GODAS Temperature Anomaly equator

■5 3.5 -2,5 -2 -1,5 -1 -0,5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3,5 5

Fig. 16.9 Equatorial depth-longitude section of ocean temperature anomalies during (a) January 1997, and (b) November 1997 Negative anomalies indicate cold, positive warm. Data are derived from a Global Ocean Data Analysis System (GODAS) which assimilates oceanic observations into an oceanic GCM. Contour interval is 0.5°C. Anomalies are departures from the 1992-2003 base period means (Courtesy: NCEP/NWS, Washington, D.C.)

■5 3.5 -2,5 -2 -1,5 -1 -0,5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3,5 5

Fig. 16.9 Equatorial depth-longitude section of ocean temperature anomalies during (a) January 1997, and (b) November 1997 Negative anomalies indicate cold, positive warm. Data are derived from a Global Ocean Data Analysis System (GODAS) which assimilates oceanic observations into an oceanic GCM. Contour interval is 0.5°C. Anomalies are departures from the 1992-2003 base period means (Courtesy: NCEP/NWS, Washington, D.C.)

anomalies in (a) January 1997, and (b) November 1997, computed from a Global Ocean Data Assimilation System (GODAS) which show the underwater thermal structure of the different oceans before and during the onset of the El Nino. It clearly shows the seesaw-type swing of warm and cold water and change in the inclination of the thermocline between the western and the eastern sides of the equatorial oceans not only in the equatorial Pacific but also in the Atlantic and Indian oceans between January 1997 and November 1997. By January 1999, the La Nina condition returned to all the oceans, thus giving the oscillation a period of a little less than two years.

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