Us Data Sources

The following were the principal data sources for the US (Tables B-2 and

(1) Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use (1999), AnnualEnergy Review 1998, Washington, DC: United States Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration.

(2) Energy Information Administration Office of Oil and Gas (1999), Historical Natural Gas Annual 1930 Through 1998, Washington, DC: United States Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration.

(3) United States Bureau of the Census (1975), Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970, Bicentennial edition, two volumes. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

(4) Schurr, Sam H. and Bruce C. Netschert (1960), Energy in the American Economy, 1850-1975, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

(5) Groningen Growth and Development Centre (2006), Industry Growth Accounting Database (internet website), September 2006 (cited October 2006), accessed at www.ggdc.net.

(6) Groningen Growth and Development Centre (2007), The Conference Boardand Groningen Growth and Development Centre Total Economy Database, Faculty of Economics, University of Groningen, January, accessed October at www.ggdc.net.

(7) Maddison, Angus (1993), 'Standardized Estimates of Fixed Capital Stock', in R. Zoboli (ed.), Essays on Innovation, Natural Resources and the International Economy. Ravenna, Italy: Studio AGR.

(8) Maddison, Angus (2003), The World Economy: Historical Statistics, Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

(9) Potter, Neal and Francis T. Christy Jr. (1968), Trends in Natural Resource Commodities, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

(10) United States Bureau of the Census annual, Statistical Abstract of the United States, Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

(11) Smil, Vaclav (1998), Energies: An Illustrated Guide to the Biosphere and Civilization, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

(12) Wirsenius, S. (2000), 'Human use of land and organic materials: modeling the turnover of biomass in the global food system'.

Ph.D. thesis, dissertation no. CPL 827, Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden.

Other data sources, all from the United States Department of Commerce Bureau of Economic Analysis, include

• 1973, Long Term Economic Growth 1860-1970, Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.

• 1992, Business Statistics, 1963-1991, Washington, DC: United States Department of Commerce.

• Monthly, Survey of Current Business, Washington, DC: United States Department of Commerce.

Table B.2a

Data sources for US economic data

Title

Units

Period

Source

Population

million persons

1950-

-2006

(6)

Groningen: Total Economy Database

1900-

-1949

(8)

Maddison: The World Economy: Historical Statistics

GDP

million 1990

1950-

-2006

(6)

Groningen: Total Economy Database

International Geary

1900-

-1949

(8)

Maddison: The World Economy: Historical Statistics

Khamis dollars

Capital

million 1990

1993-

-2006

(5)

Groningen: Industry Growth Accounting Database

International Geary

TIMES 1.1935 conversion to 1990 from their 2007 data.

Khamis dollars

1900-

-1992

(7)

Maddison: Standardized Estimates of Fixed Capital Stock

Labor

million annual hours

1950-

-2006

(6)

Groningen: Total Economy Database

worked

1900-

-1949

(3)

Historical Statistics of the United States Tables I, D765,

D803 (civilian employment * hours worked)

Table B.2b Data description and sources for US coal

Material Title Period Source Mass (1 short ton = 0.9071847 metric tons) Heat content (1 Btu

= 1055.056 joules)

Reference Series name and/or formula Reference Formula

Coal Exergy = Heat* 1.088

Raw coal production

Raw coal apparent consumption

1949-2006

1850-1948

(1) Annual Energy Review (3) Historical Statistics -volume 1

M93 + M123

Production

Sum production of bituminous coal + Pennsylvania anthracite

Same definition as for mass

1949-2006

1880-1948

1850-1879

(1) Annual

Energy

Review

(3) Historical Statistics -volume 1

(3) Historical Statistics -volume 1

M84, M85 interpolated before 1900

M93 + M123

Coal consumption = production + imports — exports — stock change — losses & unaccounted for (Bituminous consumption in Btus) /25.4 + (Anthracite consumption in Btus) /26.2

Consumption assumed equal to production

M84 + M85 interpolated before 1900

Sum 'Consumption in Btus': bituminous coal + Pennsylvania anthracite Consumption assumed equal to production

Table B.2b (continued)

Material Title Period Source

Coal, 1949-2006 (I) Annual apparent Energy consumption Review as finished fuel

1916-1948 (3) Historical Statistics -volume 1

Mass (1 short ton = 0.9071847 metric tons) Heat content

Reference Series name and/or formula Reference Formula

Table 7.1, Finished fuel = apparent Col. 6 Table consumption (7.1.6) — coal 7.3, Cols 2, used in coke plants (7.3.2) 8 Table 7.7, — coal used in power Col. 5 plants (7.3.8) + coke consumption (7.7.5)

M85, M84, Finished fuel = apparent M116, M114, consumption (M84/25.4 M122 + M85/26.2) - coal used in coke plants (M 116) — coal used in power plants (Ml 14) + coke production (Ml 22 = consumption)

