Appendix A

10 km impact event -

2 km impact event -

1 km impact event -

VEI 8 super-eruption -Volcanic ocean island collapse -500 m impact event -

VEI 7 eruption -

VEI 6 eruption 50 m impact event ■

VEI 5 eruption -

VEI 4 eruption ■ Magnitude 8 quake -

Magnitude 7 quake -

Magnitude 6 quake -

Magnitude 5 quake -Magnitude 4 quake -Magnitude 3 quake ■

i5 ST

en 3

■ End-Permian mass w extinction

Siberian flood basalt * eruptions \ o

- Formation of stable crust

- Earliest signs of life

- Formation of stable crust

- Earliest signs of life

' Bombardment of earth and planets by residual debris

■ Formation of the Moon Formation of the Earth

End-cretaceous mass extinction Chicxulub impact Oeccan flood basalt eruptions

■ End-Permian mass w extinction

Siberian flood basalt * eruptions \ o

- Cambrian explosion of life

- Cambrian explosion of life

Last

Yellowstone super-eruption

Last recognized l 1 km impact event

Yellowstone super-eruption

Last series of Ice ages begins

Earliest human ancestors

Yellowstone super-eruption

Last series of Ice ages begins

Earliest human ancestors

■ Global warming 1 Little Ice Age

Start of holocene interglacial Younger Dryas

Last glacial maximum

X CS

Toba super-eruption

40 Geological timcscalc F.ai th; highlighting important events mentioned in this book

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