Security

Energy security, broadly defined, means adequate, affordable and reliable supplies of energy. It matters because energy is essential to economic growth and human development. Yet no energy system can be entirely secure in the short term, because disruptions or shortages can arise unexpectedly, whether through sabotage, political intervention, strikes, technical failures, accidents or natural disasters. In the longer term, under-investment in crude oil production, refining or transportation capacity, or other market failures can lead to shortages and consequently unacceptably high prices. So energy security, in practice, is best seen as a problem of risk management, that is reducing to an acceptable level the risks and consequences of disruptions and adverse long-term market trends. Secure energy supply is a public good, as the benefit derived from it by one consumer does not reduce the benefit to everyone else. Markets alone do not reflect the cost to society of a supply failure...

Overview Of The Dprk Energy Crisis

The DPRK relies heavily on indigenous sources of power, predominantly coal and hydropower, and has no known reserves of oil or natural gas. Since the end of the Cold War, chronic shortages have developed for all forms of modern energy supply, with petroleum products, coal, and electricity all reduced by more than 50 percent after 1990. These shortages have affected all sectors of the economy, especially transportation, industry, and agriculture. The North Korean energy crisis results from the loss of subsidized Soviet oil imports, failure to Sources James H. Williams, David von Hippel, and Peter Hayes, Fuel and Famine Rural Energy Crisis in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation, IGCC Policy Papers, Paper No. 46, March 2000, http repositories.cdlib.org igcc PP pp46.

Do Chinas and Indias Equity Oil Acquisitions Improve Energy Security

For both China and India, acquisitions of equity oil overseas by state companies have formed a central plank of energy-security policy for several years. Yet it is far from obvious that the availability of equity oil would, in practice, enhance either country's physical oil supply or protect them from the effects of higher prices in the event of a supply crisis. For both China and India, energy diplomacy involving the development of a broad network of bilateral relationships with producer countries is considered an important element of energy-security strategy. Diplomatic efforts have been focused on the Middle East and Africa. Policy makers in both countries believe that, in an oil or gas crisis, relationships with producers will count for more than just ownership of assets or ability to pay. Energy diplomacy is intended to help improve security by assisting domestic companies to win deals involving equity oil, ensuring privileged treatment in the event of a supply disruption and...

Impact of Chinas and Indias Energy Security Policies

China's and India's policies on energy security will have important implications for the security of other consuming countries. Any improvement to China's and India's security would generally yield benefits for all other consuming countries. Equally, efforts by other consuming countries could bring important benefits to China and India. The success of all countries' efforts to save energy, diversify away from oil and, thus, curb their need to import hydrocarbons will clearly affect the energy security of others. The extent to which the policies that China and India are currently considering to enhance their energy security and tackle environmental problems could reduce their prices to all consuming countries might be driven higher (USCESRC, 2006). However, it may be that China's and India's overseas investments will actually improve global energy security by bringing to market oil that might not otherwise have been developed and thereby augmenting global oil supplies (Andrews-Speed,...

Energy Crisis

The energy crisis that emerged during the 1970s resulted from increasing tensions in the Middle East and a growing concern for Throughout the 1960s, the Middle East became the center of world oil, accounting for 38 percent of world production and 90 percent of international trade (Melosi 1985, 249). The Yom Kippur War of 1973 provided the catalyst for OPEC's emergence as the leader in oil production and pricing. When Egypt and Syria launched a surprise attack on Israel in October 1973, the United States airlifted weapons to aid the Israeli defense. In response, members of OAPEC initiated an oil embargo against the United States and other allies of Israel. Saudi Arabia participated in the embargo, and ARAMCO was ordered to cut production by 25 percent and cease shipments to the United States. Additionally, OPEC increased world prices of oil from 3.00 per barrel to 11.65 per barrel (Hatch 1986, 32). Although the major oil-producing companies responded by increasing production in other...

Energy Security

Energy, like water and air, serves essential needs of mankind. It is a most important factor as it contributes to a meaningful quality of life, freedom of movement, and access to comfortable shelter. Now at the crossroads after a near century of dependence on and irresponsible use of fossil fuel to supply global energy needs, we are at the beginning of a new era. Energy security, affordability, environmental quality and renewability are the new driving forces identified in this book. It describes all the opportunities toward independence of fossil fuel and the road towards a cleaner, healthier, secure, and cheaper, largely renewable energy system. Overall the Future Energy Balance Analysis presented shows clearly that we are on the verge of not only reducing our dependence on oil but at the beginning of a radically new energy future which will assure greater energy security, more equitable access to and use of energy, and a cleaner, more livable environment.

Smith Street Enron Emerges

Other misdeeds was about to come to a head. Twenty years before, he was standing at the threshold of a dream. Five years ago, like a king addressing his subjects from the castle, he sat at the energy pinnacle of the world. He was advising the Vice President Dick Cheney on how to solve the California energy crisis, and energy calamities in other parts of the country. President Bush fondly referred to him as Kenny Boy.

The Lure Of The Supply Side

The cult of economic growth, consumer technology innovation, and the confused and impossible desire for universal prosperity are collectively taken to be progress. Anything going the opposite way is taken to be retrogression and failure. This may well be how supply side solutions to the energy crisis are thought about in the fossil energy intensive societies, but on the ground, in the Middle East and Central Asia, the hunt for cheap oil and gas results in military invasion, civil war, and devastation. This barbarous strategy of military domination to ensure future supplies of oil and gas is the ultimate supply side policy, and events in Iraq and Afghanistan, Lebanon, and Palestine show that it is a failure. Impacts on world

Farther out on the Network

It means that the DG system operates in parallel with the utility system. For the most part today, if a building has a power-generating unit, it operates instead of the utility as a backup or standby supplier of electricity. Within the intelligent grid, this small power generator operates with the grid, not instead of it. The key enabling technologies for this to occur are A solid-state power converter that allows power sharing, power flow, and waveform control and a static isolation switch that allows a seamless transition between the facility's DG device and the grid connected operation. The Mad River Park microgrid can connect eight commercial and industrial facilities and up to 14 residences into a power network service area. The DG devices include propane-fueled engines, gas-fired microturbines, a solar photovoltaic array, and even a small wind-turbine generator. All of these units are operated as a system in distinct modes total isolation from the local utility distribution...

Middle East Oil Not So Secure After

Even a seemingly small 5 per cent dependency could have drastic ramifications, as became evident during the energy crisis of 1973-1974. In the twelve-month period beginning in April 1973, the western world witnessed a continuation of the creeping nationalisation of foreign oil interests throughout the Gulf and North Africa, a major war between Israel and Egypt Syria, an embargo on oil supplies to the USA, unprecedented queuing for gasoline in the USA and a 350 per cent increase in world oil prices.25 In the words of one of the main protagonists in this drama, Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, 'Never before had nations so weak militarily - and in some cases politically - been able to impose such strains on the international system'.26 Later, Kissinger also observed that a century earlier the consuming nations would have responded by seizing the oilfields. According to Kissinger, 'From time to time the United States threatened to do just that but never received any support from the...

