Electric Car Conversion Made Easy

Convert 2 EV Convert Your Car to Electric

Convert your car or truck to electric on a tight budget by following these step-by-step plans. Save money and do your part for the environment. Build Your Own Electric Car. In the guide, you'll learn how to find free or inexpensive components. If you're willing to search for bargains, you can keep the overall project cost very low. Some readers have completed their conversions for as little as $500!

Convert 2 EV Convert Your Car to Electric Summary

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My Convert 2 EV Convert Your Car to Electric Review

Highly Recommended

Of all books related to the topic, I love reading this e-book because of its well-planned flow of content. Even a beginner like me can easily gain huge amount of knowledge in a short period.

Overall my first impression of this ebook is good. I think it was sincerely written and looks to be very helpful.

The Pluses and Minuses of Battery Powered Electric Vehicles

Electric vehicles, especially pure electric BEVs, are the darlings of hardcore environmentalists because they don't pollute. Period. There are no tailpipe emissions at all. How could there be There are no tailpipes. And the evaporative emissions are so small, they're not even worth noting. Greenhouse gas emissions Forget it. BEVs are clean, clean, clean. That being said, the electricity that goes through the grid and into the storage batteries of each electric car has to come from somewhere. This has led to very complicated analyses of the overall environmental impact of the process of electrical generation, transmission, and delivery versus other energy sources. For gasoline, an analogous trail takes you from oil well, through pipeline, to refinery, to gas station, to the tank of your car and, finally, out the exhaust system. Although we won't bore you with the details of this well-to-wheels analysis, suffice it to say that electric vehicles come out way ahead on the nonpolluting...

Early electric car design versus the ICE design

The early electric car designs were simple and very reliable, much more reliable than the ICE-powered cars of the time Electric cars They don't require starting an engine. As soon as electricity is applied to the electric motor, the car goes (hopefully). When more electricity is applied, the car goes faster. You don't need a transmission because electric motors can operate over a wide range of speeds with equal effectiveness. Brakes and steering are the same for electrics and conventional, and so electrics, on net, are much simpler and more reliable. (To find out more about how electric cars work, see the section Basic Operation of an Electric Vehicle, later in this chapter.) In 1900 a majority of the autos in production were electric. For every one internal-combustion engine vehicle, there were ten electric vehicles. Most of the manufacturers of the day built electric cars and it was believed that the

Some questions about electric vehicles

You've shown that electric cars are more energy-efficient than fossil cars. But are they better if our objective is to reduce CO2 emissions, and the electricity is still generated by fossil power-stations This is quite an easy calculation to do. Assume the electric vehicle's energy cost is 20 kWh(e) per 100 km. (I think 15 kWh(e) per 100 km is perfectly possible, but let's play sceptical in this calculation.) If grid electricity has a carbon footprint of 500 g per kWh(e) then the effective emissions of this vehicle are 100gCO2 per km, which is as good as the best fossil cars (figure 20.9). So I conclude that switching to electric cars is already a good idea, even before we green our electricity supply. Electric cars, like fossil cars, have costs of both manufacture and use. Electric cars may cost less to use, but if the batteries don't last very long, shouldn't you pay more attention to the manufacturing cost Yes, that's a good point. My transport diagram shows only the use cost. If...

Electric Cars Round

Anderson built what is generally regarded to be the first electric vehicle. Unfortunately for Anderson (and our air quality), battery technology at the time had not advanced to the point of creating a rechargeable battery. The batteries in Anderson's car had to be replaced when they Even though Sir David Salomon's 1870 attempt to build a practical electric car was doomed by the weight and poor storage capacity of its batteries, by 1886, battery technology had improved to the point that electric taxicabs were in use in England, and Jack the Ripper may well have taken one to escape one of his grisly murder scenes. Two years later, Immisch & Company built a four-passenger carriage, powered by a one-horsepower motor and 24-cell battery, for the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Meanwhile Magnus Volk of Brighton, England, constructed and tested a three-wheeled electric car. By the late 1890s, electric vehicles were becoming fairly common, at least in a few large cities. New York boasted a...

The Comings and Goings of Battery Electric Vehicles

Battery electric vehicles were first developed in the late 1800s, at the same time as combustion-engine vehicles. They quickly succumbed to gasoline vehicles for the simple reason that batteries were too expensive, bulky, and heavy.15 They made an aborted comeback a century later in the 1990s, spurred on by Battery electric vehicles have a rabid following. At periodic public hearings for California's ZEV rule during the 1990s and in the early years of this century, electric vehicle advocates noisily proclaimed the righteousness of their cause with raucous cheering of allies and booing of skeptics. But, alas, the rhetoric and enthusiasm for electric vehicles has still not transformed into reality. Although automakers were required to supply zero-emission vehicles to California, the state's population of battery electric vehicles peaked at around 3,000 in the year 2000. As this book goes to press, the only mass-produced battery electric vehicle is the GEM (Global Electric Motorcars)...

Practical Concerns of Electric Cars

What most people really want to know is how electric cars perform in comparison to conventional cars. Most people don't really care what's under the hood they simply want to know what happens when you press the accelerator pedal. One of the biggest changes you'll notice as a driver of an electric car is that you can't just say to yourself, I'll charge in the morning. You need to plan ahead because, unlike internal-combustion vehicles, electric cars cannot simply be filled up at the corner gas station. It takes time to charge the batteries, and so foresight is a necessary component of electric car ownership. The following sections outline some of the other practical considerations of owning an electric car. All-electric cars can be made every bit as powerful as a conventional auto, and some all-electrics are even more powerful. The problem with power is that it takes a lot of juice out of the batteries in a very short time, and recharging becomes necessary. The ride of an electric car...

Electric cars is range a problem

People often say that the range of electric cars is not big enough. Electric car advocates say no problem, we can just put in more batteries - and that's true, but we need to work out what effect the extra batteries have on the energy consumption. The answer depends sensitively on what energy density we assume the batteries deliver for an energy density of 40 Wh kg (typical of lead-acid batteries), we'll see that it's hard to push the range beyond 200 or 300 km but for an energy density of 120Wh kg (typical of various lithium-based batteries), a range of 500 km is easily achievable. Let's assume that the mass of the car and occupants is 740 kg, without any batteries. In due course we'll add 100 kg, 200 kg, 500 kg, or perhaps 1000 kg of batteries. Let's assume a typical speed of 50 km h (30mph) a drag-area of 0.8 m2 a rolling resistance of 0.01 a distance between stops of 500 m an engine efficiency of 85 and that during stops and starts, regenerative braking recovers half of the...

The Return of Electric Cars Again

The prospect of a massive transformation from gasoline-powered engines to electric vehicles promises to have the greatest impact on the electricity system as we know it. This represents a new source of demand, unlike anything the industry has seen in the last several decades. It could dramatically change the production cycle, because electric car batteries would likely be charged up overnight during the off-peak period. Utilities love the idea of electric vehicles not only because of the increased demand, but because they would increase the efficiency and productivity of the infrastructure during that off-peak period.

Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Ll-electric vehicles are severely limited by the fact that batteries can only contain a certain amount of energy, and when that is used up the batteries need to be recharged, which takes time (hours) and special facilities (you need to either plug them in, or change batteries). Internal-combustion vehicles are limited in that the efficiencies of internal-combustion engines (ICEs) will never be as good as electric drive, and the emissions will never be as low as electric vehicles. Hybrids cars that combine electrical drive with an internal-combustion engine achieve a harmonious balance between the best of both worlds. Of all the alternative transportation options available today, hybrids promise to become the most widely accepted due to their optimal balance between the best of internal-combustion-driven vehicles, and all-electric vehicles. In this chapter I describe the various types of hybrids, and their pros and cons. The hybrid concept started to die out (as did the early electric...

Modern electric vehicles s to today

In the 1960s electric cars saw renewed investment interest due to the heavy amounts of smog and pollutants that were visible in the skies over cities. Global warming wasn't an issue then, but it was clearly obvious what gasoline engines were doing to air quality. People could see smog, they knew they were breathing it, and they weren't happy about it. They came to the conclusion that there has to be a better way, and electric cars were the obvious option. It took federal legislation and regulations enacted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to get manufacturers moving into the realm of electric cars once again. In 1990, CARB instituted Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) mandates. These mandates required that within just 8 years (by 1998), 2 percent of the vehicles sold in California had to emit virtually zero pollutants. It also mandated that this figure grow to 10 percent by 2003. Many other states enacted similar goals, although California had the toughest standards. In response,...

