Water Shortage and Drought Response

US Water Revolution

Due to intense governmental pressure and highly illegal Federal dealings, the water crisis that faces California and most of the Western United States are NOT a result of natural causes. They are the direct result of a chemical warfare that is going on NOW to decrease the population of the United States by making water more and more rare in the West. The weather patterns do NOT match up with established scientific data Global warming does not explain this decrease in water, and traces of hydrophobic chemical have been found all over the western United States. The government has been doing its work quietly, but efficiently! Will you take that lying down? Will you let the government kill you and your family? Learn how to help your family during this time; this ebook teaches you the skills you need to know to extract water from any sources and use it to grow food for your family.

US Water Revolution Overview

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Major Water CriSiS iMMiNENT

'India is in the throes of a major water crisis and the country seems least prepared to meet it,' contends Dr Tushaar Shah, principal scientist of IWMI. IWMI predicts that a large chunk of India could by 2025 face the same plight absolute water scarcity as parts of Sub-Saharan Africa do now. A decrease in agricultural production due to water scarcity in a big country like ours and China would cause considerable demand for grains which in turn may lead to an increase in world market prices. Well, this is just one of the many implications. Water scarcity would affect the human life and environment in a very adverse manner. As per the report of World Health Organisation (WHO), every year in the whole world, 3.4 million people die by drinking contaminated water. Many more suffer hardships and financial losses by water-borne diseases. As per the estimate of a UN study, 4,000 persons die every day from contaminated water the 'silent killer'. That's why social workers always describe that...

Hydrologic Effects and Water Resources

Higher temperatures mean changes in precipitation patterns that will have a dramatic impact on California's water resources and hydrology. Most researchers agree that global warming will change the form, timing, intensity, and distribution of precipitation in very significant ways, whether or not there is any change in the overall amount of precipitation.22-26 This has profound implications for California's surface water supply. Construction of additional infrastructure may be necessary to capture the increased winter and spring runoff. However, there are significant environmental and cost impediments to such construction.45,46 In the absence of new infrastructures, existing reservoirs would need to be maintained at lower levels during the winter. This could reduce statewide water supply in the summer by an estimated 7 20 percent.47 Alternative flood control measures could be implemented so that more of the winter runoff could be stored in reservoirs. Development could be restricted...

The Challenge Of Drought Early

Although an understanding of underlying vulnerability is essential to understand the risk of drought in a particular location and for a particular group of people, a drought early warning system (DEWS) is designed to identify negative trends and thus to predict both the occurrence and the impact of a particular drought and to elicit an appropriate response (Buchanan-Smith and Davies, 1995). Numerous natural indicators of drought should be monitored routinely to determine drought onset, end, and spatial characteristics. Severity must also be evaluated continuously on frequent time steps. Although droughts originate from a deficiency of precipitation, it is insufficient to rely only on this climate element to assess severity and resultant impacts. An effective DEWS must integrate precipitation data with other data such as streamflow, snowpack, groundwater levels, res ervoir and lake levels, and soil moisture in order to assess drought and water supply conditions (see Chapter 3). These...

Water Contamination And Depletion

For many people today in certain regions of the world, insufficient fresh water is a serious and growing problem Myers (1997) put the number of water-short people at 550 million and suggested that it could grow to 3 billion by 2025. The problem becomes most obvious during periods of drought, when water supplies that are marginally adequate under normal conditions become insufficient to sustain a regional population and necessitate major dislocations and emergency interventions. Contamination is a serious problem in some areas, as is lack of easy access in many others water piped to one's home is the exception to the rule in much of the developing world (Postel, 1985). According to another estimate, a billion of the world's population lack access to safe water, 1.8 billion do not have adequate sanitation facilities, and over 3 million people die of waterborne and sanitation-related diseases every year (Doyle, 1997). In recent years, the question of the long-term adequacy of the fresh...

Cold Drought Wetwildfires

Global warming will also have a significant impact in major urban areas. In many cities, the existing infrastructure (water supply, communication systems, energy delivery, and waste disposal) is aged, worn out, and has not been well maintained. In its weakened state, the stresses from global warming (such as drought, flooding, extreme weather) could be more than the systems can handle, causing major emergencies. Other stresses in urban areas that may also be affected are crime, chronic air quality problems, and inadequate power supply to meet peak energy demands. One positive aspect is that if winters are less severe, there will be fewer winter stresses and casualties. According to the U.S. Global Change Research Program, the major potential consequences of global warming include the impacts of rising sea level and elevated storm surges on transportation systems, increased heat-related illness and death associated with temperature extremes, increased ground-level ozone pollution...

Climate Change and Its Potential Impacts on Water Supply

In 2005, a study lead by the SCRIPPS Institution of Oceanography and published in the November 17, 2005, issue of the journal Nature investigated the effects of global warming on water supplies around the world. This study concluded that global warming will reduce glaciers and storage packs of snow in regions around the world, causing water shortages and other problems that will impact millions of people. Especially ice and snow-dependent regions will experience costly disruptions to water supply and water management systems. For example, it is estimated that vital water resources from the Sierra Nevada range in California may suffer a 15 to 30 reduction in the twenty-first century as a result of reduced snow pack runoff. Studies warn that even more severe problems may occur in regions depending on water from glaciers since their meltwater cannot be replaced. Vanishing glaciers will have the greatest impact on water supplies in China, India, and rest of Asia.9

Managing Water Supply For Freshwater Ecosystem

Profound impacts on freshwater ecosystems could result from a doubling of atmospheric C02. In addition to increases in mean ambient temperature, climate change models predict declining levels of soil moisture, changes in timing and intensity of rainfall, shifting of storm tracks, and increasing frequency and intensity of drought periods. Shriner and Street (1998) suggest that North American non-forested ecosystems could experience losses of migratory waterfowl and mammal breeding and forage habitats, invasions of exotic species, and increased sediment loading into rivers and lakes. Novel assemblages of plant and animal species could result as the ranges of some species expand while other ranges decline (McKinney & Lockwood, 1999 Lockwood & Duncan, 1999). Source of water supply - Wetlands are becoming increasingly important as sources of ground and surface water with the growth of urban centers and dwindling ground and surface water supplies. California's San Luis National...

Some hydrological specifications of Georgian water resources

In Georgia, about 1,600 water-suppliers provide a total of 620 million cubic meters of drinking water per year. From this quantity 90 is consumed by urban population and 10 by rural (Mindorashvili, 2002). The main source of drinking water is groundwater, accounting for about 90 of the total amount of water feeding the centralized water-supply networks. No special treatment of groundwater takes place before it is supplied to the users the water is only chlorinated. When surface water is used as raw material, this water is specially treated - precipitated and chlorinated.

Untapped Water Supply

Water conservation is a powerful yet underutilized drought mitigation tool that can stave off the severe water shortages, financial losses, and public safety risks that historically have been assumed to be an inevitable consequence of drought. Hundreds of hardware technologies and behavior-driven measures are available to boost the efficiency of water use when implemented and put into action, they can drive down short-term as well as long-term water demands (Vickers, 2001). Conservation-oriented rates, rebates, and program and policy incentives Toilets and urinals (low-volume, nonwater, composting, retrofit devices) Showerheads and faucets (e.g., low-volume, aerators, retrofit devices) Clothes washers and dishwashers (e.g., high-efficiency, full loads only) Point-of-use hot water heaters (e.g., homes with high hot water losses) Leak repair and maintenance (e.g., leaking toilets and dripping faucets) Conservation-oriented rates, rebates, and program and policy incentives...

Glaciers and water supply in Central Asia

On average, glacier melt contributes 10-20 per cent of the total river runoff in Central Asia39,120. During dry and hot years, the input of glacier water into summer river flow could be as high as 70-80 per cent, compared to 20-40 per cent in normal years. This proportion is critical for agriculture - the economic sector that consumes about 90 per cent of water resources and is highly dependent on water availability. During the severe droughts of 2000-2001 in the southern districts of Central Asia, glacier water played a vital role in sustaining agricultural production. Irrigated crops such as cotton have survived, while most rain-fed crops, especially cereals, failed. This has strongly affecting the food security of millions of people in Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Iran. It is expected that glacier recession in the long term could reduce water supply, affecting the agricultural sector and energy security, thereby destabilizing the political situation since many ofthe rivers are...

