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Power Efficiency Guide

Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

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2.1 Growth of volumes of Chinese exports and imports,

January 2005-May 2008 14

2.2 China's headline CPI, food CPI and non-food CPI,

January 1999-May 2008 14

2.3 Shares of total exports and United States-bound exports in

China's GDP 1993-2007 17

2.4 Model simulation: impacts of a 1 per cent slow-down of the

US economy 18

2.5 Nominal and real oil prices, January 1959-June 2008 18

2.6 Share of oil expenditure in GDP and oil intensity of GDP 1976-2007 20

2.7 Growth of land prices and average wages in China, 2001-2008 22

2.8 Central bank benchmark lending rate and commercial bank base lending rate, January 1991-May 2008 25

2.9 Excess liquidity and bank credit, January 1998-May 2008 26

2.10 Monthly increase in foreign reserves, the trade surplus and utilised foreign direct investment, January 2007-May 2008 26

2.11 The renminbi's nominal effective exchange rate and the bilateral exchange rate against the US dollar, October 2006-June 2008 27

2.12 Shanghai A share stock-market: PE ratio and index,

January 2001-May 2008 27

3.1 US short and long Treasury bond rates, December 1998-May 2009 32

3.2 The Mainland China-US real exchange rate since 1995 on producer prices 34

3.3 Rate of US CPI inflation, 1990-2008 35

3.4 The average traded price of crude petroleum, 1990-2008 35

3.5 Other commodity price shocks, 1993-2009 36

3.6 Simulated effects of the financial contraction on real rates of return and investment financing rates, North America, 2000-2035 41

3.7 Simulated effects of the financial contraction on real rates of return and investment financing rates, Western Europe, 2000-2035 41

3.8 Simulated effects of the financial contraction on investment, 2000-2035 42

3.9 Simulated effects of the financial contraction on GDP 2000-2035 43

3.10 Simulated effects of the financial contraction on regional imports, 2000-2035 43

3.11 Simulated effects of the financial contraction on bilateral real exchange rates relative to North America, 2000-2035 45

3.12 Simulated effects of the financial contraction on real effective exchange rates, 2000-2035 45

3.13 Simulated effects of the financial contraction with tighter inward capital controls on Chinese GNP GDP investment and imports, 2000-2035 48

3.14 Simulated effects of the financial contraction with tighter inward capital controls on Chinese real exchange rates, 2000-2035 48

3.15 Simulated effects of the financial contraction with compensating reserve accumulation (temporarily increased saving) on Chinese GNP GDP investment and imports, 2000-2035 50

3.16 Simulated effects of the financial contraction with compensating reserve accumulation (temporarily increased saving) on Chinese real exchange rates, 2000-2035 50

4.1 US-China trade, 1990-2006 66

4.2 US trade deficit: China's share in comparative perspective, 1990-2006 66

4.3 China's bilateral trade balance, 1992-2006 68

4.4 US trade in ICT goods disaggregated into parts and components and final goods,1990-2006 73

6.1 Migration and economic structural changes, 1997-2005 112

6.2 Migration and GDP per capita growth, 1997-2005 112

6.3 Age distribution of migrants from different samples 126

6.4 Years of schooling by birth year, 1950-1990 126

6.5 Earnings growth, 1991-2007 (first job, first month) 131

6.6 Per capita monthly income and expenditure 134

6.7 Age distribution of migrant children by current living arrangements 140

6.8 Children's parental-assessed health status by age and current living arrangement 142

6.9 Parental-assessed excellent performance at school by age and current living arrangement 143

6.10 Parents worried about child's school work by age and current living arrangement 143

8.1 Carbon dioxide emissions/GDP energy/GDP and carbon dioxide emissions/energy for the world and China, 1971-2005 173

8.2 Energy consumption in China, levels and growth, 1978-2006 174

8.3 Energy intensity in China and other developing countries, 1971-2005 177

8.4 Energy intensity in China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, 1971-2005 180

8.5 Historical and projected carbon dioxide emissions levels, 1990-2030 181

8.6 China's future emissions or emission entitlements under different scenarios, 2000-2030 184

9.1 Comparison of projections of energy consumption in China, 1990-2030 195

9.2 Energy consumption in China by source, 1980-2005 198

9.3 Chinese GDP growth in purchasing power parity, 1980-2005 199

9.4 Energy per unit of GDP 1980-2005 199

9.5 Projections of carbon dioxide emissions by fuel type in China,

1990-2030 200

9.6 Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels, 1990 and 2030 201

9.7 China's carbon dioxide emissions from energy, 2008-2050 213

9.8 China's GDP change from emissions reduction, 2008-2050 213

9.9 China's carbon dioxide emissions from energy under alternative technology assumptions, 2008-2050 217

10.1 Emissions and removals per capita of sulphur dioxide in China,

1991-2006 232

10.2 Regional composition of sulphur dioxide emissions, 1991-2006 234

10.3 Sulphur dioxide emissions against per capita GDP by province, 1991-2006 234

10.4 Environmental kuznets curve: 29 provinces 236

10.5 Environmental kuznets curve: coastal provinces 237

10.6 Environmental kuznets curve: central and western China

10.7 Changing trends of carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide emissions 237 12.1 Correlation between growing-season temperatures and wheat-yield change due to climate change 240

13.1 Evolution of irrigation management in Ningxia Province, 1990-2004 286

13.2 Changes in water management institutions, 1995-2004 286

13.3 Differences of per capita cropping income and total income between water-selling households and water-buying households, 2004 289

15.1 Energy production and consumption in China, 1960-2007 311

15.2 Primary energy use in China by energy type, 1957-2006 311

15.3 Introduction of energy-efficiency improvements in steel making in China, 1970-2000 312

15.4 Energy-efficiency improvement in China, 1960-2006 312

15.5 Carbon dioxide emissions in China, 1990-2006 318

16.1 Total energy, carbon emissions and energy efficiency, by income 349

16.2 Indirect energy, carbon emission and energy efficiency, by income 349 16.3a Direct energy, carbon emission and energy efficiency, by income 350

16.3b Direct energy, carbon emission and energy efficiency excl.

coal, by income 350

16.4 Yuan carbon emissions by income percentile 351

16.5 Predicted relationship between household energy consumption per capita and income 359

16.6 Predicted relationship between household carbon emissions per capita and income 359

17.1 Coal industry development and air pollution emissions, 1997-2006 370

17.2 Historical changes in the five factors in the index-decomposition study, 1990-2006 376

17.3 Decomposition of sulphur dioxide emissions changes in China, 1997-2006 382

17.4 Decomposition of smoke emissions changes in China, 1997-2006 382

17.5 Decomposition of dust emissions changes in China, 1997-2006 383

18.1 Energy intensity and the energy elasticity of GDP in China, 1979-2006 395

18.2 Carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion in China,

2005-30: the base case and alternative policy cases 411

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