The collapse of soil fertility mining the soil

The calamitous decline in fertilizer production is a result of fertilizer factories being out of operation or operating at minimal levels. This was reported to be at least partly due to the poor condition of Soviet-built plants, natural disasters having perhaps caused some of the damage. Prior to 1990, the DPRK is said to have operated three fertilizer factories, capable of a total annual production of over 400,000 tonnes of nitrogen nutrient. This would have provided for self-sufficiency if the plants had been able to run at capacity.24 The important nitrogen fertilizer plant at Hamhung had apparently been inoperable since at least 1994, and the DPRK government had requested international assistance to refurbish the plant. Notwithstanding problems of damage or disrepair, the energy crisis would have had several important effects on fertilizer production. The DPRK nitrogen fertilizer production process uses coal as both energy source and chemical feedstock. Coal is hydrogenated to...

Gaps from Tectonic Movement

A change in presidential administrations certainly had much to do with it as well. One of the first things President Bush did after taking office was to convene an Energy Task Force under Vice President Dick Cheney to address the California energy crisis and other serious supply demand situations in other parts of the country. As I noted earlier, Republicans tend to solve energy crises with a production mindset, while Democrats tend to seek solutions from the demand side. And supply was precisely the tack Cheney's task force took.

The Oilfields Of The Gulf

OIL AND AMERICA THE DRIVE FOR ENERGY SECURITY BEGINS In response to the anticipated energy crisis, men like V.H. Manning, Director of the US Bureau of Mines, concluded that the government should set up its own international oil corporation, following the British Government's initiative in acquiring majority control over the Anglo-Persian oil company in 1914. Others, however, feared the precedent which this might set, at a time when socialist ideas were fuelling opposition to capitalist business throughout the world and not least in America itself. Instead, Franklin K. Lane, Secretary of the Interior from 1913 to 1920, advocated a more laissez-faire approach. In his annual report of 1919 he acknowledged the rapidly expanding demand for oil in the USA which would have to be met by gaining access to foreign oilfields. However, he argued that the government should refrain from any direct intervention in the oil business, either at home or abroad and should let the oil companies themselves...

And International Atomic Energy Agency Iaea

With the unpleasant picture painted in Subchapter 7.1, one asks how one can best prevent or minimize the proliferation and use of nuclear weapons by unfriendly sovereign nations. We have already argued that inhibiting the expansion of nuclear electric power will set the stage for an enormous world energy crisis when oil runs out. Only with nuclear electricity is it feasible to produce sufficient future supplies of oil-replacing synfuels for our transportation fleets and enough power for our heavy industries, without global warming. By sharing man's accumulated knowledge and the planet's resources with everyone, more people in the third world will have hope for a tolerable existence, and chances are less that warfare will break out for control of the last remaining fossil fuels on earth.

Brief Future Global Energy

The sad part is that an escalating energy crisis is avoidable. Wise governments should start immediately investing in the synfuel research and development programs listed above and concurrently commence the design, development, and construction of avanced breeder reactors. As a bonus, it brings many new high-tech jobs and reduces unemployment, much like president Franklin Roosevelt accomplished with his national hydro-electric and road-work programs during the great depression of the 1930's. Environmentalists should join nuclear engineers to demand expansion of abundant non-air-polluting nuclear energy. Benjamin Franklin said at the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 'We must all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang separately'.

Geodestinies And Geodeterminism

When I was thinking of a way to reintroduce this part, taking account of the time which had passed between the first and the second edition, I focused on Battle of the Titans, by the late Mark Jones. Mark, once an adviser to LUKoil (Russia), wrote the chapter in 2002 for the first edition of The Final Energy Crisis. His chapter identifies economic and political pressures which make and break geopolitical hegemonies. Mark thought the US had a window of only a few years to try to gain control of foreign oil reserves before it would lose its economic and military advantages to China. As editor I wondered how to update this article or follow it up, without Mark. Then I thought about the surprising new geopolitical hub at the mouth of the exotic and threatened Amazon, where an unexpected realignment of factions is being led by Venezuela's almost mythologized President, Hugo Chavez. I have described this situation in a chapter later in this part about Chavez and Latin American Oil.

America Gets Control Of The Gulf

Meanwhile, however, America's political and business leaders of the early 1960s were supremely confident that control of Middle East oil would underpin the future petroleum requirements of this new and remarkably vibrant economic, social and cultural way of life. It would guarantee the nation's energy security and with it the newly affluent lifestyle of America's consumers, epitomised by its steel and chrome gas-guzzlers. But those US leaders could not imagine that in little more than ten years this energy security solution would unravel in a great world oil crisis that within thirty years the USA would have to fight a major war in the Gulf to protect its 'energy security' and that within forty years, New York and Washington would be under attack by fanatical young men from Saudi Arabia invoking the old creed of Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab. 4 Energy Security and the Gulf From Solution to Problem RIVAL VERSIONS OF 'ENERGY SECURITY'

Needed Actions And Risks To Overcome The Pending Nooil Crisis

This book should convince most technologists that there is an urgent need for more nuclear power to overcome the pending energy crisis. However environmentalists, public policy makers, and financiers like to see a risk assessment of the nuclear option compared to other possible solutions Refs 50, 51, 52 . Such stakeholders want to be convinced that an expansion of nuclear power plants can be done safely and economically before they will give it their support. They are apprehensive because a multitude of fear-instilling misrepresentations have been circulated in the media about nuclear power (see Chapter 2). Many of these stakeholders favor development of more solar, wind, and biomass energy at the exclusion of nuclear energy without considering the scale, cost, and feasibility of these so-called 'renew-ables' to replace the vast quantities of portable fuels presently extracted from the oil fields. In the present case we want to find the best means of overcoming the pending no-oil...

Big Oil Versus The Independents

By the late 1940s, the Middle East oilfields acquired by the Americans over the preceding two decades had at last begun to export significant amounts of oil, a growing portion of which started to enter the US market. Although Venezuela still remained the largest source of US oil imports, supplying 265,975 barrels per day in 1949, the second largest supplier was now Kuwait with 52,269 b d, and with the Middle East oilfields as a whole supplying America with 99,642 b d. As these Middle East supplies began to arrive at US refineries in growing quantities - but at half the cost of domestic oil - those government officials, oil industry leaders and military men who were attempting to formulate a national energy security policy at a time of growing cold-war confrontation faced a perplexing dilemma. Since foreign oil was so much cheaper than domestic, US consumers would obviously prefer to buy the latter. But since foreign oil would then inevitably displace domestic oil, the eventual result...

Declaration Of Independence From

Teckningar Att Rgl Gga

Who have handled power generation for decades. They are funding studies of alternative energy programs currently in vogue such as wind farms and solar collectors, corn-derived ethanol, etc. This lulls the public into believing that everything is under control while it is not. These 'renewable' power-generation schemes can only be supplemental as discussed later. Compared to nuclear, they are economically much inferior to provide the large amounts of electric energy needed for the manufacture of synthetic fuels to replace present oil-derived fuels consumed by the world's transportation fleets. New nuclear energy programs must be funded now to prevent a serious energy crisis in the near-future.

Reducing Dependence On The Gulf

The Iranian Revolution of 1978 reduced the flow of Middle Eastern oil by around 3.5 million b d for six months, and was followed by a second world oil price surge the following year. Coming on top of the 1973 Arab oil embargo, this seemed to further underline America's now problematic dependence on Middle Eastern oil. Although the Carter Doctrine offered a robust challenge to any force which contemplated a threat to America's position in the Gulf, to many it now appeared that what had originally been a means of ensuring energy security -importing Middle East oil - was now a poisoned chalice which could ultimately prove highly toxic to America's interests, especially its long-standing interest in supporting the state of Israel. In short, America might now have to trade its support for Israel against its need for oil. for Exxon and the Federal Energy Administration's Assistant Administrator for International Affairs during the 1973-1974 oil crisis, published the first comprehensive...