Xstep Publicize The Drought Planbuild Public Awareness And Consensus

If you have communicated well with the public throughout the process of establishing a drought plan, there may already be better-than-normal awareness of drought and drought planning by the time you actually write the plan. Themes to emphasize in writing news stories during and after the drought planning process could include How the drought plan is expected to relieve drought impacts in both the short and long term. Stories can focus on the human dimensions of drought, such as how it affects a farm family on its environmental consequences, such as reduced wildlife habitat and on its economic effects, such as the costs to a particular industry or to the state or region's overall economy. What changes people might be asked to make in response to different degrees of drought, such as restricted lawn watering and car washing or not irrigating certain crops at certain times. In subsequent years, you may want to do drought plan refresher news releases at the beginning of the most...

Planning For Drought The Process

Drought is a natural hazard that differs from other hazards in that it has a slow onset, evolves over months or even years, affects a large spatial region, and causes little structural damage. Its onset and end are often difficult to determine, as is its severity. Like other hazards, the impacts of drought span economic, environmental, and social sectors and can be reduced through mitigation and preparedness. Because droughts are a normal part of climate variability for virtually all regions, it is important to develop drought preparedness plans to deal with these extended periods of water shortage in a timely, systematic manner as they evolve. To be effective, these plans must evaluate a region's exposure and vulnerability to the hazard and incorporate these elements in a way that evolves with societal changes. The 10-step drought planning process developed by Wil-hite (1991) was based largely on interactions with many states in the United States, incorporating their experiences and...

Post Drought Evaluation

A post-drought evaluation or audit documents and analyzes the assessment and response actions of government, nongovernmental organizations, and others and provides a mechanism to implement recommendations for improving the system. Without post-drought evaluations, it is difficult to learn from past successes and mistakes, as institutional memory fades. Post-drought evaluations should include an analysis of the climatic and environmental aspects of the drought its economic and social consequences the extent to which pre-drought planning was useful in mitigating impacts, in facilitating relief or assistance to stricken areas, and in post-recovery and any other weaknesses or problems caused by or not covered by the plan. Attention must also be directed to situations in which drought-coping mechanisms worked and where societies exhibited resilience evaluations should not focus only on those situations in which coping mechanisms failed. Evaluations of previous responses to severe drought...

Step Appoint A Drought Task Force

A key political leader initiates the drought planning process through appointment of a drought task force. Depending on the level of government developing the plan, this could be the president or prime minister, a provincial or state governor, or a mayor. The task force has two purposes. First, it supervises and coordinates development of the plan. Second, after the plan is developed and during times of drought when the plan is activated, the task force coordinates actions, implements The task force should reflect the multidisciplinary nature of drought and its impacts, and it should include appropriate representatives of government agencies (provincial, federal) and universities where appropriate expertise is available. If applicable, the governor's office should have a representative on the task force. Environmental and public interest groups and others from the private sector can be included (see Step 3), as appropriate. These groups would be involved to a considerable extent in...

Objectives Of The Drought Plan

As its first official action, the drought task force should state the general purpose for the drought plan. Government officials should consider many questions as they define the purpose of the plan, such as the Purpose and role of government in drought mitigation and response efforts Most drought-prone areas of the state or nation Historical impacts of drought Historical response to drought Principal environmental concerns caused by drought A generic statement of purpose for a plan is to reduce the impacts of drought by identifying principal activities, groups, or regions most at risk and developing mitigation actions and programs that alter these vulnerabilities. The plan is directed at providing government with an effective and systematic means of assessing drought conditions, developing mitigation actions and programs to reduce risk in advance of drought, and developing response options that minimize economic stress, environmental losses, and social hardships during drought. The...

Perception of Drought and Water Shortage

Drought is generally viewed as a sustained and regionally extensive occurrence of below-average natural water availability, in the form of precipitation, runoff, or groundwater. Drought should not be confused with aridity, which applies to those persistently dry regions where, even in normal circumstances, water is in short supply. Normally the consequences of droughts are felt most keenly in areas that are in any case arid (UNESCO-WMO, 1985). Furthermore, the adverse effects of drought are noticeable only in those areas that are inhabited, and the trend of drought impacts intensifies as human activities increase. If arid regions with sparse population are hit by drought, little or no impact will occur to humans or economies. But if the region is densely populated and highly developed, countermeasures have to be taken to cope with drought disasters. It is important to note that although drought may have many adverse effects on human activity, it is also true that many human activities...

The National Drought Policy

Commonwealth and state ministers, through the Ministerial Council, announced a new National Drought Policy in July 1992. As recommended by the Drought Policy Review Task Force, the policy was based on principles of sustainable development, risk management, productivity growth, and structural adjustment in the farm sector. Support for productivity improvement and improved risk management was to be provided through the commonwealth government's main structural adjustment program for agriculture, the Rural Adjustment Scheme, which was being reviewed concurrently with development of the National Drought Policy. The revised Rural Adjustment Scheme incorporated the new concept of exceptional circumstances under which support would be made available for farm businesses faced with a downturn for which the best manager could not be expected to prepare. Eligible events were not limited to drought. The exceptional circumstances provisions became the basis for the delivery of support during the...

Water Cycle And Water Resources

By contrast, dry areas have more than doubled in size since the 1970s. Arid and semiarid regions, such as Africa's Sahel, are experiencing increased drought. Reduced rainfall in the southwestern United States has lowered Colorado River flow to less than it was in the Dust Bowl years of the mid-1930s. For five millennia, the Hamoun wetlands, covering 1,500 square miles (4,000 sq. km) and containing ample water, fish, and game, were a place of refuge for the people of Central Asia. The removal of water for irrigation before it could enter the wetlands, coupled with intense droughts, turned the area into a region of salt flats in 2002. peaks earlier in the year. Because communities typically need more water in summer, when there is less rainfall, this shift puts a strain on water supply systems.

Variation trend of extreme drought during

Extreme drought always brings about severer natural disasters, and threatens much the agricultural production and human's daily life. Lots of statistical results show the rapid increase of the damage caused by extreme drought. Thus it is necessary to study the frequency and variation trend of extreme drought. Here, the variation trend of extreme drought over China during 1951-2004 was analyzed (Ma and Fu, 2003). The method is to calculate the month-to-month Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) of each station in 54 years, if PDSI< -3.0, this month is considered as an extreme drought month and counts for one. The number of extreme drought month every year is the extreme drought frequency. For the contrast analysis, the frequency distribution of monthly PDSI< 0 is shown as well, to better study the evolution characteristics of extreme drought through temporal variation study of frequency. The variation trend of frequency for monthly PDSI< 0 (drought) and monthly PDSI< -3.0...

Droughtvulnerable Vs Droughtresilient Society

The Drought Discussion Group of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) has proposed a new paradigm to improve understanding of the drought hazard in the macro and micro contexts with the goal of enhancing drought preparedness and mitigation efforts in all settings ranging from local to national and from developing to developed countries (ISDR Drought Discussion Group, 2003). This new paradigm emphasizes greater understanding and description of both the physical features of the hazard and the social factors that influence societal vulnerability. Figures 3 and 4 are modified from the Drought Discussion Group's report and represent the characteristics of a drought-vulnerable society (i.e., crisis management) and the discussion group's vision for future drought management efforts, respectively. The society portrayed in Figure 3 is vulnerable to drought and has not developed the institutional capacity to monitor its onset and end, to mitigate risk, or to launch a timely...

Example The US Drought Monitor

One example of a product developed from multiple indicators is the weekly U.S. Drought Monitor product (see Chapter 3). This product, originally released in August 1999, was developed to provide a weekly assessment of drought conditions across the United States on a general scale. What makes the Drought Monitor unique is that it incorporates a variety of quantitative indicators and is adjusted based on qualitative information from a network of local experts around the country. The quantitative indicators include the Palmer and Standardized Precipitation Indices, streamflow information, a soil moisture model, precipitation totals for various time periods, and a vegetation index derived from satellite data. Although some of this information is available in percentiles, the map derives from a subjective combination of this information and the qualitative indicators. An advantage of the Drought Monitor is that the map provides a big picture assessment of drought conditions across the...

Droughtsfloods coexistence DFC during the normal summer monsoons in the mid and lower reaches of the Yangtze River

Previous studies suggest that the summer rainfall in the mid-lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley (MLYRV) has close relationship with the advance and retreat of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (Tao and Chen, 1987 Ding, 1992 Wang, 1994 Chang and Chen, 1995 Lau and Yang, 1997). It is also found out that the severe summer droughts or floods in the MLYRV are associated with the singularities of the large-scale atmospheric circulation (Wang and Xu, 1997 He et al., 2001 Nan and Li, 2003). The majority of the previous literatures on severe droughts and floods put their emphasis on the seasonal mean rainfall (Simmonds et al., 1999 Webster et al., 1998 Barlow et al., 2002 Matsumoto, 1997), while few consider the sub-seasonal variation of rainfalls that are also of great importance. For instance, if precipitation of some summer is predicted to be normal, it might be misunderstood that there would be neither droughts nor floods in the summer. Nevertheless, if both droughts and floods happen...