What is the scope for switching from oilfuelled to electric vehicles

Electric vehicles continue to struggle to compete with conventional oil-fuelled cars and trucks. Although fuel costs for owners of electric vehicles are lower, the savings are not big enough to offset the much higher prices of the vehicles themselves. Fuel subsidies in many non-OECD countries also undermine the attractiveness of electric vehicles. Yet electric-vehicle technology is advancing rapidly. Vehicle hybridisation, involving the addition of an electric motor and an energy-storage system (typically a battery) to a conventional engine fuel system, has attracted most investment and has already proved commercially successful - in spite of relatively high costs. Further improvements to storage systems are necessary to boost efficiency and lower costs despite significant progress in recent years, even the best lithium-ion batteries available today suffer from inadequate performance and high costs. Ultra-capacitors, which store energy in charged electrodes rather than in an...

The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Odyssey

The greatest electric-drive success story to date, apart from China's electric two-wheelers, is hybrid electric vehicles, or hybrids. In hybrids, an electric motor is mated to a combustion engine. The basic principle is to sever the direct connection between engine and wheels so that the combustion engine The first hybrid electric vehicle was a prototype built by Porsche in 1899. Nearly a century later, hybrid electric technology was featured in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), an alliance of the Detroit automakers with the U.S. government launched in 1993 under President Clinton.29 This collaboration gave the Detroit companies access to a trove of scientific research in the country's national laboratories and directed substantial government dollars (about 250 million per year) toward advanced vehicle technology. The goal of the PNGV program was to build production prototypes with a threefold improvement in fuel economy, what amounted to an 80-mpg car. The...

Basic Operation of an Electric Vehicle

The basic operation of an electric car is very simple. An electrical motor is powered by a battery, or bank of batteries. The batteries are generally rechargeable and are very heavy (weight-wise) in comparison to the amount of energy that can be contained within a standard gas tank. The electric motor can be connected directly to the wheels of an electric car. There is no need for a transmission. In fact, a separate electric motor can be connected to each of the four wheels, and this allows for operation even when one of the motors fails, and it also allows for some incredible performance advantages as well. No ICE-powered car can lose its engine and keep on running. In addition, in an electric car, there is no need for the complex transmission system that an internal-combustion engine requires. Internal-combustion engines work well only when they're running hard, or fast that is, the crankshaft in the engine is spinning at higher revolutions per minute (RPM). Most of the time like...

Early electric cars circa

Thomas Edison built an electric car in 1889. His car used nickel-alkaline batteries. Other manufacturers of the time used lead-acid batteries (the type under the hoods of modern cars). Both types of batteries simply fed the battery's electricity directly to an electric motor which powered one or more of the wheels of the car. The next sections discuss the design and disadvantages of the early electric cars as well as the breakthrough in gasoline-powered cars that dealt such a blow to the sales of electric cars.

Driving an Electric Vehicle Dayto Day

Well-designed EVs can travel at the same speeds as conventional vehicles and can offer the same safety and convenience capabilities as conventional gasoline-powered vehicles. Even though many expect EVs to be slow and sluggardly to drive, EVs generally offer better acceleration than you would expect because of the high-torque characteristics of electric motors at low speeds. One sports-oriented electric car that is now on the market can accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in the same time as a Ferrari.

Electric Cars and Trucks

Assume also that a steering committee sets the goal of achieving 10 percent electric vehicle sales out of the total volumes sold in the automotive sector by 2015. In such a case, this could partly be achieved through increased sales of hybrid vehicles, which could also be charged via the electricity grid at night or during stops. The development of more powerful batteries for hybrid vehicles is underway. Demand, however, is still low. Increased demand would rapidly contribute to the development of increasingly powerful batteries for electric cars and trucks. Depending on the usage patterns of cars and trucks, vehicles that are destined for delivery and short haul freight, shopping trips and other short trips, in the case of cars, could increasingly be fitted with only an electric engine. A rapid growth of electric vehicles would require a more complex set of actions. First, development in the automotive sector will also need to focus on the development of hybrids and electric engines...

What Are Modern Electric Vehicles

After their first meteoric rise and fall, electric cars essentially disappeared for decades. It wasn't until the late 1960s that they saw renewed interest. That interest was prompted by changes the gasoline-powered car had wrought on our skies in the intervening 50 years. With smog and air pollution a hot topic and the prospect of inexpensive nuclear-generated electricity on the near horizon engineers around the globe began taking another look at electric cars. But the problem of limited range remained the paramount stumbling block, and no one had the solution although several approaches, including hybrid gasoline-electric combinations, were tried on an experimental basis. Finally it took legislation and looming regulations from the powerful California Air Resources Board (CARB) to get auto manufacturers off the dime on the development of a modern electric car. This long-rumored edict struck fear in the hearts of auto manufacturers. To sell vehicles in the large and lucrative...

How Do Electric Vehicles Work

Know how electricity works or why it works they simply know it does work. That philosophical concept aside, an electric vehicle uses batteries to power an electric motor that, in turn, propels the vehicle. Vehicles that have these characteristics are alternatively called pure electric vehicles. Electric cars produce no tailpipe emissions and the miniscule amounts of evaporative emissions they produce come from the evaporation of their lubricants. The vehicle's batteries must be recharged from the electrical grid, which in practice means a power hook-up at your home and or office. Many electric vehicles also use regenerative braking, a procedure that generates electricity when the car is slowing down or coasting. * A pure electric vehicle uses on-board sources of electricity stored in a battery or battery bank as power, and it must be plugged into a source of electricity to recharge its batteries. It is otherwise known as a battery electric vehicle or BEV. its sweet spot while the car...

The key problem with electric cars

How far can an electric vehicle travel before it's time to recharge the batteries That's the big question and the one whose answer doomed the original electric cars and has caused problems for other electric cars ever since. For these early cars, the driving range was about 40 to 50 miles. To get more range with an electric car, you need more batteries, plain and simple, and that adds more weight, which in turn impacts how far the car can go on a charge. Because the first batteries weren't rechargeable, these first electric cars featured throw away batteries. When the batteries ran out, you simply replaced them with new batteries. Imagine how much that cost And imagine the disposal problem, except back in those days people didn't really have disposal problems. What you didn't want, you simply tossed into the river. (And we wonder how we got to our current predicament ) The overall weight of an electric car is around the same for an ICE-powered car despite the weight savings...

Electric vehicles

The REVA electric car was launched in June 2001 in Bangalore and is exported to the UK as the G-Wiz. The G-Wiz's electric motor has a peak power of 13 kW, and can produce a sustained power of 4.8 kW. The motor provides regenerative braking. It is powered by eight 6-volt lead acid batteries, which when fully charged give a range of up to 77 km. A full charge consumes 9.7 kWh of electricity. These figures imply a transport cost of 13 kWh per 100 km. I've looked up the performance figures for lots of electric vehicles -they're listed in this chapter's end-notes - and they seem to be consistent with this summary electric vehicles can deliver transport at an energy cost of roughly 15 kWh per 100 km. That's five times better than our baseline fossil-car, and significantly better than any hybrid cars. Hurray To achieve economical transport, we don't have to huddle together in public transport - we can still hurtle around, enjoying all the pleasures and freedoms of solo travel, thanks to...

Electric Cars

The advent of plug-in hybrids leads to an obvious question If a mostly electric car is possible, why not dispense with internal combustion altogether and go completely electric Wouldn't such a car with only one relatively simple drivetrain and a single motor be both cheaper and cleaner The short answer is yes, but. Yes, a world of mostly electric cars powered by solar- and wind-generated electricity would be a much better place, for a variety of obvious reasons. But based on the difficulties carmakers are having with their plug-in hybrid introductions, a viable all- electric car seems to be at least several years away. But, you wouldn 't know it from all the activity in this space. In late 2007, I interviewed Michael Potts, CEO of the Rocky Mountain Institute, a Colorado-based green think tank, for a magazine article. Toward the end, I asked him if there was anything that had him especially excited, and he responded, there are six or seven electric car start-ups that are getting...