Numerous Value Buckets

The first value bucket is national energy security. Our electricity system is vulnerable to threats and attacks as described in earlier chapters. Strategically placed and well-protected storage assets should be considered vital to this country's ability to survive and recover from terrorist attacks or reliability events. Remember Figure 1.1, which showed how electricity is the juice that feeds the rest of the energy, water, communications, and transportation infrastructure. It is nothing short of embarrassing that we maintain such fleet preparedness for our military arsenal but do almost nothing to protect the electricity assets.

Oil and America

Thus, the accession to power of the Bush Administration occurred at a time when the interests of US oil companies and oil consumers were rapidly moving closer together. In these circumstances a relentless drive for 'Energy Security' dictated a new strategic focus on the Middle East, one which might accommodate the interests of both groups unfettered access to new, highly profitable reserves for the companies guaranteed security of supply at moderate prices for the consumers. The objectives of oil capitalism we have already discussed. We now turn to the factors underlying the American consumer's voracious demand for oil. Gradually, however, the USA moved towards full capacity production. In 1970 domestic oil production peaked at 11.3 million b d, and by 1972 every oil well in the country was producing at its full capacity rate. Then in 1973-1974 the world experienced the great 'energy crisis' induced by the actions of the Arab However, by the second half of the 1980s, America's 'oil...

United States

Discovery in the US peaked in 1930, followed 40 years later by the corresponding peak in production. Alaska provided a secondary cycle, but was insufficient to reverse the decline, and the new deepwater Gulf of Mexico offers a third (see Figure 4.8). It is doubted if the Alaska Natural Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) area, which is closed for environmental reasons after the drilling of one very confidential borehole, would make any material difference if opened. US oil imports already run at about US 130 billion a year and are set to rise unless the government can somehow introduce draconian policies to cut demand. Its gas supply is even more critical, as already discussed. It is hard to avoid the conclusion that this looming energy crisis will spell the end of the American dream and US global economic hegemony, even if the country goes down with all guns blazing.

Oil And Motorisation

Unfortunately, this completely motorised 'American Way' made the USA uniquely vulnerable to the forces of radical Islamism which, nurtured by the very regimes upon which America had come to depend for its energy security, now threatened the lifeblood of modern US capitalism.33 American consumers needed Gulf oil and American oil companies intensely desired it but political circumstances in the region threatened the interests of the former and obstructed the objectives of the latter.


Much their forests mean to them in terms of long-term survivability. In the case of a sudden food and energy crisis, as occurred in the DPRK in the mid-1990s, forest resources will come under immense pressure. Only a great deal of wisdom and foresight can prevent an ecological tragedy from occurring.

Mark Jones

It is clear to both these powers, and any interested observer, that the keystone of US global power is Middle Eastern oil. This was true throughout the last century and is even truer today, as the US confronts a proven domestic oil reserve base of around 30 giga-barrels (Gb), and consumes 6.5 Gb per year. The US energy crisis is both structural and accelerating. In the short to medium term these energy supply difficulties might be met partly by conservation measures, because the phenomenal wastefulness of US society leaves much scope for saving. But this is not necessarily compatible with robust economic growth despite the baying of Amory Lovins on the virtues of the unproven hydrogen economy. Above all, the US cannot afford to lose the economic race with China that at present it is losing. As I have already said, China's gross industrial output will probably exceed that of either the US, Japan, or Europe this decade. This will leave military control of Arabian oil as the remaining...

Sustainable Housing Building a Greener Future

The bricks and mortar we live and work in are no longer keeping us safe as houses. Almost half the UK's carbon dioxide emissions come from heating and running commercial and residential buildings, and three million new homes are expected to be built by 2020. There is an urgent need to ensure new and existing homes are more sustainable in terms of both mitigating climate change (reducing carbon emissions), and adapting to the changing climate. There is no shortage of ideas - and practical demonstrations - about how this might be done, from high-tech smart houses which use the latest 'modern' construction methods and carefully monitor and adjust energy use in the home, to more 'down and dirty' low-tech solutions such as simple off-grid dwellings made of recycled consumer waste, and new social arrangements with shared neighbourhood facilities to promote social capital and cut resource use.

Understanding your offgrid options

You have choices when you go off-grid. If you want to rough it, you can use propane. It works well for heating, cooking, and refrigeration. Wood stoves Off-grid solar power systems Off-grid solar power systems (including hydropower, wind power, and PV systems) provide electrical power, but it's relatively expensive. Using PV electrical generating systems connected to the grid (intertie) enables you to sell your excess generating capacity back to the utility and therefore use 100 percent of your system's productive capacity (Chapter 16 has the details). Conversely, when you install an off-grid solar PV system, you don't get anywhere near 100 percent utilization, plus you need batteries, charge controllers, and more. All this extra equipment is expensive and maintenance intensive. From a pollution standpoint, using an intertie PV system does the world more good because more usable power is generated. Each kWh of energy you generate with an intertie system offsets that much energy from...

Box Access to Electricity in China

Although rural electrification programmes have been particularly successful (Box 8.4), the level of supply of electricity to a large proportion of the rural population is modest. The availability of clean-burning gaseous fuels is also very limited in rural areas and they are not affordable to many families. These issues are addressed in the 11th Five-Year Plan, which promotes the development of off-grid renewables, biogas and solar thermal technologies, among others, supported by technical outreach, grants and credit facilities. For cooking and hot water, large integrated biogas programmes have been carried out through the rural energy centres of the Ministry of Agriculture. Nevertheless, many millions of rural households will continue to rely on traditional biomass to meet much of their energy needs, even as China's cities swell with citizens whose patterns of consumption are converging with those of their counterparts in already developed countries.

Promoting green communities

Different types of communities have different attributes that can make becoming energy-efficient more or less accessible. With the interest in green living on the upsurge, many cities and states have taken steps to make themselves havens for environmentally conscious citizens. But maybe you don't want to live in a community at all. Perhaps you want to join a commune or you're interested in going off-grid, or back to nature. Each situation has its pros and cons, though more cons are associated with going it alone.

Realizing the ramifications of going offgrid

Going off-grid takes commitment and knowledge. You need to understand what you're doing with an off-grid system you can't just plug and play. So before you sign on, give careful consideration to the following facts I Going off-grid takes work. It means you have to take care of batteries, monitor system performance, and adjust your habits on a daily basis, depending on how much power your system is generating. I Going off-grid is expensive. In general, off-grid PV systems cost at least twice as much per kWh as intertie systems and take ten times more attention on your part. I Conservation measures are required with off-grid systems. Although conservation is integral to the beginning of any efficient lifestyle, it's even more important with off-grid systems because the economics dictate it. The best way to start is by building an energy-conserving house, with maximization of solar potential (see Chapter 21). Efficient appliances and personal habits are also a must. I Most banks will not...

Roughing It by Going Off Grid

Being off-grid means not being connected to a public utility for your electrical power. This also usually means that you're not connected to gas, water, and sewer utilities. If you're thinking about going off-grid, keep these things in mind I You don't have any utility power available, period. Going off-grid seems to be a romantic notion, but it's not necessarily the most efficient way to go. If you don't get much sunshine or have enough wind or water to make alternative energy sources viable, being efficient and pollution-wise off-grid is very difficult.