Drought Forecasting

Decision makers must have accurate drought monitoring information to respond successfully during drought events. Accurate drought forecast information and tools about future conditions are equally important. The science of drought forecasting, however, is in its infancy. To forecast drought, it is important to know something about the causes of drought. Drought is usually established by persisting high pressure that results in dryness because of subsidence of air, more sunshine and evaporation, and the deflection of precipitation-bearing storms. This is usually part of a persistent large-scale disruption in the global circulation pattern. Scientists are In March 2000, NOAA's CPC launched a new drought forecast tool for the United States called the Seasonal Drought Outlook (SDO) This tool is issued monthly at the same time as the traditional long-range seasonal temperature and precipitation forecasts. The SDO attempts to anticipate the pattern and trends for drought conditions across...

Management Creeping Toward A National Drought Policy For The United States

Drought is a normal part of the climate for virtually all portions of the United States it is a recurring, inevitable feature of climate that results in serious economic, environmental, and social impacts. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) estimates average annual losses because of drought in the United States to be 6-8 billion, more than for any other natural hazard (FEMA, 1995). Yet the United States is ill prepared to effectively deal with the consequences of drought. Historically, the U.S. approach to drought management has been to react to the impacts of drought by offering relief to the affected area. These emergency response programs can best be characterized as too little and too late. More important, as noted in this chapter for Australia and South Africa, drought relief does little if anything to reduce the vulnerability of the affected area to future drought events. In fact, there is considerable evidence that providing relief actually increases vulnerability...

DroughtproofiNg TechniQUES

Karnataka has some wonderful drought proofing practices that the country can be proud of. Sand mulching, which is widely practised in the black cotton soils of Koppal and surrounding districts, is one. Even with least rainfall these farmers manage to get a satisfactory yield. In Hungund taluk of Karnataka, three generations of Nagarals have popularised a technique to grow 'arabaradagoo entaane bele' (meaning, 50 per cent crop even in half drought or full drought conditions). During the unprecedented drought of 2001 to 2003, the fact that many villages of Hungund were insulated by the effects of the drought is testimony to the efficiency of this technique. Probably one important lesson a water journalist should keep in mind is that in drought-prone areas, if generations have been living there, they invariably should have innovated ways to combat drought and live with that. We need tactics, patience and time to identify, document and highlight such methods. Unfortunately, many such...

Building a Drought Control and Management System

Because more than 50 of the cultivated land area is rain fed, farming has been adapted to make full use of rainwater. Adaptations include deep plowing and soil loosening to increase the storage capacity of the top soil and developing drought-resistant crops and associated cultivation techniques. Since the 1980s, many pilot projects based on indigenous techniques have begun in arid and semiarid regions. In addition, small rainwater harvesting facilities are also being developed in the north and northwest. 4. Drought Monitoring, Planning, and Management during Dry Periods China's comprehensive hydrological network has played an important role in flood and drought monitoring. The real-time monitoring of the drought process is handled primarily by provincial governments, and the central government closely monitors the development of drought and gives guidance and funding support to local governments to combat drought. Long-term meteorological forecasting is the responsibility of the...

Response Strategies A Early Identification of Droughts

In Spain and other northern Mediterranean countries, drought forecasting based on climatic indicators is not operational. One of the most suitable indicators is the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which shows the pressure gradient in the region. In the winter, when the NAO is low, westerlies are weaker and do not penetrate as far into Europe, so temperatures are influenced by cold high pressure located over Eurasia and precipitation is reduced (EEA, 2001 Experience from recent severe droughts in Spain has shown that droughts are identified too late, complicating the implementation of remediation measures. The White Paper on Water in Spain (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, 2000) notes Taking into account the experience of recent droughts, it is advisable to implement an early warning system that can activate emergency plans. This early warning system should use indicators based on information easily available (precipitation, water stocks in reservoirs, or aquifer water table levels, for...

Forecasting Drought

Examination of the long-term climate records in some regions around the globe reveals persistent trends and periods of below-average rainfall extending over years to a decade or more, while other regions exhibit episodic, shorter droughts. Hence it is useful to consider the prediction of droughts on seasonal to interannual timescales and, separately, on longer decadal timescales. The fact that the earth's climate system is driven primarily by the regular rotation of the earth around the sun led to many efforts during the last two centuries to link the recurrence of droughts with cycles observed in the movements and features of heavenly bodies. Notable among these efforts were schemes based on the phases of the moon and the occurrence of sunspots. These purported linkages have been Improvements in the forecast skill of such statistical schemes likely will plateau, because they are generally constrained by a limited number of useful predictors and relatively short periods of data. Most...

Human Food and Water Shortages

In drought-ravaged Moyale, Ethiopia, cattle are led to one of the few remaining watering holes in the region. This lack of water, along with other climate changes, can cause a decline in food production, affecting the lives of millions of people. suffer from drought and reduced rainfall. With the world's population rapidly increasing, these problems could become very serious, producing widespread water shortages and more hunger and malnutrition, especially for people in less developed areas. According to the IPCC, hundreds of millions of people in Africa and Latin America will not have enough water to live in less than twenty years, and by 2050, hundreds of millions in Asia could face the same situation. By 2080, water shortages could threaten a total of 1.1 billion to 3.2 billion people.

The application of SRSM in drought study

The time series of 55 years (1951-2005) soil moisture in East China is generated by SRSM. The data then used to analyze the dry wet trend in Eastern China, and the results are compared with commonly used drought-wetness indexes such as precipitation, surface humidity index and Palmer drought index (PDSI).

Water resources irrigation demand

Water use is regulated generally by the European Union and in detail by national rules. On a national level, some regulations relate to irrigation water use, its availability, reduction in the dry periods, etc. The latest documents support irrigation. Such documents are the New Hungary Development Plan and Rural Development Plan, which has already been accepted by the European Union. It is expected that the Hungarian government will accept the National Drought Strategy and the National Climate Change Strategy this year. The last document is deeply involved with adaptation measures, among others irrigation and estimates the present adaptive capacity of the country. Agricultural adaptation is strongly connected to the water management development in Hungary (Ligetv ri, 2006). Large flood protection works were begun in the 19th century with the philosophy of taking the surplus water of floods out of country as soon as possible. Due to climate change, a different philosophy is developing...

Integrated management of water resources

The goal of Integrated Management of Water Resources (IMWR) is to unite all aspects of water resources control under a single leadership at the basin level. Normatov and Petrov (2007) described the process of testing IMWR principles on sub-basins of the Aral Sea drainage system before expanding these to the whole basin. The existing water organizations have to a considerable degree inherited their structures and functions from the former Soviet Union. Their vertical structures reflect Soviet command economy. These vertical structures work against IMWR and real integration is possible only on the general national level. At the some time, Ministries and departments are not giving the necessary attention to problems of integrated control of resources. Integration is even more limited at the inter-state level. The opportunity of integration is discussed only at a restricted number of chance meetings between ministries. During the recent years of independence in the Central Asia Region, a...

Integrated Water Resources Management

Early approaches to improving access to clean, safe drinking water involved assessing the state of water resource management policies and practices around the world. The first major assessment came in 1977 at the UN Conference on Water, held in Mar del Plata, Argentina. The conference resulted in the Mar del Plata Action Plan, which assessed the worldwide state of water resources management and noted the lack of data available for the formulation of effective water resources planning. Muhammad Rahaman and Olli Varis write that the Action Plan was the first internationally coordinated approach to integrated water resources management (IWRM) , and that the conference considered water management on a holistic and comprehensive basis 8 . The Plan outlined some of the water resource management issues that were identified as affecting both international and national policy. Perhaps the most important contribution of the conference was its discussion of issues at all levels, from local to...

Impacts on water resources

One of the most dramatic impacts of changing snow cover is on water resources. Snow cover in mountain regions provides critical water supplies, serving nearly one-sixth of the global population with freshwater for domestic, agricultural and industrial uses79. Much of the arid American West79 and Central Asia80 (Figure 4.10) depends heavily (about 75-85 per cent) on snow melt to supply water for municipalities and agriculture. Snow melt driven water resources are crucial for generation of

International trade amplifying national water scarcity

Let me repeat that currently 16 of the water use in the world is not for producing products for domestic consumption but for making products for export and let us assume that, on average, agricultural production for export does not cause significantly more or fewer water-related problems (such as water depletion or pollution) than production for domestic consumption. That means that roughly one sixth of the water problems in the world can be traced back to production for export. Consumers do not see the effects of their consumption behaviour due to the tele-connection between areas of consumption and areas of production. The benefits are at the consumption side, but since water is generally grossly under-priced, the costs remain at the production side. From a water-resources point of view it would be wise for the exporting countries in the world to review their water use for export and see to which extent this is good policy given the fact that the foreign income associated with the...

