Appendix B Data



Table B. 1 Derivation of food!feed biomass consumption


Efficiencies (trade neutral values)



Feed and Feedstock

Feed intake (for


utilization efficiency

animal commodities)


and feedstock use (for


processed vegetable

US: 0.64

commodities) per

JP: 0.65

corresponding phytomass

EU: 0.62


Product generation

Product generated per


feed intake

US: 0.16

JP: 0.20

EU: 0.24

Commodity utilization

Food eaten per food


product generated

US: 0.55

JP: 0.77

EU: 0.58

Food end-use per


Digestible energy — gas,


(2000, p. 61, table 3.3)

feces and, urine losses =

metabolizable energy metabolizable energy


Factors having the largest impact include the harvest index, pasture utilization, and extent of use of by-products and residues as feed. Also reflects phytomass internal uses, losses in distribution and storage and feed processing losses

See Wirsenius (2000, pp. 114-16)

Reflects efficiency of the conversion to commodity. For animal food systems equivalent to the feed-equivalent conversion efficiency

Takes account of losses in distribution and storage, losses in the food utilization process (i.e. non-eaten). Application of this efficiency to 'food end-use per capita' provides 'food intake per capita' (see below)

Estimates from wholesale supply (end-use supplied from FAO Food Balance Sheets). Note this is not the actual food intake

Food intake per capita


Workers' food intake

Employed * work-to-rest ratio

Muscle work (workers)

Food-to-work efficiency Workers' food intake * (human = 0.2) food-to-work efficiency

Estimated using daily food energy requirements instead of data on true food intake. The driving variable in the FPD model (Wirsenius 2000) is end-use. End-use — intake = non-eaten food. The amount of feces and urine is estimated as the difference between GE and ME for each eaten flow. We have used data from 2000 (Wirsenius) and estimates of f 900 daily intake to fit a logistic curve, providing a time series of daily intake estimates

Time series of per-capita intake reconstructed from 10 year averages using a logistic function of time with start and end values: 2500 kcal per capita per day in 1900, 2900 kcal per capita per day in 2000

Approximation from Smil (1998, pp. 91-2)

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