Expanding Access to Electricity in India

Table 20.3 provides an estimate of the cost of providing access to electricity to the 412 million people without access in 2005. The costs are broken down for central grid, mini-grid and off-grid technologies. Off-grid diesel generators have the lowest investment cost per kW, followed by mini-grid hydro-based electrification. However, generators entail an additional annual expense for diesel of about 20 per person. Central-grid electrification involves an additional annual expense of 4 per person. Off-grid Off-grid Providing access to electricity for all 412 million people who do not yet have it would require a mix of central grid, mini-grid and off-grid options. Assuming that the investment cost per person is in the range of 40 to 60, the total investment cost would be between 16 billion and 25 billion. This is very low compared with the total power infrastructure investment needs of almost a trillion dollars in the Reference Scenario over the Outlook period.

Implementing Regulations

The Law also specifically supports the use of renewable energy for remote rural areas. In 2002, NDRC initiated the Township Electrification program to electrify those remaining 1061 townships that lack electricity with PV, wind, and small hydropower 11 . Approximately, US 340 million was spent on the PV- and wind-powered townships. NDRC is now expanding this program to the village level and will electrify those remaining 25-30 million people in the 20,000 villages which do not yet have electricity. The Village Electrification program will cost an estimated US 5 billion and will be implemented over the next ten years. These off-grid users will be cross-subsidized by the grid-connected users so that they will pay a tariff equivalent to the provincial grid price. To fund the incremental costs of renewably generated power (above the provincial coal power price) as well as the operations and maintenance of the off-grid systems, a surcharge will be applied to all end users (except for those...

Forecast Windy And Profitable

One important factor to bear in mind about the prospects for the wind industry is that, as we've already mentioned in Chapters 1 and 2, as far as we have seen, nobody takes into account fossil fuel depletion in their projections. Studies do place certain constraints on fossil fuels in their models, based on assumptions about the future of emissions controls, geopolitical factors, climate change, historical production rates, industry investment, and so on, but it appears that most analysts have yet to fully grasp the coming energy crisis or if they do, they aren't saying so.

Governments role in achieving per cent reduction

Divergent views were articulated on efficiency improvement in the National Dialogue. On the one hand, this can be explained by the fact that efficiency is a package including a diversity of options and issues. Some are already available and can be implemented soon. Others require fundamental research and technology development. This might lead to the conclusion that the policy instruments needed to improve efficiency should therefore also be very diverse. However, other participants in the dialogue put forward opposing views, which may justify the inference that the dialogue has articulated conflicting views on one and the same issue. The view that technological barriers constitute the main obstacle at this moment can be addressed by a strategy as proposed in cell D, non-competitive co-operation and strong government support for R&D. By contrast, there is the observation that in the past efficiency has increased rapidly in response to external pressures (energy crisis, price...

Security Issues and Conflict

Central Intelligence Agency is working to secure the favor of a fictional Middle Eastern country. Tension arises when a new member of the royal family of the country is chosen to ascend the throne. The movie unveils the corruption involved in the oil industry and how oil deals between countries can be tied to terrorist activities. Although the movie was fictional, it illustrates the importance of energy security issues. Conflict between countries is historically linked to resource acquisition. Chapter 1 reveals that many of the energy crises in the latter half of the twentieth century were caused from military conflicts. First, the 1956 Suez Crisis brought about an energy emergency in Europe. Then, the Arab Oil Embargo in 1973 caused the worst energy crisis in U.S. history. While energy resources were not the cause of these conflicts, energy supply was greatly impacted, raising alarm over the extent of U.S. reliance on imported fuels. Not only are...

Urgency of the actions to be undertaken

The urgency of the measures to be taken is therefore evident. Given the contribution of fossil energies to CO2 emissions, it is vital to initiate without delay the energy transition which will allow us to prevent a major energy crisis as well as an irreversible climatic catastrophe. Strong action by the Public Authorities is therefore necessary, firmly backed by public opinion in the various countries.

American Civil Society in Revolt Breaking Ranks with the National Government

As with Chicago, the city of San Francisco is taking major steps to alter its energy future by promoting energy efficiency and utilizing the savings to invest in renewable energy development. San Francisco' s effort in this regard has been motivated by several factors. First, the community - like much of California - was subjected to the 2000-2001 energy crisis in the state, following the implementation of electricity sector restructuring (Beck 2002). At that time, service interruptions and escalating electric prices had major impacts on the residents and economy of the city. In more technical realms, San Francisco' s location on a peninsula means that the city must rely significantly on electric imports into the community. With mounting demands on its limited energy infrastructure due to population and economic growth, local officials have expressed concern that existing transmission capacity may not prove sufficient to area needs, with the potential for both reliability and price...

United States California Case Study

One of the key elements of reforming the electricity industry in the United States has been the introduction of competition into the retail sector of the electricity industry. As of August 2002, twenty-five states and the District of Columbia had passed laws or regulatory orders to implement retail competition. Of these twenty-five states, six have experienced a delay in the restructuring process, while in September 2001 California suspended its laws allowing consumers direct retail access following the energy crisis in that state. Twenty-six states are not undertaking restructuring activities.6

Colorado River Basin Development

Headlines and politicians are focused directly on the drought water supply issue. Generally, focusing events like this expose critically vulnerable conditions and, although they warn of potential crisis, are also opportunities for innovation. Potential water resource-related focusing events across the western United States include (1) extreme climatic conditions (e.g., drought and floods) (2) large-scale inter-basin transfers (3) quantification of tribal water rights (4) an energy crisis (5) changing transboundary responsibilities and (6) regulatory mandates such as the Endangered Species and Clean Water Acts. Crisis conditions can be said to be reached when focusing events occur concurrently with public awareness of a finite time necessary for effective response. In this context, institutional conditions that limit flexibility tend to exacerbate the underlying resource issues.

Sources for map and commentary

Agarwal, Bina, Cold Hearths and Barren Slopes The Fuelwood Crisis in the Third World, Riverdale, MD Riverdale Press, 1986 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Map of the Fuelwood Situation in the Developing Countries, Rome FAO, 1981 FAO, Yearbook of Forest Products, 1982, 1984 Richard Hosier, University of Pennsylvania, personal communication Smil, V. & W.E.Knowland, eds., Energy in the Developing World The Real Energy Crisis, Oxford Oxford University Press, 1980 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Environmental Data Report, 2nd ed. 1989-90, Oxford Blackwell, 1989 United Nations Statistical Office, Energy Statistics Yearbook 1985,1987 and Energy Statistics Yearbook 1986, 1988.

Bridging the gap between policy and pollution

The U.S. does not have an energy crisis. It has an environmental energy policy crisis. To make my point, I go back to solar. There is no shortage of solar power, but the vast majority of it is simply an incoherent barrage of unordered photons. You can lay in the sun, and warm yourself, but you can only do this on a warm, sunny day. In order to harness solar power, you need intelligent machines that can convert the incoherent barrage of photons into ordered, intelligent electrical signals that work with our appliances. And even then, you're limited by the availability of sunshine. At night, you're out of luck, so you need energy storage mechanisms. It's easy to store a gallon of gasoline, but it's impossible to store a roomful of photons.