Forced migration and droughts in arid zones

As global warming becomes a predominant trend 50 million people living in the arid areas of the Third World will be forced off their land by persistent droughts. Human migration in response to chronic crop failures, regional flooding or drought is cited by the 1995 IPCC report as 'difficult to quantify or value in monetary terms' (Watson, Zinyowera and Moss, 1996 36). However, Adger and Fankhauser (1993) produced a highly speculative figure of 4.3 thousand million for a doubling of CO2 (based upon Fankhauser, 1995). These numbers from Fankhauser are meant to largely exclude impacts from sea level rise as coastal populations are assumed to be protected. In order to produce the financial number Fankhauser (1995 49 51) borrows money estimates, only covering relocation costs, from Cline (1992) and Ayres and Walter (1991). He admits costs of hardship and stress are 'almost impossible to assess', but speculates they are a larger amount than the 'pure economic losses' although they too are...

Assessing water contamination

One of the popular methods of assessment of water contamination is monitoring and bio-indication of phytoplankton species quantity and diversity. Laboratory experiments on raw oil show differences in sensitive for a range of phytoplankton species. The species Ditylum brightwelli, Coscinodiscus granii and Chactoceros curvisetus perish within 24 h after oil treatment in 100 mcl l concentration (Mironov, 1970). Experiments show delay of reproduction of phytoplankton species Nitzschia closterium with oil concentrations of 25 (Galtsoff et al., 1935). Other experiments show gathering of large numbers of active forms of Infusoria around an oil spot. In conclusion, our methodologies of bio-indication and defining Cyano-bacterial natural compound are being developed for bioremediation of oil contaminated waters, which will be used especially for sensitive areas as improved safety methods for emergency response for water security.

Surface Water Supply Index

The SWSI, pronounced swazee, was developed by Shafer and Dezman (1982) to address limitations of the Palmer indices and incorporate water supply data, such as snow accumulation and melt, which are important in the western United States. The index is based on four components snowpack, streamflow, precipitation, and reservoir storage. Monthly data for each component are analyzed according to probabilities of occurrence, combined into an overall index, and weighted according to their relative contributions to surface water in the basin. A modified SWSI (Garen, 1993) provides stronger statistical foundations to the index, with drought categories and cumulative frequencies as follows Drought Category Cumulative Frequency (approx.) Mild drought Moderate drought Severe drought Extreme drought An advantage of the SWSI is that it represents water supply conditions unique to each hydrological area, such as regions heavily influenced by snowpack. Limitations are that changing data sources or...

Drought famine and desertification

Drought, famine and desertification are related problems of long standing in many parts of the world. The disastrous droughts in the Sahel in the 1960s and 1970s, for example, were only the most recent in a series which can be traced back several centuries. The earlier droughts, and their accompanying famines, passed mostly unnoticed outside the areas immediately affected. In contrast, modern droughts have been characterized by a high level of concern, particularly in the developed nations of the northern hemisphere. Concern is often media-driven, rising rapidly, but falling just as quickly when the drought breaks or the initial benefits of food and medical aid become apparent. When the rains returned to the Sahel in the late 1970s, interest in the problems of the area declined, although the improvements were little more than minimal. Similarly, the concern raised by television reports of drought and famine in Ethiopia in the mid-1980s peaked at a very high level in 1985 only to...

Palmer Drought Severity Index PDSI and Palmer Hydrologic Drought Index PHDI

The PDSI, based on the Palmer Drought Model (Palmer, 1965), has been one of the most commonly used drought indicators in the United States. One reason for its popularity is that its development in 1965 preceded other indices and resulted in its widespread use and wide-ranging application. The PDSI is derived from a moisture balance model, using historic records of precipitation, temperature, and the local available water capacity of the soil. The PHDI uses a modification of the PDSI to assess longer term moisture anomalies that affect streamflow, groundwater, and water storage. A primary difference between the PDSI and the PHDI is in the calculation of drought termination, using a ratio of moisture received to moisture required to definitely terminate a drought. With the PDSI, a drought ends when the ratio exceeds 0 , if it remains greater than 0 until reaching 100 . With the PHDI, a drought does not end until the ratio reaches 100 (Karl, 1986 Karl et al., 1987). PDSI PHDI Drought...

The impact of climate change on fresh water resources

Figure 7.7 Examples of current vulnerabilities of fresh water resources and their management in the background, a water stress map based on Alcamo et al. (2003a). See text for relation to climate change. (1) Mentioned earlier in the chapter was that as the rate of warming increases, up to one-half of the mass of mountain glaciers and small ice caps outside the polar regions may melt away over the next hundred years. In fact if current warming rates are maintained it is projected that Himalayan glaciers could decay by 80 of their area by the 2030s. Snow melt is an important source of run-off and watersheds will be severely affected by glacier and snow cover decline. As temperatures rise, winter run-off will initially increase while spring high water, summer and autumn flows will be reduced. Particularly seriously affected will be river basins dependent on the Hindu-Kush-Himalaya glaciated region in Asia (e.g. the Indus, Ganges-Brahmaputra and Yangtze rivers) where more than one-sixth...

Introduction A New Era Of Water Scarcity Or An Old Error Of Water Waste

The discovery from tree rings of ancient drought cycles, the emergence of centuries-old shipwrecks on drying riverbeds, and the forecasts of unruly climate change and variability can easily From where and at what cost future water supplies will be derived remains an unanswered and troubling question for many public officials and water managers. With falling groundwater tables and approximately 800,000 dams now altering natural river flows worldwide more than 75 of the river systems in the United States, Canada, Europe, and the former Soviet Union are already diverted by dams much of the developed world's freshwater sources have already been tapped (Postel and Richter, 2003). Signs of water stress are apparent in the receding levels of some of the world's largest and most prized bodies of fresh water Lake Mead in Nevada, the largest human-made reservoir in the United States (Ritter, 2003) Lake Chapala, the largest freshwater body in Mexico (Carlton, 2003) and the Aral Sea in Central...

Drought On The Great Plains

Topeka Tropical Rainforest Climate Graph

Since all of the nations stricken by drought in sub-Saharan Africa are under-developed, it might be considered that lack of economic and technological development contributed to the problem. To some extent it did, but it is also quite clear that economic and technological advancement is no guarantee against drought. The net effects may be lessened, but the environmental processes act in essentially the same way, whatever the stage of development. This is well illustrated in the problems faced by farmers on the Great Plains that make up the interior of North America (see Figure 3.10). Stretching from western Texas in the south, along the flanks of the Rocky Mountains to the Canadian prairie provinces in the north, they form an extensive area of temperate grassland with a semi-arid climate. They owe their aridity in part to low rainfall, but the situation is aggravated by the timing of the precipitation, which falls mainly in the summer months, when high temperatures cause it to be...

Checklist for Indicators and Triggers in a Drought Plan

In addition to the above criteria and considerations, we provide a checklist below. Note that these pertain only to the indicators and triggers portion of a drought plan. Many other drought plan components are important, such as communication and coordination among agencies responsible for monitoring the indicators and implementing the responses if they are triggered (see Chapter 5). Nonetheless, this list offers a straightforward set of metrics to check 2. Trigger and drought level specification and consistency a. Definition of drought levels Are explicit drought levels defined, such as level stage phase 0, 1, 2, and 3 or normal, moderate, severe, extreme b. Definition of triggering thresholds for each indicator Are quantitative indicator thresholds (i.e., triggers) defined for each drought level c. Spatial scale of triggers Do triggers specify the spatial scale for implementation Consider the trigger, SPI-6 less than -1.5 for two consecutive months within Climate Division 1 will...

Drought And Famine In Africa

Weather Conditions Associated With Itcz

Although seasonal drought is experienced in all of the world's sub-tropical areas, in recent years the greatest effects have been felt in sub-Saharan Africa, including the region known as the Sahel where drought is much more persistent than elsewhere on the continent (Nicholson 1989). The Sahel proper is that part of western Africa lying to the south of the Sahara Desert and north of the tropical rainforest. It comprises six nations, stretching from Senegal, Mauretania and Mali in the west, through Burkina Faso to Niger and Chad in the east. This region, with its population of 33 million inhabiting slightly more than 5 million sq km of arid or semi-arid land, came to prominence between 1968 and 1973 when it was visited by major drought, starvation and disease. Despite this prominence, it is, in fact, only part of a more extensive belt of drought-prone land in Africa south of the Sahara. Drought pays no heed to political boundaries, reaching as it does to the Sudan, Ethiopia and...

