International Mks Units

W Watt ( J s), unit for rate of energy consumed produced per second Gr Gray, unit for radiation dose (1 Joule deposited radiation energy per kilogram biomatter) Sv Sievert, unit for man-effective radiation dose (1 Gray x Biological Effectiveness Factor) a atto 10-18, quintillionth part f femto 10-15, quadrillionth part p pico 10-12, trillionth part m milli 10-3, thousandth part P peta 1015, quadrillion-fold

Abbreviations

Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation CANadian Deuterium Uranium (Heavy Water Moderated and Cooled Reactor) Diffusion, Process for Uranium Enrichment Desoxyribo Nucleic Acid (Biomolecule) Horse Power (Unit for Energy Consumption Rate 746 Watts) Health Phycists (monitors radiation levels around nuclear reactors) Idaho National (Engineering) Laboratory International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (Discovery of Uranium Fission) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory...

Books On Risk Analysis

Fineberg, editors Understanding Risk, Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society Nat. Academic Press (1996) ISBN 0-309-08956-5. 51 D. Daniel and J. Applegate, editors Risk and Decisions about Disposition of Transuranic and high-level Radioactive Waste Nat. Academic Press (2005) ISBN 0-309-09549-2. 52 C. Vignial, A. Monti, C. Dehouck, and E. Smiley, editors Terrorism Risk Insuarance in OECD Countries OECD Publishing (2005) ISBN 92-64-00872-1. 53 J.H. Kunstler, The Long...

Brief Future Global Energy

Denmark recently claimed to have reached its maximum capacity for windpower generation, which supplies 20 of its electric grid. However this is only 7 of its total energy consumption if one includes its use of petrol, diesel, and natural gas. Clearly when the latter energy sources are gone, it must find other means of replacing them to empower its transportation fleets and heavy industries. The only sources for additional prime energy are then coal or uranium whose production of electricity or...

Anticipations

All R& D programs listed under Subchapters 8.1 through 8.4 should receive continuous government funding for at least the next three decades to be effective. Government labs, universities, and industries must all be engaged, and students must be trained to build and maintain a solid knowledge base. In addition, educational programs must be initiated to increase public understanding and acceptance of nuclear energy (Chapters 5-7). It is important to re-emphasize that we are not considering a...

Coal Usage Reassignment Programs

(a) Conversion of coal power plants to nuclear power plants with retention of existing steam turbines. (b) Synthesis of organic compounds from coal, for plastics and other organics-dependent industries. Coal-burning electric power plants may be converted into uranium-burning plants since steam generators are similar and usually housed in separate parts of the plant. Because many coal-burning power plants already exist, it would be worthwhile to explore the cost and feasibility of such a...

Nuclear Breeder Reactor Development Testing And Deployment

(a) Uranium plutonium breeders As discussed in Subchapter 1.2, the biggest challenge will be to have a thousand breeder reactors deployed in the USA (and nine thousand world-wide), by the end of the next three decades. Within the next five to ten years, one or two basic breeder reactor designs must be selected for mass deployment. They must be built and fielded on a scale comparable to the WW-II mass-production of transport ships in the USA, but with stringent safety and durability features....

Engines And Other Energy Supplying Devices

(a) New ICEs burning H2, NH3, N2H4, C2H5OH synfuels with pure N2 and H2O or CO2 exhausts (no Nox). (b) Fuel-cell engines, consuming hydrogen (H2), ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), or hydrazine (N2H4). (c) Improved low-weight portable electric storage batteries for vehicular propulsion. (d) Improved low-weight portable flywheel devices (mechanical batteries) for vehicular propulsion. Electrical and mechanical batteries (items 8.2(c) and 8.2(d)) look quite attractive at first glance. But nature does...

Conclusions Action Items And Predictions

Past and future large-scale exploitation of prime energy sources by man might be summarized as follows ( ) Chemical Combustion Nuclear Fission Nuclear Fusion (Coal Fossil Fuels) (Uranium, Thorium) (Deuterium, Lithium-6) This time-line is based on the calculated resource depletion periods discussed in Chapter 3 and today's knowledge of atomic and nuclear physics. Most scientists are quite certain that present knowledge is sufficient to assess the order of magnitude of dormant energies in...

And International Atomic Energy Agency Iaea

With the unpleasant picture painted in Subchapter 7.1, one asks how one can best prevent or minimize the proliferation and use of nuclear weapons by unfriendly sovereign nations. We have already argued that inhibiting the expansion of nuclear electric power will set the stage for an enormous world energy crisis when oil runs out. Only with nuclear electricity is it feasible to produce sufficient future supplies of oil-replacing synfuels for our transportation fleets and enough power for our...