How Saudi Arabia Helped The Markets Cope With Previous Oil Crises

Meanwhile, in the oil industry, changes were taking place as well. U.S. oil production peaked in 1970, as per Hubbert's prediction 20 years earlier, and the energy crisis made a return engagement in 1979. The 1973 oil crisis started on October 17 when Arab members of OPEC, during the Yom Kippur War, announced that they would no longer ship oil to the United States and Western Europe because these regions supported Israel in its conflict with Syria and Egypt. At the same time, OPEC members agreed to use their leverage over the world price-setting mechanism for oil in order to quadruple world oil prices. The complete dependence of the industrialized world on oil, much of which was produced by Middle Eastern countries, became painfully clear to the United States, Western Europe, and Japan, requiring Western policymakers to respond to international economic constraints that were basically dissimilar to those faced by their predecessors. The oil crisis of 1979 was sparked by the Iranian...

The Problem is Liquid Fuels

Oil peaking represents a liquid fuels problem, not an energy crisis in the sense that term has been used. Motor vehicles, aircraft, trains, and ships simply have no ready alternative to liquid fuels. Non-hydrocarbon-based energy sources, such as solar, wind, photovoltaics, nuclear power, geothermal, fusion, etc. produce electricity, not liquid fuels, so their

Another agreement The Asia Pacific Partnership APP

The Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (APP) is a coalition of Australia, Canada, China, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the United States. The stated goal is to work together to develop and utilize new technologies that reduce air pollution, increase energy security, and sustain economic growth.

Implications for Policy

And rising emissions of CO2, NOx and SO2. Prompt government action could counter these worrying trends. Implementation of the policies and measures presented in the Alternative Policy Scenario would achieve substantial energy savings and emissions reductions (see Chapter 18). In practice, it will be a considerable political challenge to put India's energy system onto a more sustainable path, both in terms of establishing as a priority the need for action and winning consensus for vigorous implementation of the required measures. The possibility of stronger economic growth, however, demonstrates the urgency of taking advantage of the energy-security and environmental benefits of more rigorous policy action.

Collective Action is Needed to Address Global Energy Challenges

The emergence of China and India as major players in global energy markets makes it all the more important that all countries take decisive and urgent action to curb runaway energy demand. The primary scarcity facing the planet is not of natural resources nor money, but time. Investment now being made in energy-supply infrastructure will lock in technology for decades, especially in power generation. The next ten years will be crucial, as the pace of expansion in energy-supply infrastructure is expected to be particularly rapid. China's and India's energy challenges are the world's energy challenges, which call for collective responses. No major energy consumer can be confident of secure supply if supplies to others are at risk. And there can be no effective long-term solution to the threat of climate change unless all major energy consumers contribute. The adoption and full implementation of policies by IEA countries to address their energy-security and climate-change concerns are...

Box Chinas Emergency Oil Stocks

The acquisition of equity stakes in oil assets overseas, which began in the late 1980s, forms another plank of China's energy-security policy. This going-out policy was at least partly motivated by the ambition of the state companies to increase their reserves, diversify their activities and increase profits, with the ultimate aim of creating internationally competitive world-scale businesses. Chinese companies' equity oil output from overseas assets amounted to about 370 kb d in 2004, most of it produced by CNPC and CNOOC in Africa and Kazakhstan (Table 10.3). An estimated 40 to 50 of this oil is shipped to China. Total Chinese equity oil production could increase to 1 mb d by the beginning of the next decade, equivalent to about 10 of the country's total oil needs, though not all of this would actually be physically shipped to China for technical and cost reasons. It is doubtful whether Chinese equity oil investments contribute materially to improving the country's energy security...

Government policies and measures

As in previous editions of the World Energy Outlook, the Reference Scenario, the results of which are set out in Part A, takes into consideration all government policies and measures that were enacted or adopted by the middle of the current year, including those that have not yet been fully implemented. The policies considered cover a wide array of sectors and a variety of instruments. Some measures not directly addressed at the energy sector nonetheless have important consequences for energy markets and have been taken into account. Most recent policy initiatives directed at the energy sector, in both OECD and non-OECD countries, are designed to improve energy security, combat climate change and address other environmental problems through improved energy efficiency, switching to lower carbon fuels and enhanced indigenous energy production. They include the Energy Independence and Security Act in the United States and the European Commission's climate action plan (the provisions of...

Box Cooperative Activities Between the IEA and India and China

Co-operation between the IEA and China is formalised in a 1996 memorandum of understanding and a 2001 agreement on a Framework for Energy Technology Co-operation. The IEA and India signed a Declaration of Co-operation in 1998. The key objectives of IEA cooperation with China and India are to contribute to the development of the energy sector in both countries. Core areas of activities are energy statistics, indicators and data management, energy security, energy efficiency and environmental issues, market reform and pricing, technology co-operation and studies of the power, coal and gas sectors. The Agency has, over the past decade, organised with the Chinese and Indian authorities a number of technical-level meetings, seminars and workshops involving experts from member countries. Perhaps most significantly, China and India have begun to send delegations to observe selected meetings of the IEA's Governing Board and committees, which oversee the activities of the Agency. In 2007 the...

Impact of Rising Energy Demand

Increasing import dependence in any country does not necessarily mean less secure energy supplies, any more than self-sufficiency guarantees uninterrupted supply. Yet rising trade does carry a risk of heightened short-term energy insecurity for all consuming countries, to the extent that geographic supply diversity is reduced and reliance on specific supply routes is increased. The degree of risk at any given time hinges on myriad technical, climatic, geopolitical and economic factors. In the long run, the prospect of increased collective dependence on the part of consuming countries on supplies of oil and gas from a small number of producers carries the risk of the latter seeking to impose higher prices through investment or production constraints or other cartel action as their market power grows. China's and India's growing participation in international trade heightens the importance of their contribution to collective efforts to enhance global energy security. Longer-term risks...

The role of energy in international law

Regulation of energy issues has been regarded as a matter of domestic, rather than international law, and a matter that is exclusively for the States to resolve on an individual basis. This traditional approach has changed for a variety of reasons, largely involving international trade. First and foremost, there has been an exponential leap in the quantum of energy use worldwide, particularly in developed countries, since the end of the Second World War. This has led to increased energy trade and increased reliance in many countries on energy imports, particularly petroleum products, which in turn has led to heightened energy security concerns. These concerns were brought to world attention by the Arab oil embargo in 1973 and the subsequent oil price increases in 1979 and 1981. Although the only direct legal consequence flowing from the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries' (OPEC) stranglehold on petroleum exports was the agreement to create a strategic petroleum reserve, to...

Two conserving natural resources

Not only do they provide heat, light and electricity. Agriculture, pharmaceuticals, communications and most of the other features of life we take for granted depend on the reserves of fossil fuels, directly (e.g. for plastics) or indirectly. ASPO, the Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas, says The world faces the dawn of the second half of the age of oil, when this critical commodity, which plays such a fundamental part in the modern economy, heads into decline due to natural depletion. Some economists believe that the scarcer and more expensive a commodity becomes, the more effort will go into finding it, and that the market will ensure plentiful supplies of fossil fuel for many years ahead. But there are rational grounds for thinking we risk the exhaustion of recoverable reserves of oil and gas as well as an unpredictably warmer Earth if we do not kick the CO2 habit. By 2030, projections suggest, world energy use will probably have increased by more...

