Introduction

There are two types of time series data used in this chapter. Details of the data and sources are given in Appendix B. One type consists of standard economic data, originally compiled and published by governments or international agencies (such as the OECD). These data are based on a variety of sources that need not concern us particularly, since the published results are accepted and utilized by most economic modelers. This applies to labor supply (man-hours) and - in the US case - capital stock. Since our first test case is the US, we have used publications of the US government - notably the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Bureau of Economic Analysis - since 1970. These data are available on the internet. For earlier periods, we use a compilation by the US Department of the Census (United States Bureau of the Census 1975).

In the case of Japan (and most other countries we are aware of), long time series for capital stock data are not published by governments, as such. The most convenient source for long-term comparative analysis is Maddison (1995a, chapter 5).

For purposes of extending the economic analysis beyond the US, consistency of definition is important. The most convenient international economic database is now maintained by the Groningen Growth and Development Centre, in the Netherlands (Groningen Growth and Development Centre 2006).

Exergy and useful work time series are derived for the US from 'energy' data published by the Energy Information Agency, which is part of the Department of Energy (United States Energy Information Agency 1991, 1994, 1995, 1997, 1998) and from historical statistics prior to 1975 (United States Bureau of the Census 1975). In this case, there have been some changes of category that require minor adjustments for earlier periods as far back as 1949, but the details of those adjustments do not concern us here. Detailed calculations of exergy and useful work for the US can be found in our original publications (Ayres et al. 2003, 2005), which are summarized in Chapter 4.

Energy data for Japan are taken from the International Energy Agency publications and from a publication co-authored by Dr Eric Williams (Williams and Warr 2008). Detailed Japanese data sources are given in that paper and in Appendix B.

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