Ecological Urban Renewal

Rainwater is also collected in a below-ground cistern, purified in a pond, and then pumped to the flats for toilet flushing and for use in washing machines. Some of the units have added solar hot water heaters, and many have installed passive solar winter gardens and glass rooms. Additional insulation, energy-efficient glass, water-saving fixtures and toilets, and extensive recycling and composting facilities were also added. Extensive use was made of recycled brick and other materials. There is at least one section of rooftop that has been converted into a glass solar terrace. A series of photovoltaic panels in the interior provides most of the power to run the pumps and motors in the bioworks. The PV panels also power hookups for charging electric vehicles.

Trends in US Automotive CO Emissions

Co2 Emission Cars Statistics

The total CO2 emissions, as well as the average emission rates of all vehicles in each automaker's fleet, have continued to rise despite notable changes in factors thought to influence emissions. In particular, the past five years saw much higher gasoline prices than the period from 1990 to 1998 as well as notable developments in technology, such as the introduction of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Examining aggregate emissions trends shows that annual sales of even a million HEVs which some analysts foresee as early as 2010 would not suffice to offset even half the increase in CO2 emissions and oil consumption observed in the auto market between 1990 and 2003.

The Prius Risking a Commitment to Energy Efficiency

Designing hybrid electric prototypes since that time, and sold the first commercial electric car in the 1990s. Ford also has considerable expertise in battery and hybrid electric cars, aided in part by its participation in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), mentioned in chapter 2. But there's a difference between expertise and execution. The Japanese companies saw transformation in the road ahead, took a risk, and invested. The U.S. companies didn't do so until many years later, and then far more tentatively. Toyota's marketing executives in the United States were closely monitoring the Prius with great skepticism, and for good reason. There was little evidence that American consumers would pay a premium for better fuel economy and for a car best described as dorky. Worse, the car was underpowered for American expectations, the brakes were twitchy, and the trunk was small. Plus, it was something entirely new. Dealers would need to be trained to service and repair...

Green Procurement in US State and Local Governments

Among the states, Massachusetts has been a bellwether. Under Governor William Weld in 1993, Massachusetts began an aggressive green procurement program. From its inception, the state's program has focused on purchasing recycled goods. Today, these purchases include recycled paper and office supplies, plastic lumber benches and tables, recycled motor oil, and recycled traffic cones. Massachusetts also owns 37 zero-emission electric vehicles and

Technologies for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from motor vehicles

Developments are also occurring in battery technology that soon should enable more extensive employment of electric vehicles which will use electricity from wholly carbon-free sources. During the next few years we will begin to see the introduction of vehicles driven by fuel cells (see Figure 11.24 below) based on hydrogen fuel that can potentially be produced from renewable sources (see page 377). This new technology has the potential eventually to revolutionise much of the transport sector.

Brief History of Alternative Fuels

The history of alternative fuels goes back to the very first days of the car industry. In 1900, more than half the cars were running on ethanol, steam, and electricity.9 Many of Karl Benz's early diesel engines ran on peanut oil, a biofuel. Henry Ford's first car ran on alcohol, and his wife, Clara, drove an electric vehicle. Thomas Edison invested considerable time and money in improving batteries. Electric vehicles were the safest, quietest cars on the road. Fears about oil supply vanished, and the death spiral of alternatives began. Gasoline's explosiveness remained an issue, but drivers, mechanics, and manufacturers learned to work around it. By the time the Model T went into production in Detroit in 1908, gasoline was firmly entrenched. Steam was in sharp decline, ethanol was relegated to occasional farm use, and electric vehicles clung to a dwindling city car market. For the last half century, alternative fuels have periodically benefited from public subsidies, ambitious...

Hydrogen in Transportation

Karl Kordesch

The air application of hydrogen is the reverse of hydrogen's later role as a fuel, where its flammability is a major advantage and its low density the disadvantage that inhibits its use for flight in the atmosphere. Experiments using hydrogen as an engine fuel had already been carried out in 1820 by W. Cecil. These experiments were followed by investigations in car engines up until World War II and partly afterwards (Ricardo, Burstal, Erren). Various transport systems using hydrogen were tested, for example in the USA by. R. Billings or in Germany (Daimler Benz, BMW) in the last decade of the twentieth century. The potential of hydrogen as an aviation fuel was established in1957 with the lift-off of a hydrogen-powered B-57 Canberra twin-engine jet bomber. From 1963 onwards liquid hydrogen-liquid oxygen propelled rockets were launched. For the Apollo moon flights 12 x 103 m3 of liquid hydrogen was necessary to tank the Saturn carrier rockets. In 1970 Dr. Karl Kordesch built an alkaline...

Identifying External Factors Influencing Performance

Factors Influencing Business Performance

It begins with the identification and monitoring of trends of changes and emerging technological issues. Ensuring that we are considering all possible sources of change requires scanning the 'horizon' and beyond it (see Fig. 6.5), across related areas of the business environment. Even though our focus may be on technologies, we should not observe only upcoming technologies, but also developing trends in accepting new technologies, like for instance solar powered or electric cars, new political directions or regulations favoring renewable energy or putting an ever increasing price on carbon, that can affect a company's performance, thus threatening the company's market position, or opening new opportunities. These factors or the related changes thereof would come broadly from the areas summarized in Table 6.1.

The Future of Petroleum

There are many compelling reasons to decrease society's dependence on petroleum for energy, and the most obvious place to begin is in the transportation sector. Energy-efficient engines and hybrid gas electric cars can help to reduce some of the need for oil, providing higher gas mileage and less demand. A variety of alternative fuels have also been developed, such as ethanol, biodiesel (made from vegetable oil), and hydrogen. Each of these would produce little or no exhaust pollutants or greenhouse gases, and each derives from plentiful renewable resources. The United States is now in fact actively researching hydrogen as a viable alternative to gasoline, and the hydrogen fuel cell as a substitute for the internal combustion engine.

Sustainable fossil fuels

Kingsnorth Power Station

We explored in the last three chapters the main technologies and lifestyle changes for reducing power consumption. We found that we could halve the power consumption of transport (and de-fossilize it) by switching to electric vehicles. We found that we could shrink the power consumption of heating even more (and de-fossilize it) by insulating all buildings better and using electric heat pumps instead of fossil fuels. So yes, we can reduce consumption. But still, matching even this reduced consumption with power from Britain's own renewables looks very challenging (figure 18.7, p109). It's time to discuss non-renewable options for power production.

Nuclear Facts And Fables

At present the main obstacles to the large-scale introduction of clean H2-fuel-cell-powered cars is the H2 storage problem and fuel-cell electrode fouling. Electric car engines have been developed, but replacement of the space presently occupied by an automobile fuel tank with the best H2 adsorbing bladder or compressed-gas tank, results in a vehicle that can be driven for only one hour or 100 km (60 miles). Present techniques for H2 bladder storage or compression need therefore a five-fold density increase to make H2-fuel-cell-powered cars competitive with present-day petrol-fueled autos. Progressive fouling of fuel-cell electrodes may require their

The Holy Grail Fuel Cell Vehicles

It was California's zero-emission vehicle rule of 1990 that pulled fuel cells and hydrogen back into the automotive world, though not directly or immediately. When the major automakers all came to the conclusion soon after 1990 that battery electric vehicles weren't ready for prime time, they Through it all, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles retain one important edge over battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids they're preferred by most of the large automotive companies. The principal attraction of fuel cells is their extraordinary energy efficiency, two to three times better than gasoline engines. They're also quiet, are relatively quick to refuel (though not as fast as gasoline), and have longer driving ranges per fill-up than battery electric vehicles. And they produce zero tailpipe emissions, which, as the automakers like to say, takes the car out of the environmental equation. No longer would car manufacturers need to spend billions of dollars improving and warranting emission...