Something To Think About

The greatest investment opportunities are often spawned from extreme crisis. Our reliance on oil, coupled with decades of complacency and special-interest influence, has put the world in an extremely vulnerable position. Moreover, it has become increasingly clear over the past few decades that relying on our elected officials to make the tough decisions that need to be made when it comes to curtailing our reliance on imported oil will amount to little more than election-time promises and bipartisan bickering, neither of which seem to ever accomplish a damn thing. That is why we're convinced that it is capitalism, not bureaucracy, that will dictate the future of transportation. It will reward real solutions in fuel efficiency, energy security, and good-oldtfashioned ingenuity. In contrast, it will penalize the business t as-usual mentality that got us into this mess to begin with.

Threats to OPEC Production

Venezuela, the only South American member nation of OPEC and a founding member of OPEC, poses a geopolitical threat to U.S. energy security interests.Venezuela possesses 77.2 billion barrels of proven conventional oil reserves, the largest amount in the Western Hemisphere. In the past,Venezuela regularly exceeded its OPEC production quota. However, since his election in 1998, President Chavez has maintained a policy of strong adherence to the country's quota, seeking to increase oil revenues through higher world oil prices rather than increased production. In the past, in order to meet its quota,Venezuela occasionally shut in some production and delayed bringing new capacity on line.Venezuela is currently

Energy Supply And Policy Issues

Energy policy must consider the three pillars of energy supply effectiveness energy economics, energy security, and environmental protection. In other words, we must find ways to assure economic growth with security while continuing reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and other detrimental environmental impacts. Europe and Japan are much more dependent on energy imports than the U.S. and act accordingly. The U.S. must learn to reduce per capita consumption of energy and from other industrialized countries such as Germany which uses only half the energy per capita for roughly the same per capita economic output and standard of living. The link between economic growth and energy consumption must and can be broken without reducing consumer standards of living. To achieve this, more competition and rewards must be introduced into the energy markets to assure not only greater efficiency in power generation but also in its distribution and delivery. The objectives must be to use markets...

The Kyoto Architecture Reinterpreted Amended Completed

In the reordering of the world since Kyoto, there have been far-reaching structural transitions in major developing countries that are sure to alter the dynamics of new rounds of any international negotiation. These countries' enrichments, of course, create ground for demanding from them acceptance of emissions limitations their response will depend on whether they will consider that investing in backbone infrastructures will lock them into an unsound development pattern, and whether they will grasp the dire implications of climate change issues for energy security (Heller and Shukla 2003). The initial national communications to the UNFCCC of a number of developing A recent declaration by the G8 suggests a broadening of the negotiation paradigm ''We will act with resolve and urgency now to meet our shared and multiple objectives of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, improving the global environment, enhancing energy security and cutting air pollution in conjunction with our vigorous...

Taking Another Tack with Fuels

A coal-to-liquids program can make fuels for our cars' tanks and solve one energy security problem, but it creates a new set of concerns for the climate. In contrast, using our coal to produce electricity with IGCC and carbon capture to run plug-in hybrid cars may solve both concerns. The same ton of coal being used to produce a gallon of diesel fuel could be used to produce kilowatts of electricity for the most efficient type of engine we know of, an electric engine, and still provide a transportation fuel using existing infrastructure the grid. When we

Purpose and scope of the study

This year's World Energy Outlook, as in all even-numbered years, provides a comprehensive update of long-term energy demand and supply projections to 2030, fuel by fuel and region by region. As a special feature this year, it examines how energy is used in cities and the implications for the future. The Outlook also takes a detailed look at the two headline issues that emerge from these projections the prospects for oil and gas production, and the policy options for tackling climate change after 2012, when a new global agreement is due to take effect. The results of these analyses are intended to provide policy makers, investors and end users with a rigorous quantitative framework for assessing likely future trends in energy markets and the cost-effectiveness of new policies to tackle energy-security and environmental concerns.

Energy Related CO Emissions Global Trends

Rising global fossil energy use will continue to drive up energy-related CO2 emissions over the projection period (Figure 5.1). A range of government policies, including those intended to address climate change, air pollution and energy security, have helped to slow the rate of growth in emissions in some countries in recent years, but have not stopped it. In the Reference Scenario, which examines the implications of governments adopting no new policies, world emissions jump by 57 between 2005 and 2030 to 41.9 gigatonnes, an average rate of growth of 1.8 per year. The increase is 27 in the Alternative Policy Scenario (1.0 per year) and 68 (2.1 per year) in the High Growth Scenario. By comparison, emissions grew by 1.7 per year over 1990-2005. Emissions in 2030 in the Reference Scenario are 1.5 Gt higher than in last year's Outlook, mainly because of higher coal use in China and India, while emissions in the Alternative Policy Scenario are lower as more policies are under...

An Intellectual Discipline Starting from the Suboptimal and Real Baselines

Managing energy demand is becoming more critical as energy security is being ever more perceived as a prime development objective by nations competing for resources at a time of explosive energy prices. Recent trends only confirm the warnings of the World Energy Conference (WEC) in 1979, that the emergence of developing countries as major oil and gas consumers will be a source of major world tensions after 2000. Ten years later, in 1989, the WEC was reminded of this prediction in Montreal by James Schlessinger. Added to the controversies over the timing of peak oil production, the conventional oil reserves have remained increasingly concentrated in politically sensitive regions.

The Regulatory Landscape for Transportation Energy and Climate Change

Energy companies also have a key role to play in both balancing transportation energy supply and demand and in addressing energy security issues. With respect to transportation energy, a short-term priority is to develop clean fuel technologies with lower carbon emissions. In the longer term, energy companies can assist in the gradual transition in engine technology from the conventional ICE drivetrain to hybrid electric drives, and ultimately to fuel cell systems. Whether this transition will be driven by the regulatory environment or by voluntary industry innovation is as yet uncertain (Eggar, 2005).

Introduction and Overview

Renewables provide other benefits as well. For one, they increase the diversity of energy supplies, relieving pressure on fossil fuel supplies and oil prices, and increasing energy security. In the long term, renewables are one of the few sustainable energy supply options available. Eventually they will be essential for replacing diminishing fossil fuel resources, especially given the inequitable distribution of those natural resources.

Background and Assumptions

Chinese policy makers take these challenges very seriously and have formulated a range of policies to respond to them. Chief among these are interventions aimed at diversifying the country's energy sources, improving energy efficiency and restructuring the economy away from highly energy-intensive activities. Some have already been implemented and are taken into consideration in the Reference Scenario. Other more ambitious actions are still under discussion. The Alternative Policy Scenario takes these into account, presenting a picture of the extent to which they can address China's energy-security and environmental challenges. The benefits of stronger policy action are potentially very large, provided there is effective implementation and strict enforcement on the ground. 1.e. net benefit to energy consumers and to China as a country even before the energy-security and environmental implications are taken into account.

Sidebar Hybrid Upstream Emissions Trading System

Another argument in support of a hybrid vehicle trading system is that there are other benefits to reducing oil consumption, such as energy security, trade deficits, and the effect of oil price shocks on the economy. However, creating a very complex trading system, with no mandatory participation by vehicle manufacturers, is unlikely to be the optimum solution.