Table 7.1, Col. 6 Table 7.3, Cols 2, 8 Table 7.7, Col. 5 Table A5, Cols 1, 3, 7, 10 M85, M84, Ml 16, Ml 14, M122

Same definition as for Mass (7.1.6) * (A5.1) - (7.3.2) * (A5.3) - (7.3.8) * (A5.7) + (7.7.5) * (A5.10)

M84 + M85 -(26.8* Ml 16)- (25 * Ml 14) + (24.8 * M122)

1890-1915

1872-1889

1850-1871

(3) Historical Statistics -volume 1

(3) Historical Statistics -volume 1

(3) Historical Statistics -volume 1

extrapolated to zero in 1890,M122

M85, M84

interpolated,

M122

M93 + M123

Finished fuel = apparent consumption (M84/25.4 + M85/26.2) - coal used in coke plants (1.51 * M122) — coal used in power plants (Ml 14) + coke production Finished fuel = apparent consumption (M84/25.4 + M85/26.2) - coal used in coke plants (1.51*M122) + coke production (M122 = consumption) Finished fuel assumed equal to production

M85, M84, M114

extrapolated to zero in 1890, M122

M85, M84

interpolated,

M122

M84 + M85 -(1.51 * 26.8* M122) (25 * Ml 14) + (24.8 * M122)

Finished equal to production

Notes:

1. Multipliers (26.2, 25.4, 1.51) derived by exponential fits on years where both series were available.

2. The Annual Energy Review table numbers from 1999-2006 are different from those shown here. The newer numbered AER tables were used in updating 1999-2005.

3. From 1989 on, where available, data are computed separately for CHP and non-CHP.

Table B.2c Data description and sources for US petroleum

Material Title Period Source Metric tons: M(product) = Heat content

F(product) * B(product) F(P) = (1 Btu = 1055.056 joules)

factor (lbs /gal) from Table X for product B(P) = value in bbls /day * 365 * 42(gals /bbl) /2204(lbs /tonne)

Reference Series name and/or Reference Formula formula

Petroleum Crude oil Exergy production = Heat* 1.088

1949-2006 (1) Annual

Energy Review 1859-1948 (4) Schurr and Netschert, Statistical appendices

1850-1858

Col. 8 production) Table Al :I, M (crude oil

Col. 4 production)

Table 1.2, Production Col. 3

Table A1:II, Production Col. 4

Col. 8 production) Table Al :I, M (crude oil

Col. 4 production)

Crude oil

1949-2006 (I) Annual

Table 5.2,

M(crude oil production

Table 5.2,

M (crude oil

apparent

Energy Review

Col. 8 Table

+ crude oil imports —

Col. 8

production + crude

consumption

5.1, Cols 5, 10

crude oil losses) with

Table 5.1,

oil imports — crude

stock changes + net

Cols 5, 10

oil losses) with

exports for crude oil

times

stock changes + net

per se assumed zero

Table A2,

exports for crude oil

Cols 1-2

per se assumed zero

1859-1948 (4) Schurr and

Table Al:

M(crude oil apparent

Table

Apparent crude oil

Netschert,

VI, Col. 4

consumption)

Al: VII,

consumption

Statistical

Col. 4

1850-1858

Petroleum

f 949-2006 (I) Annual

Table 5. f 2a,

Finished fuel =

Table 2. f,

Finished fuel

products

Energy Review

Cols 1-5,

M(Asphalt/road)

Cols 3, 9, 13

= consumption

consumption

7-14

+ M(Distillate) +

by residential,

as finished

Table 5.f 2b,

M(Jet) + M(LPG

commercial,

fuel

Cols f, 7

total) + M(Gasoline) + M (Residual) + M(Other) for residential/ commercial, industrial and transport

industrial and transport

1920—1948 (4) Schurr and

Table Al:'VI,

Finished fuel =

Table

Finished fuel

Netschert,

Col. 4 Table

apparent consumption

Af :VII,

= apparent

Statistical

8.8, Col. 5

(Ai VI.4) - energy

Col. 4 Table

consumption

appendices

(EIA)

sector use (8.85

8.8, Col.

(Ai VI.4) - energy

(3) Historical

Table II:S45

extrapolated to zero in

6 (EIA)

sector use (8.85

Statistics,

(HIST)

1876 using rates from

Table II:S45

extrapolated to zero

volume II

II.S45)

(HIST)

in 1876 using rates from II.S45)

1850-1858 zero

1850-1858 zero

Notes:

1. Finished fuel calculation: comparison of values in Annual Energy Review from Table 5.12b (energy sector use) and Table 8.8 (electric utility use) in common units produce similar numbers for 1949-2006. This suggests that internal use by the petroleum industry of petroleum products has been excluded from apparent consumption. Hence it has not been subtracted twice.