The Pluses and Minuses of Hybrid Vehicles

The media has been very vocal about the pluses of hybrid electric vehicles. The fuel economy they deliver is amazing versus that of a conventional car, and because of this, they can help us limit our use switch to pure electric cars. More on this in Chapter 9. In essence, HEVs are a good (perhaps brilliant) compromise between the conventional gasoline car, which has been honed to operate nearly flawlessly but drinks precious fossil fuel and spews carbon dioxide and small amounts of other substances into the air and the electric car, which has the near-fatal flaw of extremely limited range but the gigantic benefit of emitting virtually nothing at all. The beauty of hybrid electric vehicles is that they help improve air quality with no appreciable loss in vehicle performance, range, or safety. Most hybrid electric vehicles perform as well or better than internal combustion engine cars of similar size.

Electricity Propulsion Mobility

In a movie called Who Killed the Electric Car the US auto industry, and specifically General Motors, is depicted as opposed to electric cars. This charge is made in response to their EV-i electric car, a small battery-electric which was leased to several hundred customers between 1998 and 2003. The car was a brilliant piece of design and lucky customers expressed delight at the car's silence, acceleration and sheer ease of use. Automakers are not opposed to electric cars on principle, but there is an internal industry conflict, with internal combustion and electric factions. There are also legitimate and serious problems, some of which were raised by the EV-i. All automakers are faced with a public that wants them to be innovative, that wants safety features beyond government standards, yet is prone to sue over the smallest error. Companies have become paranoid about product liability, and the EV-i was very small and very light. Dozens of new companies have attempted to build small...

Using Capand Trade to Fight Acid Rain

The wind turbines could be growing like forests. Solar panels could cover every rooftop. Trains and planes powered by fuel cells could be whizzing along. There would go electric cars instead of gasoline guzzlers. Heat pumps. Geothermal. Tidal power. We could be harnessing it all. We have the gear. We

Zero Emission Vehicles

Hydrogen fuel-cell and electric vehicles move away from burning fuel and use electrochemical processes instead to produce the needed energy to drive a car down the road. Fuel-cell vehicles run on electricity that is produced directly from the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen. The only byproduct is water which is why fuel-cell cars and trucks are called zero-emission vehicles. Electric vehicles store energy in an onboard battery, emitting nothing from the tailpipe.

Electrical vehicles as generators

If 30 million electric vehicles were willing, in times of national electricity shortage, to run their chargers in reverse and put power back into the grid, then, at 2 kW per vehicle, we'd have a potential power source of 60 GW -similar to the capacity of all the power stations in the country. Even if only one third of the vehicles were connected and available at one time, they'd still amount to a potential source of 20 GW of power. If each of those vehicles made an emergency donation of 2 kWh of energy - corresponding to perhaps 20 of its battery's energy-storage capacity - then the total energy provided by the fleet would be 20 GWh - twice as much as the energy in the Dinorwig pumped storage facility.

Common features of all five plans

The energy for transport is 18kWh d p of electricity and 2kWh d p of liquid fuels. The electric vehicles' batteries serve as an energy storage facility, helping to cope with fluctuations of electricity supply and demand. The area required for the biofuel production is about 12 of the UK (500 m2 per person), assuming that biofuel production comes from 1 -efficient plants and that conversion of plant to fuel is 33 efficient. Alternatively, the biofuels could be imported if we could persuade other countries to devote the required (Wales-sized) area of agricultural land to biofuels for us.

Producing lots of electricity the components

Electric vehicles are used as a dynamically-adjustable load on the electricity network. The average power required to charge the electric vehicles is 45GW (18kWh d p). So fluctuations in renewables such as solar and wind can be balanced by turning up and down this load, as long as the fluctuations are not too big or lengthy. Daily swings in electricity demand are going to be bigger than they are today because of the replacement of

Example of a ZED Zero Emission fossilfuel Development

BedZED (Figure 11.8) is a mixed development urban village constructed on a brownfield wasteland in the London Borough of Sutton, providing 82 dwellings in a mixture of apartments, maisonettes and town houses together with some work office space and community facilities.22 The combination of super-insulation, a wind-driven ventilation system incorporating heat recovery, and passive solar gain stored within each unit in thermally massive floors and walls reduces the energy needs so that a 135 kW wood-fuelled combined heat and power (CHP) plant is sufficient to meet the village's energy requirements. A 109 kW peak photovoltaic installation provides enough solar electricity to power 40 electric cars, some pool, some taxi, some privately owned. The community has the capacity to lead a carbon-neutral lifestyle - with all energy for buildings and local transport being supplied from renewable sources.

Wind power on Fair Isle

A good example of a site where wind power has been put to good effect is Fair Isle, an isolated island in the North Sea north of the Scottish mainland.48 Until recently, the population of 70 people depended on coal and oil for heat, petrol for vehicles and diesel for electricity generation. A 50-kW wind generator was installed in 1982 to generate electricity from the persistent strong winds of average speed over 8 m s-1 (29 km h-1 or 18 mph). The electricity is available for a wide variety of purposes at a relatively high price for lighting and electronic devices and at a lower price controlled amounts are available (wind permitting) for comfort heat and water heating. At the frequent periods of excessive wind further heat is available for heating glasshouses and a small swimming pool. Electronic control coupled with rapid switching enables loads to be matched to the available supply. An electric vehicle has been charged from the system to illustrate a further use for the energy.

Lights on the traffic

What about the future's electric cars The power consumption of a typical electric car is about 5000 W. So popping on an extra 100 W would increase its consumption by 2 . Power consumption would be smaller if we switched all car lights to light-emitting diodes, but if we pay any more attention to this topic, we will be coming down with a severe case of every-little-helps-ism.

Energy Efficiency in Industry and Transportation

In transportation, fuel efficiency or miles per gallon (MPG) depends on vehicle design, on reducing air resistance by reducing the weight of a vehicle, and on the type of fuel used. Carbon-fiber composites are strong, extremely light materials that could significantly increase fuel efficiency if employed in the manufacture of vehicles. One such material is waiting to be patented, and research into reducing composite production cost, using agricultural and paper-manufacturing waste, along with recycled bottles and plastic car parts, is ongoing. New technologies, such as regenerative braking, which converts momentum to electricity when the brakes are stepped on in hybrid electric vehicles, also increase energy efficiency. Advances in engine-technology design include Compression Ignition Direct Injection engines, which result in less heat loss in gasoline burning engines and which also increase fuel efficiency. Hybrid electric vehicles, as well as alternative fuel vehicles, use less...

The Energy Star Program

Homeowners can save energy by using low-flow showerheads, lowering thermostat settings, turning off lights and appliances when not in use, sealing windows, installing storm windows, and insulating hot-water tanks. Walking or biking, carpooling, using public transport, and driving a hybrid electric car are ways to conserve gasoline and reduce vehicular pollution. The environmental importance of energy efficiency is highlighted in a 2001 EPA report stating that Americans, partly by choosing energy-efficient products, have reduced greenhouse-gas emissions by 38 million metric tons of carbon, which is equivalent to removing about twenty-five million cars from the road. see also Vehicular Pollution.

Ecofriendly aeroplanes

Consumption but no carbon emissions, that would certainly be a useful technology. And, as a person-transporter, the Electra delivers a respectable 11kWh per 100p-km, similar to the electric car in our transport diagram on p128. But in this book the bottom line is always where is the energy to come from

Shared Vehicles Zipcar

Under the agreement with Zipcar, Tufts has established dedicated parking for the Zipcars, and members of the university community who are over twenty-one are eligible to become Zipcar members at a reduced fee. Anecdotal evidence indicates that the Zipcars are popular among graduate students, faculty, and staff, and the program is being evaluated more systematically. The Zipcars in place at the university include two electric vehicles (EVs), provided to Tufts at no cost by Toyota. Electric vehicles, when properly charged and discharged, generate fewer emissions per mile than conventional automobiles however, it is not currently clear whether the Zipcars displace automobile use (which would reduce emissions) or whether they result in new travel (which would increase emissions). Although this concept holds theoretical potential to reduce emissions, its potential is diminished significantly for institutions with exclusively undergraduate populations, because the number of drivers over...

Alternative Fuels and Technologies

Conversion to alternative fuels and technologies can help reduce on-campus emissions, but the reductions will not be dramatic. However, there may be other compelling reasons to switch to electric, biodiesel, or compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles to improve local or regional air pollution and create educational opportunities around transportation and transportation technologies. Hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles, CNG, biodiesel, and low-emission diesel can all be useful on campus. Fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol, or a mix of the bio-based fuel with the petroleum, can be substituted for diesel or gasoline. Among the challenges are the availability of fuels and charging stations. When we were considering appropriate uses for electric vehicles donated to Tufts by Toyota, we found that the diverse set of campus transportation needs allowed us to match the technology of electric vehicles with appropriate uses in mail services and public safety. This was key to making a successful...