Safeguards Against Terrorists

It has been suggested that a terrorist gang could steal nuclear fuel elements from a reactor and make a bomb out of it. As already mentioned in Section 5.1.3, the fuel elements of a nuclear reactor are totally unsuitable for a bomb. If terrorists wish to build a nuclear weapon from reactor fuel elements by stealing them from a nuclear plant, they must steal several hundred highly radioactive fuel elements from two or more nuclear reactors. They must first construct a fifty-million-dollar...

The Nuclear Age And World Realities

Because uranium and plutonium are also sources for nuclear weapons, a lot of public concern has been expressed about the danger these materials might pose if they were clandestinely diverted from use in civilian nuclear power plants to more sinister applications. These concerns are the true motives behind many who want to abolish nuclear power. They fear that proliferation of nuclear weapons is promoted by the existence of nuclear power reactors. Thus some keep fabricating unsubstantiated...

Nuclear Criticality Accidents

Nuclear accidents are most serious if they involve uncontrolled supercritical masses of fissile material (see Subchapter 5.1). Since the beginning (1945) of the age of nuclear power, several purely nuclear 'criticality accidents' have taken place. It is important we diagnose how they happened, so repetitions can be avoided. We first briefly describe each accident and then comment on them. During the ultra-secret Manhattan project, two criticality incidents occurred at Los Alamos, New Mexico....

Investigations Of Synthetic Fuel Synfuel Manufacture Storage Distribution And Selection

(a) Synfuel production of hydrogen (H2) from water (H2O) + nuclear heat or electricity by sulfur-iodine catalysis, electrolysis, and other economic methods. (b) Synfuel production of ammonia (NH3) and hydrazine (N2H4) from water (H2O) + air (N2) + nuclear heat or electricity. Also synfuel stabilization (e.g. hydration) of N2H4. (c) Hydrocarbon and synfuel production from coal (C) + water (H2O) + nuclear heat or electricity. Production of SASOL-process synpetrols (CmHn), butane (C4H10),...

Nature Of Nuclear Radiation

The major nuclear emissions in an operating reactor consist of alphas, betas, gammas, and neutrons. Alphas are highly energetic helium ions (4He+), while betas are nothing but very high-energy electrons. Like fission fragments, most alphas and betas slow down and are completely stopped after a few millimeters (0.04 inches) of travel in solids, and after 2 to 6 meters (6 to 18 feet) in most gases at atmospheric pressure. As they slow down their kinetic energy is converted to heat in a fuel...

Summary Of Primary Energy Sources

Natural prime energy sources are either 'renewable' or 'non-renewable'. Non-renewables are extracted from the earth with energy expenditures that are a fraction ( 20 or less) of the potential heat of combustion of the energy source. However because there is only a finite supply, they are depletable, i.e. non-renewable. Renewable energy resources on the other hand are assumed to be always available. Thus one has (1) Fossil Fuels Oil, Natural Gas, Coal (2) Nuclear Fuels Uranium, Deuterium (3)...

Brief Fuelcellpowered Hybrid

For completeness, we mention one of the oldest automotive devices, namely the steam engine powered by portable coal as fuel. A return to using coal-burning steam-powered locomotives and automobiles of the 1800's has been proposed to counter the no-oil peril we face. Several experimental steam automobiles using modern components were built and tested in the 1970's, but further development was abandoned. Instead of burning dusty air-polluting coal, one could burn a liquid carbon-carrying synfuel...

Brief History Of Energy

In 1650, the world was populated by 550 million people, or less than 10 of the present population. Besides sunshine which energizes agriculture, controllable energy resources available to man were Human Labor (via contracts, indenture, slavery, or prisoners to build structures, roads, etc). Animal Labor (horses, donkeys, camels, elephants, dogs, for transporting people and goods). Wood, Oils, and Coal (burned for lighting, cooking, heating, melting forging copper and iron). Wind (windmills...

Definition Of Energy And Units For Energy And Power

As taught in every highschool, it takes kinetic energy for anything to move. This movement energy can be obtained by conversion of stored-up potential energy that is released. Without energy and energy conversions, the whole Universe would be dead and we would not exist. Since we will be discussing energy usage, energy exchanges, and energy supplies, it is necessary we define a unit of energy. For example how many units of energy are in a liter or gallon of petrol. The word 'energy' comes from...

Acknowledgements

I am grateful to my wife Els and my children Laura, Jelmer, Mieke, and Boukje, who stood by me during some difficult years in my professional and academic career. My daughter Mieke, who is an accomplished writer with a degree in English literature, edited and improved the readibility of some sections in the book. It was also with great pleasure to work with Nathalie Jacobs and Anneke Pot of SpringerNL, who were very helpful and professional in helping to publish this book. To Dick R. Griot, my...