Drought And Deluge Many Examples

The summer of 2002 featured a number of climatic extremes, as excessive rain deluged Europe and Asia, swamping cities and villages and killing at least 2,000 people, while drought and heat scorched cities in the Western and Eastern United States. Climate contrarians argued that weather is always variable, but other observers noted that extremes seemed to be more frequent than before (Revkin, 2002, A-10). Also during the summer of 2002, near the Black Sea, a large tornado and heavy rains left at least 37 people dead and hundreds of vacationers stranded. During the same week, in China's southern province of Hunan, 70 people died after rains caused landslides and floods. South Korea mobilized thousands of troops after a week that saw two-fifths of the average annual total rainfall (Townsend, 2002, 15). During the week of May 3-10, 2003, 562 tornadoes were reported in the United States, the largest weekly total since records began in the 1950s this record was then surpassed in August...

Global aspects of aridity trend Palmer Drought Severity Index for

Aridity trend over northern China is not an isolated phenomenon, but with significant worldwide linkage. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is the most prominent index of meteorological drought used in the United States (Heim 2002). The PDSI was created by Palmer (1965) with the intent to measure the cumulative departure (relative to local mean conditions) in atmospheric moisture supply and demand at the surface. A monthly dataset of Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) from 1870 to 2002 is derived by Dai et al. (2004) using historical precipitation and temperature data for global land areas on a 2.5 grid. Over Illinois, Mongolia, and parts of China and the former Soviet Union, where soil moisture data are available, the PDSI is significantly correlated (r 0.5 to 0.7) with observed soil moisture content within the top 1-m depth during warm-season months. The strongest correlation is in late summer and autumn, and the weakest correlation is in spring, when snow-melt plays an...

Increasing human use of fresh water resources

Global Warming Fresh Water

The global water cycle is a fundamental component of the climate system. Water is cycled between the oceans, the atmosphere and the land surface (Figure 7.5). Through evaporation and condensation it provides the main means whereby energy is transferred to the atmosphere and within it. Water is essential to all forms of life the main reason for the wide range of life forms, both plant and animal, on the Earth is the extremely wide range of variation in the availability Water is also a key substance for humankind we need to drink it, we need it for the production of food, for health and hygiene, for industry and transport. Humans have learnt that the ways of providing for livelihood can be adapted to a wide variety of circumstances regarding water supply except, perhaps, for the completely dry desert. Water availability for domestic, industrial and agricultural use averaged per capita in different countries varies from less than 100 m3 (22 000 imperial gallons) per year to over 100 000...

Global Warming and Future Droughts

Climate Systems

The scientists at GISS completed research in February 2007 linking future global warming with droughts in certain parts of the world, including the southwestern United States. They used records of the Sun's output in a model to illustrate how a climate dominated by greenhouse gases would ultimately change rainfall patterns. What they found was that the same areas that experienced droughts in ancient times would experience them again. One of the consequences of global warming is drought. This region in Utah has already experienced drought conditions, leaving the reservoir at lower than normal capacities for the past two years, as seen by the exposed shoreline several feet above the present waterline. Drew Shindell, GISS team leader, said that there is already evidence that some rainfall patterns may be changing. Examples can be seen in North Africa, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean. If these trends continue, in a couple of decades there could be serious water resource challenges...

Drought Policy In South Africa

South Africa has a long history of living with drought. A drought during the early 1930s that coincided with the great depression made a deep impression on many policy makers. Significant droughts also occurred during the 1960s, 1980s, and early 1990s. Despite this familiarity with drought, policy makers still struggle to quantify it and to develop a stable policy framework. Drought policy falls at the interface among the numerous definitions of drought that require some quantification of intensity, duration, and geographical extent the demand of human activities for water and the safeguarding of the natural environment. Therefore drought policy continues to evolve, particularly with the dynamic political environment in South Africa. Part of the difficulty in addressing drought in South Africa is the large proportion of the population that depends on rainfed subsistence agriculture. This sector relies heavily on the success of the rainy season to maintain adequate stocks of food....

Amazon Valley Drought Deforestation And Warming

During 2005 a severe drought spread through the Amazon Valley at the same time that satellite surveys indicated that damage from logging in the same area had been 60 to 120 percent more than previously reported. We think this additional logging adds 25 percent more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere from the Amazon than previously estimated, said Michael Keller, an ecologist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service and coauthor of an Amazon logging inventory published in Science (Asner et al., 2005, 480-481 Naik and Samor, 2005, A-12). This new survey differed from others that measured only the clear-cutting of large forest areas. The study by Asner and colleagues included these measures of deforestation and added trees cut selectively, while much of surrounding forest was left standing in five Brazilian states (Mato Grosso, Para, Rondonia, Roraima, and Acre) which account for more than 90 percent of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon (Asner et al., 2005, 480). In...

The Experience of the Drought

The most severe droughts in Spain in the last century occurred in 1941-45, 1979-83, and 1990-95. These three droughts were extensive and affected most of the country. The map in Figure 2 shows the percentage decrease in average rainfall from October 1990 to September 1995 compared to the average rainfall for the 1940-1996 period. Several river basins suffered decreased rainfall percentages, around 30 . The resulting reduction in runoff in most of the country was more than 40 and amounted to more than 70 in two basins (Guadiana and Guadalquivir). The drought of 1990-1995 affected more than one-third of the total population of Spain. For example, during these years, there were severe restrictions on water use in cities like Granada, Malaga, and Seville, and irrigation was banned during 1993-95 in the Guadalquivir River basin. The situation forced cities and regions to adopt different measures. For example, the search for new groundwater resources was car- ried out on a large scale. The...

Impact of Drought on Environment

In arid and semiarid regions (annual precipitation less than 400 mm), local rainfall does not meet agricultural needs. In such cases, too many withdrawals from rivers upstream could directly affect the water environment and ecosystem downstream. Environmental issues due to drought or water shortage (mainly in north China) are discussed below.

Pre Drought Policy Period in Australia

Until 1989, drought was considered to be a natural disaster and drought relief was provided in accordance with state disaster relief policy. From the late 1930s, the commonwealth government became progressively more involved in natural disaster relief through a series of ad hoc arrangements with the states and special purpose legislation such as that passed in the mid-1960s to provide drought relief to New South Wales and Queensland. In 1971, disaster relief arrangements were revised by the commonwealth government and a formula established under which the commonwealth shared the cost of natural disaster relief with the States. This arrangement has continued with a number of minor administrative amendments. In 1989, the commonwealth government decided that drought would no longer be covered by these natural disaster relief arrangements. The main impetus for this decision was budgetary drought was accounting for the largest proportion of disaster relief expenditure, and there was...

Physical Impacts On Unregulated Sectors Water Supply and Treatment

Dust Devil Whirlwind

It could be argued that the water supply and treatment industry is the human activity most immediately affected by climate change, given its direct dependence for its raw material on everyday experience of precipitation and temperature. In their response to the Third Carbon Disclosure Project, the directors of RWE, the utilities conglomerate, stated One thing that is certain about climate change is that it will inject a great deal of uncertainty into our lives, especially those whose lives relate to the production of weather-dependent products, like drinking water. In the water supply business if customers expect the same degree of reliability that they have enjoyed in the past (admittedly only in the richer, industrialized economies) then that expectation translates directly into additional investment in water supply infrastructure, beginning with storage capacity and including loss reduction in distribution. One of the most predictable consequences of living in a carbon-constrained...

Impact of climate change on water supplydemand balance

Liu (1997) used the output of GCM model with 2 * CO2 concentration (by 2030) as input of the monthly water balance model and the water resources comprehensive assessment model to investigate the possible changes of annual and monthly runoff, the evaporation, and the difference between supply and demand of water resources in 2030. The results showed that in most of the river basins, the influence of climate change on water supply system was confined to the land-surface runoff and water supply of reservoirs due to the characteristics of water supply and demand in China, while the influence on water demand was confined to the agricultural irrigation water which accounts for most of the water consumption. In order to evaluate the influences of climate change on the supply-demand balance of water resource, six issues were addressed within each river basin the analysis of the present situation on water supply and demand the projection of water demand in 2030 projection of the available...

The prediction of heat waves and drought conditions

During June, July and August 2003, an exceptional heat wave affected western and central Europe. The extreme drought and heat had heavy social, economic and environmental impacts, among them the death of thousands of the elderly. Other serious consequences were the destruction of large forest areas by fire, the depletion of aquatic ecosystems, the retreat of glaciers, power cuts and transport restrictions, and a decrease in agriculture production. In recent years, the number of such extremes was increasing, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001), and Meehl and Tebaldi (2004) also said that is possible that the number of heat waves similar to that of 2003 will increase in the future. As the long-range forecasts (greater than 1 month) for this phenomenon were not successful, it is thus important to try to understand which mechanisms can exacerbate or guide this kind of event.