Technology Required

The sodium-sulphur (Na-S) battery is representative of what are termed high temperature advanced concept developments. For example, a 1 MJ capacity battery for electric vehicle applications is at an advanced stage of development at Chloride Silent Power in the UK with the collaboration of General Electric in the USA 7 . Similar battery concepts are being researched by Ford (USA), Brown Boveri (Germany) and British Rail (UK). All use a test-tube shaped ceramic container, made of beta-alumina, which is conducting to sodium ions. The tube contains molten Na in its interior (anode) and is surrounded by a sulphur melt (cathode) housed in a case, which collects the current. The operating temperature of the system is between 300 and 400 C, and the cell voltage, derived from the chemical reaction between the sodium and the sulphur to produce sodium polysulphide 24 , is 2.08 V. The theoretical energy density of these batteries is about 2.7 MJ kg, more than four times the level of the lead-acid...

The climate costs of the United Nations

By 2025 and to halve per capita transport emissions by 2040 by using electric cars and biofuels. Iceland aims to reduce its net greenhouse gas emissions - which come mainly from transport and industry - by 75 per cent before 2050. Carbon sequestration in vegetation is an important factor in Iceland's climate strategy. It has suffered the worst soil erosion of any European country since its settlement 1 100 years ago, with deforestation leaving the fragile volcanic soil at the mercy of wind and water erosion. Costa Rica is aiming for climate neutrality by 2021, to be achieved by taxes and incentives to protect forests and encourage carbon storage and sequestration.

Efficiency of Wholes Not Parts

Solar energy is seen as weak, just as electric cars are seen as wimpy. But unlike conventional engines, electric motors can deliver full torque at any speed. A race between a conventional Grand Prix car and an electric car wouldn't be a contest. With no transmission and precise power control the electric car would lap the field. Similarly, few notice the extraordinary flexibility of solar technology. It can be used in dispersed form to heat water or generate electricity, and it can be concentrated to melt through steel. The sun generates enough energy to power us and all the plants we eat all the trees our houses were made of all the ships and animals that carried our ancestors and all the wind, waves and clouds that define the lives of the trillions of organisms that populate earth hardly a wimpy performance.

Government Financed Technology Development Is Necessary for Economic Growth

Governments have the ability to invest in high-risk and long-term technology projects that are required to develop new general purpose technologies. Companies generally do not take the risks of decades of investments in new technologies. When we consider photovoltaics, wave energy, fuel cell or electric vehicles and a number of other technologies, we are looking at long-term development projects.

Touch of Geothermal

Raser Technologies manufactures high-performance electric motor and controller technology for electric vehicles. This is what originally got us interested in this company, and ultimately one of the reasons we recommended it as an alternative transportation play. However, in January 2007, we got word that the company had decided to get into the geothermal game. A few days later, a press release appeared announcing that Raser Technologies had secured geothermal rights to a few properties in Nevada. A few months later, more properties were announced. Then a few weeks later, another property was announced. It became a trend. In fact, from late March through October 2007, Raser announced all of the following

Vehicleto Grid Electricity

Here's where the plug-in hybrid electric car story transcends its category. Picture a fleet of these cars being charged overnight with off-peak power and then driven into town by commuters who will spend the day at the office. Thousands of batteries, full of energy downloaded from the grid during the night, represent a huge potential source of peak power. Plug them back into the grid, and they can feed some of that energy back at a time the middle of the day when it - most needed. Called vehicle-to-grid, or V2G, such a system might save money all around. The local utility avoids having to build expensive new peak generating capacity, while the car owner gets paid peak power rates for juice he or she bought during the night for less. The downside is that the extra work might shorten battery life, but several possible solutions are being proposed, including creating a secondary market for batteries that are no longer efficient enough for automotive use but still have a bit of life, and...

Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

Like fuel cell vehicles, battery-powered electric vehicles (EVs) are extremely efficient, clean, quiet, smooth running, easy to maintain, and economical to operate. Tailpipe emissions are zero, and if the battery is charged with electricity from solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, or biomass resources, the entire fuel cycle will be emission-free (although emissions are likely in the vehicle manufacturing phase). Electric vehicles are also four to five times as efficient as gasoline vehicles when their efficiencies are compared by computing the efficiency of the gasoline vehicle from the nozzle of the fuel hose with that of the EV computed from the electric outlet at which it is charged. Thus, putting larger numbers of EVs on the road will catapult us toward a clean transportation system. Unfortunately, early in 2001, the California Air Resources Board, under pressure from the auto industry, continued its policy of relaxing its zero-emission vehicle requirements for makers of automobiles...

Likely Scenario Continued Japanese Leadership

Their initiative puts pressure on others to follow. Gasoline hybrids will be followed by plug-in hybrids, battery electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles. As mentioned earlier, most major automotive companies have large ongoing R&D programs in all these technologies, but moving from the lab to the marketplace is hugely expensive and very risky. Even Toyota, with its hoards of cash, is cautious. The reality is that without consistent high-energy price signals and strong policy intervention, these companies will proceed slowly.90 The most likely scenario as this is written is that Toyota and GM will begin selling small numbers of plug-in hybrid vehicles around 2011 Honda, Toyota, GM, and Daimler (Mercedes-Benz) will begin selling small numbers of fuel cell cars around 2015 and Nissan, Daimler, and a variety of other companies will begin selling small numbers of battery electric vehicles during the decade of 2010. Ford and Chrysler will lag because they're...

And Technology Projects Within The Transportation Stream

In the case of hybrid power trains, they represent a substantial opportunity to reduce petroleum consumption at short notice. At the moment, however, this technology is new and more expensive than traditional technologies, which reduces the speed of market penetration. As another alternative increasing amounts of some biological fuels could be mixed into the petroleum, up to a content of 30 percent, without any modifications on the vehicles. This represents an opportunity to increase the use of renewable fuels for older vehicles too. In addition to the need to build production capacity for hybrid vehicles, we would need to build production capacity for biofuels, and, possibly, increase the electricity generation capacity, in order to charge hybrid vehicles, and electric vehicles, from the power grid.

Faet cettpoWered Vehicles

A fuel cell-powered vehicle (FCV) is basically an electric car that uses fuel cells as the primary power source. In such a car, hydrogen and oxygen are fed into the fuel cell, which produces electricity which is directed into the battery bank (conventional batteries are used) and the power controller. The battery bank is used to allow for varying amounts of power to be directed to the electric motor (fuel cells are poor at decreasing and increasing their power outputs at a fast enough rate to directly power the wheels, although this is changing with new technological developments). Efficiencies FCVs help reduce dependence on foreign supplies of fossil fuels. Even if the hydrogen source is a fossil fuel, fuel cells offer far better efficiencies than conventional engines so demand for fossil fuels will be less when FCVs become commonly available. In addition, electric vehicles of all kinds are lighter weight than conventional vehicles because there is no need for heavy, mechanical...

Driving and Owning a Hybrid

Electric cars are limited in range, so it's no surprise that, because of their reliance on internal-combustion engines to recharge the battery on the go, hybrids can travel much farther than electric cars. What many people may find surprising is that they can travel significantly farther than ICE-powered vehicles, too. The typical conventional auto needs to be refueled every 300 to 400 miles, but hybrids routinely offer ranges greater than 500 miles.

Hybrids enter the scene

In an attempt to solve the battery problems associated with all-electric cars, hybrid vehicles were developed. The first hybrids used gasoline engines only to generate electricity, which was then fed into an electrical motor which directly powered the wheels. A number of versions of this basic design were developed, none of them gaining widespread acceptance. Due to some initial successes it was believed that all cars would eventually be powered by turbines. But turbines were notorious gas pigs. Efficiency was terrible and the sound was enough to break eardrums. Contrast this with the silence of electric cars and it's easy to see why turbines died out for use in vehicle transport.

