Appendix B Data

B.1 DERIVATION OF HUMAN/ANIMAL

CONTRIBUTIONS TO EXERGY CONSUMPTION

Table B. 1 Derivation of food!feed biomass consumption

Flows

Efficiencies (trade neutral values)

Definition

Human

Feed and Feedstock

Feed intake (for

appropriated

utilization efficiency

animal commodities)

phytomass

and feedstock use (for

Values:

processed vegetable

US: 0.64

commodities) per

JP: 0.65

corresponding phytomass

EU: 0.62

appropriation

Product generation

Product generated per

efficiency

feed intake

US: 0.16

JP: 0.20

EU: 0.24

Commodity utilization

Food eaten per food

efficiency

product generated

US: 0.55

JP: 0.77

EU: 0.58

Food end-use per

Wirsenius

Digestible energy — gas,

capita

(2000, p. 61, table 3.3)

feces and, urine losses =

metabolizable energy metabolizable energy

Notes

Factors having the largest impact include the harvest index, pasture utilization, and extent of use of by-products and residues as feed. Also reflects phytomass internal uses, losses in distribution and storage and feed processing losses

See Wirsenius (2000, pp. 114-16)

Reflects efficiency of the conversion to commodity. For animal food systems equivalent to the feed-equivalent conversion efficiency

Takes account of losses in distribution and storage, losses in the food utilization process (i.e. non-eaten). Application of this efficiency to 'food end-use per capita' provides 'food intake per capita' (see below)

Estimates from wholesale supply (end-use supplied from FAO Food Balance Sheets). Note this is not the actual food intake

Food intake per capita

Wirsenius

Workers' food intake

Employed * work-to-rest ratio

Muscle work (workers)

Food-to-work efficiency Workers' food intake * (human = 0.2) food-to-work efficiency

Estimated using daily food energy requirements instead of data on true food intake. The driving variable in the FPD model (Wirsenius 2000) is end-use. End-use — intake = non-eaten food. The amount of feces and urine is estimated as the difference between GE and ME for each eaten flow. We have used data from 2000 (Wirsenius) and estimates of f 900 daily intake to fit a logistic curve, providing a time series of daily intake estimates

Time series of per-capita intake reconstructed from 10 year averages using a logistic function of time with start and end values: 2500 kcal per capita per day in 1900, 2900 kcal per capita per day in 2000

Approximation from Smil (1998, pp. 91-2)

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