More Historical Oil Crisis Considertions

124Estimates range from 2 trillion to more than 7 trillion (2004 dollars) -- exclusive of military or political costs. See U.S. General Accounting Office, Energy Security Evaluating U.S. Vulnerability To Oil Supply Disruptions and Options for Mitigating Their Effects, GAO RCED-97-6, 1997 David Greene and Nataliya Tishchishyna, Cost of Oil Dependence A 2000 Update, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, May 2000 National Defense Council Foundation, The Hidden Cost of Imported Oil, October 2003.

How Much Oil Is There

In the last few years, huge new irreversible investments and other commitments were made in extraction and refining tar sands, extra heavy crude and shale oil, wind farms, hydroelectric plants, new and updated nuclear power plants, fuel cell and hydrogen-fueled power projects, hybrid and other efficient and often alternative fuel-using automobiles, clean coal coal gasification, natural gas, solar power, and energy conversion systems among others, that are expected to greatly replace the use of and need for petroleum that the imminent decline of global oil consumption is today no longer a plan but a fact. These developments were not only driven by the high price of oil but also global energy security.

Renaissance for Nuclear Power

There are many reasons why nuclear power might expand in the future. Energy resource availability, climate change, air quality, energy security, and independence from other nations to maintain our standard of living will likely have a combined impact on the allocation and use of a variety of energy sources. The questions in this scenario are what role nuclear power will play and whether there will be the political will and technical work force present to allow nuclear power to occupy an increasing percentage of future energy needs.

Green Power Marketing

Fifth, the utilities can act in a manner that impedes competition. For example, in California, the utilities made it more difficult for green power marketers to operate competitively by making it impossible for green power marketers to offer products such as consolidated billing refusing to allow customers to choose their green power provider at the time of first contact with the utility after deregulation failing to explain adequately or accurately about how utility and green pricing worked to consumers and, in the case of San Diego Gas and Electric, imposing price caps during the electricity crisis for all customers except those who had switched to a green power provider.31

Business Response Other Energy Technologies

Like solar PV modules, wind turbines are a clean, flexible energy source being developed mostly by smaller electricity-generating companies.22 Wind technologies can be applied in standalone or grid-connected units. Wind-generated electricity has grown by more than 20 percent per year for the past 12 years and in 1997 exceeded 12 billion kwh.23 Although this is less than 1 percent of electricity in industrialized regions, wind already is competitive with fossil fuel based generation in many markets (Table 19.1), even without including the fossil fuel externalities noted earlier. In the United States, the wind industry has relied in the past on tax credits (of about 1.5 cents kwh) and voluntary green pricing premiums, which some companies are willing to pay to reduce their CO2 emissions.24

What Is A Solar Hot Water System

An active solar water heater consists of a solar collector(s), a hot water storage tank(s), and a pump. In addition, a heat exchanger and expansion tank are required in freezing winter climates and an electrical generation device is needed if regular AC grid-connected power is not available. Piping, insulation, valves and fittings are considered installation materials and are normally available at hardware stores and plumbing centres.

Disadvantages of GCV systems

Another disadvantage is that GCV systems are more expensive to install. The simplest present type of grid-connected installation is that of trolley buses powered from wires strung over a regular road. This is nevertheless more expensive than providing the means to operate diesel buses along the same road. A trolley bus presently costs 1.5 3.2 times as much as a diesel bus.161 Capital costs assuming availability of the road in both cases are about 1 million more per route kilometre for the trolley bus. On the other hand, trolley buses last longer, are easier to maintain, and have lower energy costs. On the last point, a comparison for Landskrona, Sweden, showed that fuel costs per vehicle-kilometre for trolley buses are 56 per cent lower than for similar diesel buses, even though the cost of electricity per megajoule is 12 per cent higher than the cost of diesel fuel ( 0.085 kWh vs. 0.76 L).162 Such calculations may not mean much to a public transport operator in a poorer country who...

Global Warming Where Is the Cure

As the world proceeds into the 21st century, international dimensions of environmental problems have become more apparent and increasingly important. Globalization of the economy, emergence of worldwide communication and information networks, and rapid development of bio- and nanotechnologies all have important consequences for the environment. One may expect that by the middle of this century about 10 billion people will be placing stresses on the world's natural resources which will lead to further environmental problems (Dincer 2003). In fact, future environmental problems arise not only from the exhaustion of natural resources but also from how those resources are consumed. New technologies can and will lessen damaging environmental impacts if they are employed wisely, guided by the market system under some main pillars, such as better efficiency, better cost-effectiveness, better use of energy resources, better environment, better energy security, and better sustainable...

Linking Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies

An incident affecting our main campus in Medford helped clarify these issues for us. In the summer of 2002, a utility transmission line and its backup failed. The campus was without grid-connected power for two weeks. Diesel generators with a total capacity of 5 megawatts were brought in from all over the Northeast from as far away as Maryland and the campus community was urged to conserve as much as possible. Facilities staff worked day and night to connect the generators into the power feeds and to distribute the limited power appropriately throughout the campus. 2. The cost of an emergency such as a power outage can be enormous. These costs can change the financial equation for evaluating different energy systems. For example, distributed energy systems using fuel cells, cogeneration, and other on-site generation systems generally have a higher first cost than grid-connected systems. However, in evaluating the vulnerability of the grid system, college or university planners may...

Methodology and Assumptions

An Alternative Policy Scenario analyses the impact on global energy markets of a package of additional measures to address energy-security and climate-change concerns. The goal is to offer practical guidance to policy makers about the potential impact and cost of the many options they are currently considering. On the basis of this scenario, we assess the implications for energy use of achieving long-term stabilisation of atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations at a level that would result in an increase in global temperatures no higher than that which is widely considered to be acceptable what we call a 450 Stabilisation Case. These analyses form part of the IEA's response to a request from the G8 leaders at the Gleneagles Summit in 2005 for advice on alternative energy scenarios and strategies aimed at a clean, clever and competitive energy future .

The Least Bad Fossil Fuel

The price increases have been so alarmingthat in 2003,then Federal Reserve Board Chair Alan Greenspan warned that the U.S. faced a natural gas crisis. The primary solution proposed by the White House and some in Congress was to increase gas production. The 2005 Energy Policy Act included large subsidies to support gas producers, increase exploration and expand imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG). These measures, however, may not enhance energy security, because most of the imported LNG would come from some of the same OPEC countries that supply petroleum to the U.S. Furthermore, generating electricity from even the cleanest natural gas power plants would still emit too much

Coal in the Industrial Revolution and Beyond

Industrial Revolution Locomotive

During this process, the plants carbon content was trapped in coal together with the Sun's energy used in the photosynthesis of plants and accumulated over millions of years. This energy source was buried until modern man dug it up and made use of it. It is only very recently on the Earth's time scale that mankind has started to use coal. Historically, the use of coal began when the Romans invaded Britain. While it was used occasionally for heating purposes, the main use of this black stone was to make jewelry, since it could be easily carved and polished. It was only during the late 12th century that coal re-emerged as a fuel along the Tyne river in Britain, especially around the rich coal fields of Newcastle. The widespread use of coal however, would not be significant before the middle of the 16th century. At that time, England's population - and that of London especially - was growing rapidly. And, as the city was growing, the nearby land was deforested such that the wood had to...