An Engineering Problem

Renewable energy resources, of course, exist in enormous quantities, but are generally dispersed. Places where a given renewable resource (e.g. solar, wind, geothermal) is most concentrated are generally not places where many people live. The problem of intermittency must also be addressed. In this regard the authors discuss briefly the problem of energy carriers in the form of hydrogen, superconductivity and electric vehicles. Short and Keegan conclude that the potential for terrestrially based renewable energy is huge, pointing to IPCC figures that show a potential some 21 times global energy use today.

What Are Gasoline Electric Hybrids

While Toyota and Honda were reaping the whirlwind of positive publicity that surrounded hybrids as fuel prices rose and then rose again, the fact that the concept is at least a century old was lost in the shuffle. Also lost was the fact that back in 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated its Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program, which began as a five-year cost-shared partnership with the Big Three American auto manufacturers General Motors, Ford, and DaimlerChrysler. The three U.S. automakers committed to producing production-feasible HEV propulsion systems by 1998, first-generation prototypes by 2000, and market-ready HEVs by 2003. The push toward hybrids came in the wake of the realization that battery-powered pure electrics were just not going to work for most people in most situations if and until there was a breakthrough in battery technology. As the DOE put it, Hybrid power systems were conceived as a way to compensate for the shortfall in battery technology when...

The Coming Transformations

Battery electric vehicles abandoned in the late 1990s and only slowly resuscitated a decade later, and the vaunted fuel cell still lingering in the lab. Companies see that each of the many electric-drive technology options is tremendously expensive to develop and that small mistakes can be ruinous. Even minor shortcomings can be devastating to a company. Unlike computers, engines can't freeze or crash intermittently. Engine control software can't have bugs. Speeding vehicles sometimes separated by just inches can't have breakdowns. Recalling vehicles for safety or pollution flaws can bankrupt a small company and seriously damage the largest ones. Companies proceed cautiously, worrying that the cutting edge isn't far from the bleeding edge. Central to the transformation of vehicles and travel is an enhanced understanding of the tension between private desires and the public interest. No longer can all vehicle efficiency innovations be diverted to serving private desires, as they have...

Hurdle Electrics Couldnt Jump

Then, as now, the major stumbling block for electric cars revolved around a question of range. Batteries can only store a finite amount of power, and when that power is exhausted they must be recharged before they can resume supplying electricity to the motor or other application. Even the best of modern batteries can store only a small percentage of the energy of a gallon of gasoline in the same space. In 1910, battery and recharging technology had not advanced to today's level. As drivers of those newfangled automobiles began to venture farther and farther from home, a driving range of 40 or 50 miles before a recharge just didn't cut it. Gasoline cars, for all their failings, could go much farther on a tank of gas. In addition, when they ran out of gas, the driver could refuel and get going again. In contrast, recharging a battery bank took hours. The final death knell for the first wave of electric vehicles came in 1912 with Charles Kettering's development of the self-starter....

From opposition to cooperation

Again, however, business interests have gone on the offensive and become dominant, largely turning the quest for sustainable development into the acquisition of market niches. The automobile manufacturers have developed electric cars for some, cleaner and leaner production processes for others, and moved much of their marketing effort to the rapidly modernizing developing countries, where there is less of a public debate to respond to. But while the technical fixes have been coming fast and furious, there has been relatively little attention paid to how all the new technologies can be used most appropriately. As Amory Lovins and his co-authors put it, the car is being reinvented faster than the implications of its reconception are being rethought (Hawken et al. 1999 47). The fact that green cars, or hypercars, do little if anything to improve the

The Future Is Electric

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can serve as a transitional technology to the all-electric cars of the future, by supplanting some of their liquid fuel needs with grid electricity. Even better, electric trains offer a huge opportunity to offset an enormous portion of our fuel demand.

Fuel Switching to Electricity

In the 1990s electric automobiles were introduced to the market, spurred by a California clean vehicle requirement. The effort was a failure because existing batteries did not provide the vehicle range and performance that customers demanded. In the future, electricity storage may improve enough to win consumer acceptance of electric automobiles. In addition, extremely high gasoline prices may cause some consumers to find electric automobiles more acceptable, especially for around-town use. Such a shift in public preferences is unpredictable, so electric vehicles cannot now be projected as a significant offset to future gasoline use.

How Do Gasoline Electric Hybrids Work

As the federal government defines it, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a vehicle that has two sources of motive energy. What this means in practice is the use of some type of internal combustion engine combined with an electric motor (or motors) getting its (their) power from storage batteries. Unlike so-called pure electric vehicles, the batteries are not charged by an outside source for example, plugging them into an electrical socket in your garage. Instead, their batteries are charged by an in-vehicle charging system. Thus, they are self-contained except for the need to refuel their internal combustion engines. The major difference between HEVs and pure EVs is the use of an internal combustion engine using conventional gasoline as fuel. By using an IC engine to keep batteries topped up and to provide some motive force, instead of relying completely on a motor-storage battery combination, HEVs can conquer the range problem that has haunted electric vehicles since time immemorial....

Nickelbased batteries

Nickel-based batteries come in many forms Cylindrical cells are the traditional battery types that we have all seen so much of. Button cells are the kinds used in cell phones and cameras. Nickel-based cells are also used in space applications, where high integrity packaging is a must. Flooded cells are used in heavy-duty applications, such as electric vehicles. Nickel-based cells cannot be discharged all the way down to zero or permanent damage will result. Therefore, electric cars using these types of batteries have controller functions which won't allow complete discharges.

Electrifying vehicles

The electric car runs by using rechargeable batteries, so it doesn't need any fuel on board at all. It was invented in the mid-1800s, and by the beginning of the 1900s, one-third of all cars were electric. However, they rapidly lost popularity after gas-powered cars adopted electric starters (no more hand-cranking) and the motoring public started ranging farther afield to places where you couldn't recharge an electric car. The 1973 Oil Shock renewed interest in the electric car, and so did growing concerns about air pollution and greenhouse gases. You may remember in the mid-1990s that everyone seemed to be talking about the electric car as the car of the future. So, what happened to those great plans Many argue that car and oil companies purposely killed plans for electric cars because of the potential threat they represented to the booming oil industry. The documentary Who Killed the Electric Car goes into this connection in great detail. Electric car technology still exists, but it...

Performance limitations

The one real practical limitation is that you cannot take a natural gas vehicle cross country because you simply can't get it filled in most places (see the next section Availability of natural gas for vehicles for more information). Therefore, natural gas vehicles are somewhat like electric cars in that they're primarily suited for close-to-home lifestyles.

GM More Greenwashed than Green

General Motors has long been known for cutting-edge research, and there's no doubt that its grasp of advanced technology rivals that of Toyota and Honda. Its most impressive accomplishment in recent years was the innovative, high performance EV-1 electric car, unveiled in model year 1997. But GM never seriously marketed it and then quickly gave up on it when sales were slow. (GM's CEO was later to say that axing the EV-1 was his worst decision, noting that it didn't affect profitability, but it did affect image. 79) Also impressive, over a decade earlier, was the launching of the unique Saturn brand, with its plastic body parts, efficient manufacturing, and innovative worker relations. Saturn attracted a large number of enthusiasts, but many of the unique aspects of this novel brand were abandoned by 2002. In 2007, with its fuel cell and hydrogen promises lingering, GM latched on to a new green product, its plug-in hybrid Volt. Again it launched a torrent of press events and splashy...

Two Key Hybrid Features

And as with all electric vehicles, improving battery technologies will allow for better performance and less expensive up-front costs. There are two basic versions of hybrid electric vehicle (HEVs) parallel designs and series designs. In series designs, the vehicle is basically all electric, with the onboard ICE serving only to charge the battery bank. Parallel designs use complex transmissions that can channel either the electric motor power, or the ICE power, directly to the wheels. In a series HEV, the motive power is obtained via electric drive motors driven from a battery bank, or several battery banks that use different types of batteries. This is exactly like an electric vehicle (EV), but instead of relying solely on recharging of the batteries through an external source (like the grid) a small internal-combustion engine drives an electrical generator that recharges the battery bank. This means that the car can be driven much greater distances since the primary fuel is gasoline...

New Business and Manufacturing Approaches

Makers of electric scooters didn't need new technology to be successful. They just needed new ways of assembling the pieces in a low-cost way. The same was true with low-cost motorcycles, and the same could be true with small, inexpensive neighborhood electric cars.