Annotated Bibliography

1 David Goodstein, Out of Gas The End of the Age of Oil, W.W. Norton amp Co, Inc, New York, London, 2004 ISBN 0-393-05857-3. 2 Kenneth S. Deffeyes, Hubbert's Peak The Impending World Oil Shortage, Princeton University Press, 2001 ISBN 0-691-116253. 3 P. Roberts, The End of Oil On the Edge of a Perilous New World, Houghton Mifflin Co, 2004 ISBN 0-618-23977-4. 4 Heaberlin, S.W., a Case for Nuclear-Generated Electricity, Batelle Press, 2003 ISBN 1-57477136-1. 5 Joonhong Ahn and William E....

Nuclear Facts And Fables

Many misconceptions have entered the nuclear folklore in recent decades. Major fables propagated by opponents of nuclear power are summarized here, and countered with facts. These facts are based on studies and data published by professional societies, representing some 250,000 diploma-ed engineers from around the world. Factual statements are backed up by data in later chapters. Fable 1 Nuclear reactors are like nuclear bombs. Fact This half-truth is frequently suggested by newspaper...

Amounts And Forms Of Energy Consumed By

According to statistics supplied by the US Census Bureau and Department of Energy DOE , there were 281,422,000 people living in the USA in 2000, who consumed a total of 1.18 x 1011 GJ y of heat-equivalent energy from the primary energy sources listed in Brief 2A. The U.S. consumption rate was thus 419 GJ y or 4.4kW e per person. This compares with a total world consumption of 4.01 x 1011 GJ y of heat energy by 6,157,401,000 people, or 67GJ y 0.71 kW e per person. These per-capita consumption...

Abstract

The importance of uranium-generated nuclear power is discussed. The review forecasts severe shortages of oil and natural gas in 25 years, and their depletion in 40 years. With a moratorium on burning coal to prevent global warming, it is shown that uranium-produced electricity and heat is essential for large-scale future productions of synfuels hydrogen, ammonia, hydrazine, and alcohol made from air, water, and sunshine to replace the portable petro-fuels presently propelling our vast...

Brief Isotope Enrichment Schemes For Gaseous Uranium Hexafluoride

Streams can be separated by intercept of the free jet flow with a skimmer that sucks up the core of the jet but excludes the rim gases, which are pumped out separately. The DIF technique requires hundreds of stages to enrich 0.7 U-235-enriched UF6 to 3 , while a UCF plant can do this in tens of steps and MLIS in two to three stages. Brief 17 illustrates DIF, UCF, and MLIS unit separators. Besides a desirable high enrichment factor per stage which determines the number of stages, high throughput...

The Uranium Fuel Cycle And Environmental Impacts

Uranium mining, enrichment, fuel fabrication, and radiowaste disposal make up the elements of the so-called 'Uranium Fuel Cycle', which we shall briefly examine in what follows. Briefs 15 and 16 illustrate the sequence of processes that uranium must undergo before it is ready as reactor fuel. Since the beginning of the atomic age, great care was taken to safeguard and assure uranium accountability. Concomitantly with the exception of some early WW-II military operations , environmental caution...

Chemical Symbols Of Selected Elements And Isotopes

Boron Z 5 B-10 Boron M 10, Z 5 , B-11 Boron M Carbon Z 6 C-12 Carbon M 12, Z 6 , C-13 Carbon M Hydrogen Z 1 H-1 M 1, Z 1 Helium Z 2 He-4 Helium M 4, Z 2 , He-3 Helium M Potassium or Kalium Z 19 K-39 M 39, Z 19 , K-40 M 40, Z Lithium Z 3 Li-6 Lithium M 6, Z 3 , Li-7 Lithium M Nitrogen M 14, Z 7 , N-15 M 15, Z 7 Oxygen M 16, Z 8 0-18 M 18, Z 8 Uranium m 233, Z 92 U-235 Uranium M 235, Z 92 Iodine M 127, Z 53 I-126 M 126, Z 53 Cesium M 133, Z 55 Cs-137 M 137, Z 55 Strontium M 88, Z 38 Sr-90...

Brief Diagram Of The Chernobyl Rbmk Reactor

Given immediately to all people living under along the path of the atmospheric fall-out cloud over at least a distance of 60 km. The Chernobyl disaster has caused Russian reactor designers to completely overhaul and substantially improve reactor safety features. Prior to Chernobyl these had been deemed inadequate and insufficient by US and WestEuropean standards. A Chernobyl-like reactor accident with atmospheric release of fission products could never happen with US or West-European reactors,...

Biological Effects Of Nuclear Radiation

Many people are unaware that nuclear radiation is also emitted by nature and is all around us. It comes from the heavens cosmic radiation and from naturally radioactive minerals on the earth surface that emit it. Life on earth has evolved in this radiation climate for eons, and all bio-organisms have learned to tolerate or make use of it. When a gamma, xray, or ultraviolet photon strikes a bio-organic molecule in skin or in an internal organ, it will knock off an electron, that is it 'ionizes'...