International trade alleviating national water scarcity

In many countries international trade in agricultural products effectively reduces domestic water demand (Table 1). These countries import commodities that are relatively water-intensive while they export commodities that are less water-intensive. In the period 1997-2001, Japan, the largest (net) importer of water-intensive goods in the world, annually saved 94 billion cubic meters from its domestic water resources. This volume of water would have been required, in addition to its current water use, if Japan had produced all imported products domestically. In a similar way, Mexico annually saved 65 billion cubic meters, Italy 59 billion cubic meters, China 56 billion cubic meters, and Algeria 45 billion cubic meters (Chapagain et al., 2006). One of the water-scarce countries that most heavily depend on imports of water-intensive commodities is Jordan. It imports 5 to 7 billion cubic meters of water in virtual form per year, which is in sharp contrast with the 1 billion cubic meters of...

Climate Fears Drought and Desertification

As scientists mulled over whether the global climate was warming or cooling, one climatic impact was making headlines all over the world the devastating drought and accompanying expansion of deserts in the African Sahel. The Sahel, a region extending in an east-west band (4,000 miles wide by 1,000 miles 6,400 km by 1,600 km long) just south of the massive Sahara and home during this period to between 40 and 60 million people, depends on the summer monsoons for most of its yearly rainfall. If the monsoons fail, as they had since 1969, crops wither and die, livestock perish through lack of food and water, and people either die with them or migrate to find water. By late 1972, it appeared that a major famine threatened the Sahel. Although most nations in the region were unable to keep track of their populations over vast rural areas with limited communications, the western Sahel nation of Mauritania estimated that 80 percent of the cattle, 30 percent of the camels, and over 50 percent of...

Wildfires Drought And Floods Increase In Australia

During the 1950s and 1960s, Australia built reservoirs that were supposed to protect against droughts lasting several years. These gave the country the highest storage capacity per person in the world. Together with hundreds of miles of irrigation conduits, Australia was said, at the time, to be drought-proof. Searing heat and pervasive drought after the year 2000 changed that. Melbourne's water storage was 28 percent of its capacity by mid-2007 Sydney's was 37 percent, and Perth's was 15 percent. In May, brief, heavy rains hit the Hunter Valley north of Sydney but did little to help. The land was so dry that the torrential rains vanished (Nowak, 2007, 10). Human-induced global warming was a key factor in the severity of the drought in Australia, the worst in the country's history, according to a report by World Wildlife Fund Australia (WWFA). The report, titled Global Warming Contributes to Australia's Worst Drought, by David Karoly, James Risbey, and Anna Reynolds associated the...

Droughts and floods in China In Reaches of Yangtze and Huaihe Rivers

Most of the flood drought events in the eastern part of China are due to the anomalous Meiyu precipitation in June and July in reaches of Yangtze and Huaihe rivers. Meiyu is known as a phenomena designated by a rain belt that elongates in zonal and moves in a quasi-stationary way in meridional. This rain belt is always related to some fronts with sometime the strong convections around them. Meiyu can be influenced by ENSO. In different stages of El Ni o events, rainfall in the eastern part of China shows its different statistics (Ye, 1996 Jin et al, 1999 Wang, 1992). Generally, the flood drought events occur usually in the developing or decaying period of the El Ni o La Ni a events. In the developing stage of the El Ni o events a rain belt stretches steadily in reaches of the Yangtze and Huaihe rivers, and in regions of South Korea and Japan, causing more rainfall in these regions. Meanwhile, less than normal rainfall is received in the northern part of China and in areas south of...

Considerations for Drought Indicators and Triggers

Suitability for drought types of concern. An indicator needs to reflect the type of drought of concern, including aspects of water demands, water supplies, drought vulnerabilities, and potential impacts. Because drought depends on numerous factors, no single indicator is likely to cover all types of drought. In choosing indicators, a first consideration is that they should make sense for the context. For instance, the Palmer indices may not be appropriate as sole indicators for managed water systems because they do not incorporate reservoir storage. Reservoir storage, on the other hand, may not be appropriate as a sole indicator for agricultural areas that use only groundwater for irrigation. 2. Data availability and consistency. The performance of an indicator depends on the availability and quality of the data. Many indicators may be conceptually attractive, but are difficult, costly, unreliable, or impractical to generate, so they may not be appropriate for use. When choosing an...

Heatwaves and droughts

By studying weather and climate data gathered from all over the world, and transmitted from orbiting satellites, scientists can compare it with past records to work out how much the world has warmed up. But for many people, the evidence of climate change is much more obvious. They are suffering heatwaves that can raise temperatures to lethal levels, and living with droughts that make drinking water scarce, kill their crops and farm animals, and turn fertile land to desert. Some of the droughts may be caused by natural cycles, and deserts can be partly created by poor farming methods such as overgrazing by livestock. But there is little doubt that periods of seriously hot or dry weather are getting more frequent. Reduced rainfall is making some rivers dry up. In 2005 they included the greatest river of all, the Amazon, which suffered its worst drought in 40 years. Many of its tributaries shrank to a fraction of their normal width, exposing broad areas of dried, cracked mud littered...

Water Resources

This lecture started with the short presentation of a concrete problem, that of the shrinking of the glaciers in the Andes and the disastrous consequences which it is likely to produce on the water supply of populations. It must be recalled that the problems of water resources were in the very heart of the Johannesburg Conference. The Plan of Implementation advocates integrated water resource management, the preservation or restoration of water ecosystems and their functions, in particular in fragile ecosystems with human, domestic, industrial, and agriculture needs, including safeguarding drinking water quality. It also calls for the development of programs to mitigate the effects of extreme water related events.26

Drought Definition

As in other Mediterranean countries with large arid or semiarid areas, droughts in Spain are difficult to evaluate and quantify and thus are difficult to define. Many definitions are used, and often it is not clear when a drought situation has started or finished or even if it has existed. In some large river basins, the definition of a drought is based on simple rainfall statistics. For example, for the river Ebro, one of the largest rivers in Spain, a dry period starts according to Spanish law, when rainfall amounts in two consecutive months within the series are lower than 60 of the average rainfalls for these months. For the river Guadiana, a situation of drought occurs when the sum of rainfalls registered during the 12 preceding months is lower than those registered in 75 of the cases within the period analyzed. In some cases, the definition of drought is based on the relationship between supply and demand. For instance, in the Guadalquivir River basin, the following definition...

Water supply

A city's water supply is critically important for a number of reasons. First, it must be pristine and clean. Otherwise, you'll have to buy drinking water or a filter system. Some cities have grungy-tasting water, and even though it may not be harmful to your health, it still makes you feel grungy. Second, some cities simply don't have enough water. You can conserve, but if too many hands are reaching into the pie, costs are likely to rise, as is the amount of pressure to reduce usage even more. Consider whether a city is a candidate for severe droughts (most western cities are). Find out what happens when a drought occurs. If the city forbids watering lawns, for instance, you may have an expensive problem on your hands.

A US Drought Monitor

One of the best examples of a new drought monitoring tool is the U.S. Drought Monitor (http drought.unl.edu dm). The National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center (CPC) and National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) author the weekly Drought Monitor (DM) map, which was first released in 1999. The DM is not a forecast rather, it was designed as a comprehensive drought assessment that reflects the existing drought situation across the country. Because multiple physical conditions may be present at once and no preferred scale exists for assessing drought, the DM also incorporates and heavily weights human expertise and judgment in the assessment of associated impacts. The DM defines four categories of drought severity based on increasing intensity (D1-D4), with a fifth category (D0) indicating an abnormally dry area (possible emerging drought conditions or an area that is...

Drought Monitoring

As the world moves into the 21st century, the stresses on available water resources will continue to grow. In the United States, increasing growth and development are already straining water supplies not only for the major metropolitan areas of the arid West, but also for areas such as Atlanta, Georgia, in the relatively humid eastern United States. Issues surrounding shared water resources across international boundaries, such as the Colorado and Rio Grande River basins between the United States and Mexico and the Great Lakes and Columbia River basins between the United States and Canada, will also continue to grow. Droughts, as a normal natural hazard in most climates, will compound these concerns. Therefore, because of serious drought impacts on water resources-related issues, planning for and responding effectively to future droughts will be critically important. A key component to drought risk management and to breaking the hydro-illogical cycle (illustrated in Chapter 5) is...