Plugin Hybrids Producing Much Less Carbon Dioxide

How about taking a hybrid car and putting in an even higher-performance battery that can be charged when the vehicle is not in operation A supersized battery would reduce the need for the gasoline engine substantially. Basically, this would be an electric car with a small gasoline motor to supplement the power of the electric motor the small percentage of the time that greater acceleration is needed. The gasoline motor also would extend the range of the vehicle so that it could continue back home or to the nearest place to recharge the battery if the battery runs out. Mileage approaching 100 mpg is reasonable to expect from this approach and since most car owners drive less than 35 miles (16 km) per day recharging overnight may be very feasible. Mileage in the range of 100 mpg can be accomplished on some current commercially obtained hybrid cars by using a pre-charged lithium ion battery rather than the standard nickel-metal hydride battery

Alternatives Transportation

The majority of fossil fuel consumption occurs in the transport sector. Cars and trucks spew billions of pounds of emissions into the atmosphere every year. I describe some alternative fuels that are increasingly being used, such as corn ethanol and biodiesel. I describe how these fuels are best used, and when and where. I describe how hybrid autos work, and how all-electric vehicles and fuel cell-powered vehicles work. I give you some guidelines to use if you're interested in investing in alternative vehicles. And finally I survey some of the more exotic alternative transportation systems being developed.

Leadacid cell battery

The most common type of battery in use today is the lead-acid cell. Lead-acid batteries are used in almost every conventional vehicle to start the internal-combustion engine. Once the engine is started, the battery is recharged. These same types of batteries are suitable for driving an electric car, and until much better technologies became available (see the next section on nickel-based batteries), were commonly used.

The choice between technologyspecific and generic policies

Basically there are two ways to accomplish this. Firstly, through generic policies, for example by judiciously applying economic and or social incentives and disincentives to make some possible paths more interesting and feasible than others and vice versa. Secondly, through technology-specific policies, for example the promotion of electric vehicles through research programmes, tax credits (investment subsidies) and the use of local experiments. Technology-specific policies interfere directly in the dynamics of technical change, rather than indirectly as generic policies do. Examples of generic and specific policies are given in Table 4.1. They are arranged into three categories that are derived from an evolutionary perspective of processes of socio-technical change policies that stimulate technology variation, those that work through the selection process and those that couple variation and selection.

Gridconnected vehicles GCVs

However good a BEV may be, an electric vehicle connected to the grid while moving would be better in two respects. First, the GCV would not have to carry a large weight of batteries, which can amount to several hundred kilograms, even more than a tonne. The batteries take up space and their weight increases the vehicle's energy consumption during acceleration and hill-climbing. Second, for the GCV there would be only distribution losses in moving the electricity from its source (e.g. a wind turbine) to the motor. In a BEV, as well as distribution losses there are losses when charging and discharging the battery. These losses total about 37 per cent, that is, almost four times more than for a comparable GCV.144 However, the main benefit of GCVs, and BEVs, could be their ability to function with a wide range of sources of electricity. Such electric vehicles use

Change In Values And Mental Models

- Instead of keeping an SUV in the driveway, we may choose a more fuel-efficient car. This could be a smaller gasoline or diesel car, an electric car or a car with a hybrid engine. For those who need to go on driving a big car, they could try to reduce the amount of driving, through better planning of shopping trips, or through carpooling.

Will China Take the Lead

Expectations, upstart Chinese companies can produce electric scooters, small hybrids, and electric cars at much lower cost. And as the suite of small electric vehicle products expands and sales increase, the market for batteries, electric motors, and other electric components will also grow. Motivated by pollution and oil concerns, China can develop low-cost clean vehicles for export, perhaps eventually including plug-in hybrids and fuel cell vehicles, replicating on a more massive scale what the Japanese and South Korean automotive companies did earlier with conventional cars. And it can also pioneer clean coal conversion processes and greatly expand innovative mobility services.

Incentives aiming at reducing carbon dioxide emissions

Increasing demand for more energy is most strongly felt in the transport sector. Energy efficiency in transporting goods on the road has improved substantially during recent decades. The reduction of fuel costs has been important in market competition, but the greater demand for transportation has anyhow increased total fuel consumption. Further reductions will primarily depend on whether fuel costs increase further or not the open market has come to stay. The private transportation sector is also developing rapidly and is similarly increasing its share of the total energy use because of the increasing standards of living of most people in the world. There are more automobiles on the roads and aeroplanes in the air, and there is an urge amongst people in industrialised as well as in many developing countries to spend an increasing part of their spare time and a larger share of their increased earnings on travelling. On the other hand, it is likely that more efficient engines will...

Technology Trends in Transportation

Turning from the fuels to the vehicles that burn them, the advent of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in the automotive market in recent years has generally improved the potential fuel economy of vehicles. The modular design of HEV powertrains enables several generations of development from the same platform. It is envisaged that HEVs will become progressively more electrified as new models are introduced over time. If forecast advances in battery technology are realized, the plug-in HEV with a 150-kilometer all-electric range will be available for city use in the relatively near future. This will have significant additional benefits in improving urban air quality and noise. With good planning and optimized electricity generation, it can also lead to more efficient use of energy and reduced overall GHG emissions. The advent of HEV technology raises the possibility of all-electric vehicles for the mass market. What if a far more efficiently electrified society that optimizes the supply...

Are There Real Savings

To make our example relatively simple, let's assume the resale value of the electric and the gasoline car will be the same at the end of the five-year ownership period. Let's further assume that you will drive either car 12,000 miles a year or 60,000 miles after 5 years. Finally, let's assume 2.31-a-gallon gasoline for the 5-year period and a 2.71-a-gallon electricity price (both taken from DOE data). The EPA mileage for the gasoline vehicle in our comparison is 26 mpg, and the DOE-calculated miles-per-gallon equivalency of the electric vehicle is a staggering 104 mpg. Federal, state, and local tax credits can help even the score somewhat. Credits as high as 5,000 do exist, but they are far too complex to outline here. A good summary of the available credits is available at www. Still, even with tax credits, it is hard to make an economic case for electric cars.

A Plan For Change Item in the list of tools for project managers and participants

In order to decide on the choice of solution, which in each country to a large extent could be made into a regulatory issue and a planning issue, we need to have a vision of the role the different alternative fuels will play in the future fuel market and which alternatives we foresee to be present in 10, 20, 30 and 50 years. After all, the most viable and economic future solution for automotive fuels may, for all we know, be electricity, and recharging may to some extent be done through photovoltaic cells. The fuel of the future may also, as some experts argue, be hydrogen (which will be used in fuel cells), which is produced from water through electrolysis, a process which in itself requires large amounts of electricity. Some advocates of electric vehicles argue that it will be much more energy-efficient to run vehicles on electricity directly by charging an electric battery on the vehicle, since three times the amount of electricity has to be used for electrolysis, compared to...

Existing Technologies And Product Need To Expand Bottleneck Resources Expand

Other savings alternatives may also require a number of different activities in combination. As the number of electric cars and chargeable hybrids increases, the load on the electricity grid will increase. In order to accommodate for this, there will be a need to expand electricity production, possibly launch campaigns to save electricity in households and companies, to reduce load by launching intelligent boilers in homes, freezers and other appliances that could switch off during peak hours. All these and other actions, which may be necessary in order to transfer energy use from petroleum to electricity, may not be financially justifiable in themselves. The overall goal of reducing emissions by switching oil use to renewable energy sources will be so important, that some investments that are not financially justifiable will need to be performed all the same.

Taking on the Oil Lobby

The only way to meet such a huge potential demand, without aggravating global warming, is to generate the additional electricity with carbonfree sources of energy. That means nuclear fuel and or renewable energy coupled to energy storage. In this case, wind energy becomes as interesting an option as nuclear. In many locations with strong wind resources, the wind velocity profile is much stronger at night than it is during the day. Under our current demand and consumption patterns, this isn't very helpful. If millions of electric vehicles are charging up at night, however, it's a different story. (And if you've got a storage system hooked up to that wind farm, then the cars can charge up whenever they want ) When you make a bet on electric vehicles, however you essentially are pitting the entrenched global petroleum business against the more parochial and fragmented electricity industry companies (i.e., the utilities). The largest supplier of electricity is still a dwarf compared to...