2. The Annual Energy Review table numbers from 1999-2006 are different from those shown here. The newer numbered AER tables were used in updating 1999-2005.

3. From 1989 on, where available, data are computed separately for CHP and non-CHP.

Table B.2d Data description and sources for US natural gas

Material Title Period Source Mass (cubic feet = metric tons*50875.05) Heat content (1 Btu = 1055.056

joules)

Reference Series name and/or Reference Formula formula

Natural gas

Base units = million cubic feet Exergy = Heat* 1.04

Natural gas production includes natural gas liquids (NGL)

Natural gas apparent consumption includes natural gas liquids

1936-2006

1930-1935

1882-1929

1850-1881

(2) Historical Natural Gas Annual

(2) Historical Natural Gas Annual

(4) Schurr & Netschert, Statistical appendix I

Table 1, Col. 1 Gross withdrawals

Table 1, Col. 5 1.25 »marketed production (1.25*T1.5)

Table I, Col. 5 1,25*marketed production

1930-2006

(2) Historical Natural Gas Annual

Constant 1.035 from EIA.A4

Gross withdrawals (t7.1) * Dry production factor (A4.1)

1.25 * marketed production * Dry production factor (A4.1) 1.035 * 1.25 * marketed production*

Table 2, Col. 8, Consumption Table 1, Col. 6 (T2.8) + NGL (T1.6)

Table 2, Col. Dry consumption

1882-1930 (4) Schurr and Netschert, Statistical appendix I

Natural gas consumption as finished fuel (excludes NGL)

1850-1881

1930-2006 (2) Historical Natural Gas Annual

1890-1929 (4) Schurr and Netschert (S&N), Statistical appendix I (2) Historical Natural Gas Annual

1850-1881

Notes overleaf

Table VI,

Consumption

Table VII,

Consumption

Cols 5 and 6

(natural gas + NGL)

Cols. 5 and

(natural gas

interpolated

6 Statistical

+ NGL)

1882-1890

appendix I

interpolated

1882-1890

zero

Table 3, Col. 8

Finished fuel =

Table 3,

Delivered to

Table 3, Col. 7

total delivered to

Col. 8

consumers (T3.8 *

consumers (T3.8)

Table 3,

A4.4)

- electric utility use

Col. 7

- electric utility

(T3.7) (total deliveries

EIA A4,

use (T3.7 * A4.3)

excludes pipeline

Cols 3 and 4

and plant use). Same

as sum (residential,

commercial, industrial)

and transport (T3.1 +

T3.4 + T3.5 + T3.6)

Table 3, Cols 7,

Finished fuel =

Table 3,

Finished fuel =

8 extrapolated

delivered to

Cols 7, 8

1.035 * (Delivered

to zero in 1882

consumers (T3.8 via

extrapolated

to consumers

using rates from

VI.6) - electric utility

Constant

(T3.8 via VI.6) -

S&N, Table VI,

use (T3.7 via VI.7)

factor 1.035

electric utility use

Cols 5, 6

(T3.7 via VI.7))

zero

Table B.2d (continued)

Notes:

1. The multiplier 1.25 (marketed for gross) derived from fit on years where both series were available. The constant 1.035 is inferred from all values prior to 1940 in Table A4 of the Natural Gas Annual.

2. From 1999 on, raw data are from Annual Energy Review, not HNGA. Calculations as for earlier years.

3. From 1989 on, where available, data are computed separately for CHP and non-CHP.

Table B.2e Data description and sources for US fuelwood and biomass

Material

Title

Fuelwood Fuelwood Exergy = production = Heat* 1.152 consumption = consumption as finished fuel

Period Source

1997-2006 (1) Annual Energy Review

1965-1996 (10) Statistical Abstract

1958-1964 Interpolation

1900-1957 (9) Potter and Christy

1850-1899 (4) Schurr and Netschert

Mass (million cubic feet roundwood equivalent*(0.017-0.022) = MMT. Multiplier time dependent

Reference

Formula

Table 10.3, row 1 Table 1152, last row

Wood energy (Btu)*1535 Fuelwood consumption (mcfre)*multiplier

Table FO-13, Col. B New supply fuelwood*multiplier Table 7, Col. 1 5-yr interpolations*multiplier

Heat Content (1 Btu = 1055.056 joules)

Period

Source

Reference

Formula

1981-2006 1970-1980

1949-1969 1850-1949

(1) Annual Energy Review

(3) Historical Statistics, volume 1

Table 10.3, Row 1 Table 10.3 row 1 and Table 1.2, Col. 10

M92, interpolated

Wood energy

Wood energy and energy from biomass, adjusted and interpolated

Energy from biomass

(= fuelwood only)

Fuelwood consumption

Notes: The Annual Energy Review table numbers from 1999-2006 are different from those shown here. The newer numbered AER tables were used in updating 1999-2005.

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