Droughts

Meteorological droughts are normally defined as abnormal periods of moisture deficiency relative to the long-term average over a given region (Heddinghaus et al., 1991). It is well known that droughts are one of the most damaging climate-related hazards to impact societies (Woodhouse and Overpeck, 1998). The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) (Dai et al., 2004) show the global very dry areas (PDSI< -3.0) increased remarkably since the late 1970s due to decreased precipitation and increased temperature over some regions under global warming background. It is suggested that warmer climate would result in longer lasting and more severe drought due to enhanced evaporation (Gregory et al., 1997) if without enough precipitation at the same time. For China as a whole, during the past half century annual precipitation has no significant secular trends, but decreasing trends in the number of rainy days and the longest durations of consecutive rainfall have been detected (Zhai et al., 1999a...

RouGHTS

Climate models have, in essentially every case, correctly predicted the droughts that are occurring today. There is every reason to believe that future droughts will follow these patterns and that the multimodel predictions have considerable credibility. Increases in precipitation will cause the discharge of fresh water from some rivers around the world to rise by almost 15 . However, at the same time, water stresses are predicted to increase significantly in regions that are already relatively dry. Evaporation will reduce the moisture content of soils in many semiarid parts of the world, including northeast China, the grasslands of Africa, the Mediterranean, and the southern and western coasts of Australia. Soil moisture will fall by up to 40 in southern states of the United States. The Amazon basin is also predicted to suffer increasing drought. Failing rains are already a major cause of hardship in Africa, as witnessed by the current drought in East Africa, and the results shown in...

Drought Prediction

Even if all of these methods of dealing with drought, famine and desertification were to be initiated immediately, the results would be a long time coming. In Africa, this means that the existing and recurring problems of drought and famine must receive continuing and immediate attention. To be effective such aid requires an early warning of the problem, fast response and timely delivery of relief. The last two are essentially socio-economic elements, but the first is physical and it has led to numerous attempts by climatologists in recent years to devise a method by which drought may be predicted. Drought is not the sole cause of famine or desertification, but it is certainly a major cause, often initiating the problem only to have it intensified by other factors. Prevention of drought is not feasible at present, nor would it necessarily bring about an end to famine and desertification if it was. If drought could be predicted, however, responses could be planned, and the consequences...

Are Droughts Cyclic

Temporary droughts, such as the one that took place during the 1930s, occur when the high-pressure belt is closer to the pole than normal. The conditions that produce a temporary drought are the same as those that cause a heat wave a persistent ridge in the jet stream over a continent. Then, in the northern hemisphere, the desert belts shift or expand northward. Summer rainfall decreases while the temperature increases. There were other droughts during the 20th century besides the dust bowl of the 1930s. The periods of 1912-1914, the middle 1950s, the middle and late 1970s, and the late 1990s were characterized by above-normal temperatures and below-normal rainfall over much of the United States. These drought periods were spaced at intervals of a little more than 20 years. Is this a coincidence, or does it indicate a cycle If droughts are periodic in nature, what factors are responsible for the cycle Some scientists are skeptical of the cyclic theory of drought, and especially the...

Rainwater Harvesting

Hyderabad has a history of water shortages during the dry months. Receiving over 795 mm rain annually justifies storing rain water for inter-seasonal storage. Rainwater harvesting is a method of collecting rainwater and using precipitation from a small catchment area. The water stored will be a valuable supplement for domestic water consumption and irrigation of the garden. As soil from the site is used for building blocks, the resulting pit proves to be an optimal location for the storage tank. The storage tank is located on the northwest corner of the building under the garage for easy maintenance. The outer wall of the garage has a built-in sand filter to process incoming water, as well as temporary storage from which water can be used without the need for a pump.

Drought And Deluge

While warmer temperatures will bring an increase of rainfall on the average, theory as well as an increasing number of daily weather reports strongly indicate that changes in precipitation patterns may vary widely. Such changes will be highly uneven and sometimes damaging in intensity. Both droughts and deluges are likely to become more severe. They may even alternate in some regions, with deluges followed by drought and vice versa. By 2000, the hydrological cycle (indicated by precipitation patterns) seemed to be changing more rapidly than temperatures. With sustained warming, usually wet places often seemed to be receiving more rain than before dry places were often experiencing less rain and subject to more persistent droughts. Some drought-stricken regions occasionally were doused with brief deluges that ran off earth cracked by drought. In many places, the daily weather was increasingly becoming a question of drought or deluge. On July 21, 2007, for example, D'Hanis, near San...

Drought

Drought has become more common, especially in the tropics, since 1970. Droughts are becoming longer and more severe and are affecting a wider area. This is consistent with decreased precipitation in some areas and higher temperatures causing drying conditions. Increasing sea surface temperatures and loss of snow are direct contributors to drought. An index called the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is used to compare the extent of local loss of surface land moisture. Figure 3-27 shows that Figure 3-27 The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PSDI1) from 1900-2002 shows a tendency toward increasing drought conditions worldwide. (Source IPCC.) Figure 3-27 The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PSDI1) from 1900-2002 shows a tendency toward increasing drought conditions worldwide. (Source IPCC.) drought conditions overall have been increasing worldwide since 1900. Some regions, such as the southern part of South America, are not seeing drought but rather an increase in moisture. However, more...

Future droughts

This section, by briefly considering water scarcity, begins to build a bridge towards a more rounded view of the future impacts of all aspects of global change. It is important to bear in mind distinctions between meteorological (deficit of precipitation), agricultural (largely soil-moisture deficit) and hydro-logical (low lake-levels and river flow) definitions of drought (Trenberth et al., 2004), as well as to recall that a warming atmosphere (by increasing both evaporation and absolute humidity) can increase the chances of both drought and floods in the same, or neighbouring regions. The record of past human migrations (Dillehay, 2002), welfare and societal collapse is rich in examples of economic and cultural decline coinciding with prolonged drought (Haberle and Lusty, 2000). While always acknowledging that the effects of environmental stresses on human populations are mediated by a whole complex of interacting social factors, and that it is therefore unacceptable to...

N Haruvy and S Shalhevet

The disaster risk from groundwater contamination in Israel has been increasing due to continuous over-pumping as well as urban, industrial and agricultural activities. This risk can be reduced by making changes in water pumping policies and by higher level treatment of wastewater. However, these changes are expensive, and their specific effects on groundwater salinity depend on the local hydrological conditions. We have developed a water management model that enables optimal planning of water supply from different sources and treatment levels by water source. The model includes regional planning, hydrological, technological and economic considerations, and was applied on several different hydrological cells in Israel, with the aim of choosing the optimal policy that would minimize the disaster risk of groundwater contamination at the lowest economic cost possible. The hydrological model predicts the level of groundwater salinity under different water supply combinations. The...

Flow modifications through water use

Many boreal rivers are subject to several forms of flow regulation for hydropower generation and for water supply. Three types of flow regulation are recognized alteration of the timing of flow, withdrawal of water for consumptive use and flow diversion from one drainage system to another.

AE Gurzau C Borzan IR Lupsa LO Sfetcu AL Ivan and S Gurzau

The present paper deals with the drinking water security problems in large rural areas of Romania during the 2005 floods in the Timis, Bega and Mures River basins. It evaluates the intervention of public health authorities to prevent a major health risk from an epidemic or endemic waterborne diseases, as well as the health promoting education in this regard. From the medical perspective, the interventions in flood affected region showed once again that the main public health priority was to provide a basic secure water supply to the affected population. Along with the water supply, the prophylactic immunisation for waterborne diseases, like hepatitis A, resulted in crisis management without significantly affecting the health status of the population. Analysis of the events in recent years has shown the persistence of the communities' vulnerability in emergency situations, even though the capacity of the specialized institutions for action has increased.

Results and discussions

Water supply problems arise in all phases of the disaster-management cycle. As with all other elements of emergency management, water supplies can be designed and maintained in ways that help to reduce the health impact of disasters. Rural communities are usually less vulnerable than urban communities to disruption of water supplies in disasters, as their supplies are generally decentralized and based on simple technology, and alternative sources are frequently available. Certain hazards, such as floods and droughts, may have a greater impact in rural areas than in urban areas (AWWA 1999 Logue, 2006 WADEM, 1990 WHO, 1997, 2004). Emergency response strategy must include The first priority is to provide an adequate quantity of water, even if its quality is poor, and to protect water sources from contamination. In all situations, a successful emergency response in the water supply sector depends on improvisation and gradual improvement of water supplies, progressing from basic services...

Longterm monitoring in a drinking water facility

One of the most challenging tasks for continuous monitoring is the direct control of drinking water quality in order to warning immediately that permitted concentration values are exceeded. For the Gallus Quelle water supply with a fractured aquifer system, it is crucial to have continuous information on the water status.