Opportunities For Arabian Development

Both because of improved technology such as use of hybrid electric cars as well as the introduction of hydrogen fueled cars using natural gas etc. for regeneration. Most experts agree today that a decline in global petroleum consumption is inevitable. This decline may be as little as 1 or as much as 3 per year after 2010. At the same time significant new petroleum supply sources (Russia, Central Asia, Deep Sea, Alaska, etc.) are expected to come on line. Efficient transport systems (pipeline, shipping, etc.) to the major European, North American, and East Southeast Asian markets are already under development. It is expected that by 2010 global excess petroleum production (supply) capacity will have grown to 25 and by 2020 to over 40 above demand. In other words, excess supply will greatly exceed the combined capacity of all Persian Gulf producers.

Next Generation Batteries

The first new battery model was nickel-cadmium,, or NiCd, with potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte and electrodes of nickel hydroxide and cadmium. NiCds are rechargeable, which makes them acceptable for digital cameras. But they lack the energy density to run a hybrid vehicle. Next came nickel-metal hydride, or NiMH, which is similar to NiCd but replaces cadmium with a hydrogen-absorbing alloy. A NiMH battery has two or three times the capacity of a comparable NiCd, which makes it adequate for the secondary role played by a traditional hybrid vehicle 's battery. But it still lacks the energy density necessary to run a plug-in hybrid or an all-electric car. This brings us to a battery technology called lithium-ion (Li-ion), with electrodes of lightweight lithium and carbon. Currently the battery of choice for laptops and cell phones, its power-to-weight ratio is better than NiCd and five times that of a conventional lead acid battery. It holds a charge longer and can be recharged...

The rise of the gasolinepowered cars

Despite the problems associated with batteries, early drivers preferred the electric cars because ICE-powered cars had an even bigger problem Getting started. Starting these early gasoline-powered cars required cranking a handle in the front of the car in order to start it. This was a fussy, often dangerous task because the engine could kick the crank handle backwards and break an arm. (This is similar to the motorcycles that require the driver to jump down on a starter lever in order to get the engine running. Who wants to do that ) In fact, many electric vehicle customers (women in particular) drove electric cars simply to avoid the starting process. Then in 1912, Alfred Kettering introduced the first self-starting gasoline-powered vehicle, and the difficult task of starting an ICE was no longer in play. After the introduction of the self-starter, electric car sales plummeted and never recovered. Sales of electric cars essentially stopped, completely, and no manufacturers pursued...

Mitigation Options and Issues

Government-mandated vehicle fuel efficiency requirements are certain to be an element in the mitigation of world oil peaking. In addition to major fuel efficiency improvements in conventional vehicles, one result would almost certainly be the more rapid deployment of hybrid electric vehicles. Market penetration of these technologies cannot happen rapidly because of the time and effort required for manufacturers to retool their factories for large-scale production and because of the slow turnover of existing stock. In addition, a shift from gasoline to diesel fuel would require a major refitting of refineries, which would take time.

Government Procurement

Government procurement programs of renewables involve payment of a premium up front, but result in very substantial long-term savings. Governments can also require the purchase for their vehicle fleets of clean and efficient vehicles. Many municipalities in the United States are now purchasing electric and natural gas turbine buses. The City of Los Angeles, California, has purchased a fleet of electric cars for municipal use and has installed recharging stations for the public throughout the city. California also adopted a law requiring zero emission vehicles and several other states have adopted the California standard.53

Fuel Cells Making Water And Energy

A Ford experimental SUV, powered by a fuel cell and also capable of being plugged in, drove by, with big letters on its side proclaiming its technology. The crowd instantly swung their heads around to follow that jazzy number down the street, and several folks headed that way to take a gander at the Ford version of the future. After all, here was another technology that could cut CO2 emissions and move away from oil. The crowd was tugged in two directions, one toward the GM plug-in hybrid that could run on gas or ethanol as a backup fuel, and the other toward the Ford electric car that could also be plugged in but would use a fuel cell to recharge.

The Promises Of Nuclear Power

Preventing Wars Along with battery-driven or hydrogen-driven automobiles, nuclear power has the potential to prevent world wars over Middle East oil supplies. Middle East oil is crucial to the well-being of many nations as long as they rely so heavily on gasoline-driven automobiles the United States led the Gulf War in 1991 (at a cost of tens of billions of dollars) to prevent loss of control of that oil. The Middle East currently supplies 30 of the world's oil this will likely rise to 50 within a few years. Development of practical, inexpensive storage batteries for electric cars, coupled with nuclear electricity to charge the batteries, could greatly reduce our need for gasoline.

Transforming Production

The capacity for the production of energy from renewable sources and the need to increase the overall production capacity for electricity in order to possibly facilitate the transition to electric vehicles add complexity to the situation. In addition to this, some solutions that are attractive short term, such as coal, may be limited for the longer term, because of expected peaks in the supply of raw materials. Apart from these issues related to the expansion of capacity, there is the problem of replacing existing nuclear plants and other power plants. Many of the existing nuclear plants are approaching the end of their technical lives and need soon to be replaced or refurbished.

Coming Full Circle and Back to Electric

Over the last century, internal-combustion engines are supported by a massive infrastructure and intellectual property in the technologies. Companies have spent untold millions developing new ideas and machines, and when an industry changes, all those investment dollars are wasted and new investment dollars need to be spent on the new technologies. Companies don't like to waste their money, so they tend to resist new technologies, not because they're inferior but because it's uneconomical. In addition every corner gas station has a mechanic that can recite the details of internal-combustion operation. It will take a considerable investment in new infrastructure before all-electric vehicles displace internal-combustion vehicles.

Projected Real Savings During the Ownership Cycle

As you might guess from the above discussion, the projected savings during the ownership cycle of an electric vehicle versus a gasoline-powered vehicle hinge in large measure on how much you pay for the electric vehicle. As we have seen, the premium for a new electric versus its gasoline-only equivalent is mind-boggling, often 100 percent or more. It would be hard to imagine any scenario in which a new EV would provide a cost benefit when compared with an equivalent gasoline vehicle. On the other hand, if you can live with an EV's peculiarities, especially when it comes to range, an electric car or truck might offer cost benefits when purchased used.

Electric Scooters and Motorcycles

Battery-powered bicycles, scooters, and motorcycles are a remarkable technology now sweeping China.41 These electric two-wheelers (E2Ws) are the first and most successful mass-marketed battery-powered electric vehicles in the world. They hold out hope for slowing the embrace of full-sized vehicles in China and fragmenting the transport monoculture in the United States and elsewhere. They have immediate air-quality benefits, accelerate the development of the low-cost battery industry, and set the stage for a shift toward three- and four-wheel electric vehicles. Annual sales of E2Ws in China grew from 40,000 in 1998 to 13 million in 2006. Nothing like this exists anywhere else in the world. FIGURE 8.2 Observed two-wheel vehicle use in selected Chinese cities, 2006-2007. Source Jonathan Weinert, Joan Ogden, Dan Sperling, Andrew Burke, The Future of Electric Two-Wheelers and Electric Vehicles in China, Energy Policy 36 (2008) 2544-2555, figure 2, page 5. Note Data were obtained by...

Hydrogen Transportation Technology

It will be easiest for hydrogen to displace natural gas in the light-duty vehicle fleet first. Passenger vehicles are idle 90 + of the time, with fuel costs accounting for 5-10 of ownership costs. The development of hybrid electric cars and trucks and later fuel cell vehicles makes the prospect of achieving 80 mpg equivalent fuel economy over the entire vehicle fleet quite likely by 2020. This improved fuel economy is the single most important step in making hydrogen fueled vehicles viable, dramatically reducing refueling cost and the size, weight, and cost of onboard fuel storage.

The glory days of steam

In 1897, steam-powered transport was more prevalent than gasoline-powered transport simply because internal-combustion engines were so much more complicated. And although electricity was the most favored form of power (because you could simply hop into an electric car, press the accelerator, and be on your way), steam power was the most common form of auto propulsion in the United States. Manufacturers sold 1,681 steam cars that year 1,571 electric cars and only 930 gasoline-powered cars.

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