Brief Flywheel Battery Components

Such an outer diameter is reasonable for cylinders that must fit under the hood of an automobile. This result is independent of torus or disc mass. A lower rpm will increase the value of D if Vm is fixed. With a torus of 8 cm outer radius and a torus body cross-section of S cm2, the torus body volume equals Qtorus 2 RS 50.27 S cm3. Thus if each torus mass is 46 kg 46,000 gm, the density of the fiber-encapsulated material would have to be p 46,000 Qtorus 915 S gm cm3. Using depleted...

Brief Illustration Of The Uranium Fuel Cycle

Thermalizer

Of a hazard than the routine shipment of some hazardous chemicals. Although the caskets are built to stay intact in a train crash, even in case they are penetrated by an armor-piercing mortar, little radioactive material could escape since the fission products are embedded in solid material. A statistical analysis for nuclear waste shipments from all one hundred US nuclear reactors, predicts two deaths per century attributable to radioactivity in worst-case casket transport accidents. This risk...

Brief Typical Layout Of A Nuclear Power Plant

Reactor construction company to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission NRC . This report is carefully examined by the NRC which usually takes over a year to insure all required safety features are incorporated in the reactor design before it is approved. After construction, NRC representatives inspect the reactor for compliance. Because only 0.7 of natural uranium is directly fissionable U-235, and 99.3 is the less fissionable U-238 isotope, large amounts of uranium would be wasted unless the U-238...

Short Biography Of The Author

Eerkens is an adjunct research professor at the University of Missouri in Columbia. He has a doctorate in Engineering Science 1960 and a masters degree in Nuclear Engineering 1957 from the University of California at Berkeley, and is a registered nuclear engineer in the State of California. His doctoral dissertation was a study of the chemical effects in fluids produced by fission fragments of uranium. His Ph.D. work included graduate studies in biochemistry and the origin of life. Dr....

Nuclear Power Reactors

Enrico Fermi Meltdown

The first nuclear reactor was assembled in 1942 by Enrico Fermi and collaborators at the University of Chicago. Fermi who had left his native Italy for the US in 1939 when Mussolini's fascists took over, was one of a few pioneers in the 1930's who tried to understand the workings of atomic nuclei by bombarding them with newly discovered neutrons see Section 3.4 . After he learned in 1939 that his German colleagues Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner, and Fritz Strassman had shown that uranium could...

Brief Electric Power Generation By A Steam Turbine

Uranium fission produces 2.5 neutrons on average for each 1 that induces fission, there are losses due to neutron absorption by materials of construction zirconium and steel , and due to escapes of neutrons from the reactor core region. The 1.5 neutrons that are left, while not needed to maintain the chain reaction, must be conserved as much as possible. In breeder reactors, absorption by uranium-238 of 1 of the 1.5 'left-over' neutrons is required to make new fuel. Neutron escapes are...

Mishaps And Malfunctions In Reactor Operations

Nuclear reactor power plant operations, like all other human undertakings, occasionally experience a malfunction or other disturbance that leads to an accident. Many people ask if reactor accidents are tolerable and reasonable when compared to other human endeavours. We shall show that the risk of running a nuclear plant is no different and probably less than that of an oil-, natgas-, or coal-fired power plant or chemical industry. Can reactors be operated safely The answer is a definite yes....

Portable Energy Sources

a Natural Non-Renewable Fuels Compressed Natgas Methane, Ethane, Propane, Butane CH4, C2H6, b Manufactured Energy Carriers Synfuels and Batteries Hydrogen H2 , from Water H2O Electricity or Heat. Ammonia NH3 and Hydrazine N2H4 , from Water H2O Air 80 N2 Electricity or Heat Syn-Petrols and Methane CmHn Ok , CH4 , from Water H2O Coal C Electricity or Heat Methanol CH3OH , Ethanol C2H5OH , from Biomass Corn Sunshine Electricity Rechargeable Electric Storage Batteries Rechargeable Mechanical...

Radiation Dose Measurements And Tolerable Exposures

To determine what radiation levels are safe, one must first define a unit of radiation dosage. This unit is the 'rad' which is defined as 100 ergs 10-5 joules of ionization energy transferred per gram of effected body tissue by radiation particles. In formula form 6.1 1rad 100ergs 10-5J of deposited ionization energy per gram This definition still does not mean much without a comparison or reference as to how much or how little damage a rad does to man and how one measures it. This is discussed...

Electric Power Generation Technology

Steam Electric Power Plants

Historically the first electric power plants delivering large quantities of electric energy were hydro-electric. In 1895, Westinghouse built the first AC electric power generator in Niagara Falls by passing waterflow from the Falls through a turbine that induced electric currents in copper windings. General Electric built high-power grid lines that took the 1.1MW e of electricity to Buffalo, New York, where it lighted the city's streetlights and powered streetcars. The technical brains behind...