Methanol to Gasoline MTG Process

The MTG process was conceived and developed in response to the energy crisis of the 1970s. It was the first major new route to synthetic hydrocarbons since the introduction of the Fischer-Tropsch process before World War II, and provided an alternative pathway for the production of high-octane gasoline from coal or natural gas. Discovered by accident by a research team at Mobil, the MTG process was actually developed before the MTO process. In fact, the MTO process can be considered as a modified MTG process designed to produce mainly olefins instead of gasoline. For the MTG reaction, medium-pore zeolites with considerable acidity are the most suitable catalysts, with ZSM-5 recognized as the most selective and stable. Because of the defined structure and geometry of their pores, channels and cavities, they are shape-selective catalysts, able to control product selectivity depending on their molecular size and shape. Over this catalyst, methanol is first dehydrated to an equilibrium...

Stoker H S S L Seager and R L Capener Energy From Source to Use Glenview IL Scott Foresman and Company pp

This book provides an overview of energy within the context of energy crises. It discusses the dynamics of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy resources, examines the 1973 energy crisis within the context of these resources, and explains how energy conservation can provide a viable solution to the problems associated with energy provision and use. This book serves as a general resource for those who want to understand basic energy technology, the nature of energy crises, and the option of energy conservation.

Boyle G. Everett B. Ramage J. 2003. Energy Systems And Sustainability. Oxford Oup 619pp

This book examines the issue of a global energy crisis resulting from depleting sources of oil and natural gas. It describes the potential impact to financial markets and governments worldwide, explains how energy companies have avoided the issue of an energy crisis, and supports the development and widespread use of innovative energy technology to avoid a financial crash. This book is a good reference for those who are interested in the peak oil debate.

Industrialization of Developing Countries

World energy demand continues to rise as more developing countries become industrialized. Increasing along with demand is the scarcity of fossil fuel resources and the consequences of fossil fuel reliance. Asia is the area of the world that is expected to experience the largest increase in energy demand over the next twenty years. This region, with over 50 percent of the global population, is expected to surpass the United States and Europe as the world's largest consumer of primary energy sources by 2010 (Manning 2000, 59). In a globalized economy, energy trends in Asia are important for future global energy security. Economic growth in Asia has rapidly increased over the last forty years, rising from 4 percent of world GDP in 1960 to 25 percent in 1995 (62). Much of the resulting increase in energy demand has occurred in China. (CNPC) outbid other major oil companies (including ExxonMobil) to acquire oil fields in Kazakhstan and develop petroleum resources in Iran, Iraq, Venezuela,...

Exergy And Useful Work

Japan Gdp Growth 1900

Relationship has been consistent throughout the 20th century. There is no peak or 'inverted U' when biomass exergy is included along with fossil fuels, although the US data show a slight increase from 1900 to 1925 or so. However the work GDP ratios for both countries exhibit a very well-marked peak, occurring in the early 1970s. That peak corresponds in time to the Arab oil embargo and the so-called 'energy crisis' that triggered a spike in petroleum prices and prices of other fuels.

Planning Public Outreach

Wind Turbine Humpback Whale

The developer should explain how the project will promote the positive impacts of wind power, such as energy generation with no air or water pollution, utilization of domestic sources of energy rather than reliance on foreign imports, increased energy security and independence, benefits for the municipality including an increased tax base and modest increases in local jobs, and creation of a potential tourist attraction. The socioeconomics discussion in Section 5.7 provides additional information regarding increased tax base and local job creation.

Electricity from Photovoltaic Conversion

Methanol Economy

PV technology has a wide range of applications. It can provide electricity to isolated systems far from power lines, such as telecommunication towers or water pumps in developing countries. A major future increase in solar power is, however, expected to come from the PV installed to generate all or part of the electricity needed in grid-connected buildings.

Box Regional Air Quality

Emissions of NOx rise even faster. Emissions of these and other pollutants also rise steadily in India SO2 emissions more than double from 7 Mt in 2005 to 16.5 Mt in 2030 in the Reference Scenario.2 Technologies already exist to address local and regional pollution from fossil-energy use. Most industrialised countries have made considerable progress in improving air quality, despite growing energy consumption. The health benefits generally far outweigh the financial costs associated with the more stringent environmental standards on energy equipment and fuel quality. Some of the gains have come from improving energy efficiency, which reduces the need to burn fossil fuels. Integrating air pollution abatement and climate change mitigation policies offers potentially large cost reductions compared to treating those policies in isolation. The near-term health benefits from reduced air pollution as a result of actions to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions can be substantial and...

Chlorofluorocarbons halons and the ozone layer

Effect Ozone

If there was some doubt about the impact of SST exhaust emissions on the ozone layer, the effects of some other chemicals seemed less uncertain. Among these, the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) group and related bromofluorocarbons or halons have been identified as potentially the most dangerous (see Table 6.2). The CFCs, sometimes referred to by their trade name, Freon, came to prominence as a result of lifestyle changes which have occurred since the 1930s. They are used in refrigeration and air conditioning units, but, until recently, their major use was as propellants in aerosol spray cans containing deodorants, hair spray, paint, insect repellant and a host of other substances. When the energy crisis broke, they were much in demand as foaming agents in the production of polyurethane and polystyrene

Photovoltaic applications

Mont Cenis Academy Complex Germany

The PV market is growing dramatically - 43.8 per cent in 2002 with most going to grid connected supply in Japan, Germany and California. This is a technology which is seen to have enormous potential and therefore is attracting considerable research effort. The Sunpower Corporation is manufacturing a solar cell which achieves an efficiency of over 20 per cent as verified by the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This laboratory has also verified the bench efficiency of 36.9 per cent achieved by Spectrolab's Improved Triple Junction solar cell. Efficiencies of over 40 per cent are confidently predicted. As economies of scale also bring down costs, the impact on the electricity market could be dramatic with the potential for every home to become a micro-power station. Before these developments had occurred, Hermann Scheer calculated that Germany's aggregate demand of 500TWh year could be met by installing PVs on 10 per cent of roofs, facades and motorway sound barriers (The Solar...

Figure Oilimport dependence by major importing region in the Reference Scenario

Increased trade consolidates global interdependence, but the risk to consuming countries of short-term supply interruptions grows as geographic supply diversity is actually reduced, increasing reliance on a few supply routes. Much of the additional oil imports will come from the Middle East, the scene of most of the biggest supply disruptions in the past, and will transit vulnerable maritime routes to both eastern and western markets. Almost all Middle East oil and gas exports, for example, transit the Straits of Hormuz at the mouth of the Arabian Gulf (Figure 3.11). Any supply disruption would drive up prices to all consuming countries, regardless of where they obtain their oil. The growing participation of China, India and other emerging countries in international oil trade amplifies the importance of their contribution to collective efforts to enhance global energy security (IEA, 2007).

The meaning and scope of energy law

In other words, to avoid all possible physical barriers to the flow of wind and access to sunlight, with the rights of neighbouring landowners to develop their land as they consider fit.98 In the same way as the law has to find a compromise between the state and a petroleum company in the case of the development of oil and gas resources, so the law has to achieve a balance in the case of solar and wind energy between neighbours. While the balance in the petroleum context is usually achieved by the introduction of legislation controlling petroleum exploration and production, in the case of solar and wind energy the balance is usually achieved by the use of the local planning laws. In the case of energy conservation, the roles of the individual and the State are effectively reversed. As it is in the national interest to conserve energy to the maximum extent practicable, the individuals or companies who engage in energy conservation techniques are helping the State as much as themselves,...

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