Commercialisation privatisation and globalisation

Finally, security means more than just having the resources. It means having control of them as well (see Working Group 3 Report, this volume). The commercialisation, privatisation and globalisation of water resources began with the exploitation of water for profit, with water companies Since the turn of the millennium, global commercialisation has developed into international takeovers by large multinational corporations with diverse commercial interests. The latter development is perhaps the most worrying, especially for developing countries as they can lose control of their national resources. Tanzania famously terminated the contract of the British company Biwater in 2005 to regain control, just 2 years into its 10-year lifespan, after marked increases in tariffs and lack of progress in extending the water supply system. In Bolivia, after riots and deaths, the government finally ousted the US-Dutch-owned company Bechtel in 2000 for failing to fulfil its contract to provide...

Response to emergency staying alive

There are two exceptions to the foregoing generalization, both of which apply mainly to seasonal or exceptional droughts. First, many communities in affluent countries have measures that limit optional uses of water, notably landscaping, when water resources are low. Lawns and home gardens can account for more than half of summertime water use, and the necessary regulations are self-enforced by the community. Second, in many countries, there is an assumed or legislated hierarchy for uses of water that typically puts drinking water in first place and commercial irrigation in last place. Whenever supplies are threatened, those uses deemed most important receive priority. Similar ranking appears in religious legislation going back to Biblical times (Hirsch, 1959). The role of agricultural water use as a reserve sector that can be called upon when needed to supply higher priority uses is well illustrated by the system in Israel (Allan, 1995 Ben-Zvi et al., 1998). As the emergency and...

Researching options for rehabilitation

Water supply to the Western bowl is improved through a newly constructed system of waterways, the Amudarya-Sudochie-Adjibai Bay. This system is completely focused on a deeper reservoir. In the Western bowl, the water level is set between 29 and 31 m, with a short-term minimum of 28 and a maximum of 32.3. The Eastern bowl is also stabilized at 26 to 27 m d.s.l., but salinity in the Eastern bowl increases to 380 g l.

S Szalai and L Cselotei

Hungary is situated in the Carpathian basin and its climate has similar tendencies to the South European region. In particular, temperature shows increasing tendencies in all seasons and precipitation decreasing tendencies throughout the year except summer. The warming is faster than the global average, but the year-to-year variability of precipitation still has larger impacts than the decreasing trend. Furthermore, the reducing snow rain ratio and the growing intensity of precipitation worsen the situation of the surface water balance. Therefore, the country is very sensitive to the climate change, especially to drought. Irrigation is the tool most used to reduce drought damage. Because of the water problems in the country, irrigation is not possible everywhere due to the natural and economical problems. Irrigation is quite expensive, and the agricultural production has to return a profit, i.e. agricultural production has to be profitable. Different cultivation methods...

Variability of agricultural production

Rainfed agriculture has a large year-to-year variability according to the climate variability, primarily due to the drought events. The largest area equipped for irrigation was about half a million hectare, but practically, the largest irrigated area does not exceed 300,000 ha in dry years and 100,000 ha in wetter years. The changing economical and political conditions had large influence on the irrigated area. According to Table 2, Hungary has possibilities for irrigation on about 120,000 ha. Production on the 1-1.5 of the total agricultural land gives about 25 of the total income.

Some causes which produced the large flood impact

In Romania since 1998, floods have occurred in the west and drought in the south. For the past 20 years, the World Meteorological Organization has been performing studies which indicate that the global mean temperature is increasing permanently. During the last 20 years the temperature increased above the levels for the past 2,000-3,000 years. The climatic change currently being experienced is now generally acknowledged to be due to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gasses, especially carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Such climatic change can generate rainfall amounts of over 100 l m2 within 24 h.

Promoting water security with demand management and soft paths

The soft path approach changes the conception of water. Instead of being viewed as an end product, water becomes the means to accomplish specific tasks, such as sanitation or agricultural production. Demand management asks the question how How can we get more from each drop of water Soft paths ask the question why Why should we use water to do this at all Why, for example, do we use water (and, commonly enough, potable water) to carry away our waste Demand management would urge low-flow toilets, whereas soft paths might promote waterless or composting systems in homes and on-site waste treatment and reuse for commercial buildings. Irrigation is the largest use of water, accounting for around 70 of water withdrawals world-wide and even greater proportions in low-income developing countries. Demand management would urge more efficient technologies, such as drip systems with automatic shut-offs. A soft path approach would ask whether irrigated agriculture might be replaced by other modes...

How international trade can enhance national water dependency

Dependency is sometimes quantified by considering the ratio of external to total renewable water resources of a country. FAO (2007) defines the 'external renewable water resources' of a country as that part of the country's renewable water resources which is not generated in the country. It includes of the water of border lakes or rivers. The 'internal renewable water resources' of a country concern the average annual flow of rivers and recharge of aquifers generated by endogenous precipitation. The total renewable water resources of a country are the sum of internal and external renewable water resources. Table 2 shows the 'external water resources dependency' for a number of selected downstream countries. For a country like Egypt the dependency is extremely high, because the country receives hardly any precipitation and thus mostly depends on the inflowing Nile water. Similarly, but to a lesser extent, Pakistan strongly depends on the water of the Indus, Cambodia on the water of the...

Dynamics of irrigation and hydropower development in the Central Asia Region

The principal spheres of water resources use in Central Asia today are irrigated agriculture and hydropower. At the beginning of the 20th century, about 3.5 million hectares were irrigated in the region. By the 1990s the total irrigated area in the region increased to 8.8 million hectares. The total established capacity of all electric power stations in the region increased to 37.8 million kilowatts and at that time the capacity of hydropower stations in the region reached 11.31 million kilowatts (Petrov et al., 2006). In November 2006 a Regional Workshop on Assessment of Snow-Glacier and Water Resources in Asia was held in Kazakhstan. Participants, including experts and professionals from Central Asia together with international experts, noted that changes in glaciers in the world's largest and highest mountain system will have significant effects on nearly 1.5 billion people. They recognized that glaciers are key indicators in detecting climate change. TABLE 2. Surface water...

Mathematical software

Three levels of mathematical models are offered analytical, optimization and imitational. Within the framework of analytical models (Navruzov, 1991), the theoretical game models for the distribution of water resources between the states of the Amudarya basin are considered. A number of characteristic examples of games with non-opposite interests are discussed. Optimization models (Navruzov, 1990) of the reservoir management of the upstream water resources of the Amudarya are offered, which use as a base the block-hierarchical principle, which at the initial stage provides for the development of different national models and their further coordination within the framework of regional models. According to this, we can divide the territory of the Amudarya basin into two zones the zone of water demand and the zone of water production.

MingKo Woo and R Thorne

The circumpolar boreal region is generally well endowed with water resources relative to its low population. The most common natural river flow pattern is the nival regime in which snowfall accumulated during the long winter is rapidly melted in the spring, releasing large meltwater fluxes that cause the hydrograph to peak. Human development has altered this flow rhythm through water use and consumption. Reservoirs constructed for hydro-power production change the timing of flow while water withdrawal for consumptive purposes causes changes in both the timing and the amount of discharge. The most profound effects come with river diversion which alters the annual flows and re-distributes the monthly discharges, with the donor river losing water and the recipient river and the connecting channel gaining flows. Examples are drawn from Canada and Siberia to illustrate the effects of reservoir operation on streamflow. Flow regulation produces hydrological impacts that have local...

Means of maximum level and discharge forecasting

In an effort to improvement protection from both floods and lack water resources, methods of short-term forecasting of water level and discharge were developed for the Terek basin. For mountainous rivers, where runoff depends on snowcover and glacial thawing, a physical-statistical model of runoff during a summer high water period has been produced, based on air temperature. The model realized for the Cherek River at Sovetsky allows summer discharges to be forecast adequately with 2-4 day lead time. For the rivers of the foothills and lowlands, due to lack of hydrometeorological data, the method of corresponding levels is used. This makes it possible to describe the movement and transformation of flood waves in the channel network, based on hydrometric observations data. The method is developed for six sections on the Terek, Malka and Sunzha, allowing forecasts with lead time equal 1-3 days (Christoforov et al., 2007).

Working Group I Risk Assessment And Water Governance

Although the initial remit given to this Working Group was to discuss the possible effects of changing management of water resources from State to private companies, most of the group consisting of delegates from former Soviet countries found that they preferred to discuss more regional issues and to focus on risk assessment. The two are not entirely separate issues, as the facilities of the State for providing early warning of hydrological extremes and for planning emergency response are arguably greater than those of privatised industry. There is also a strong argument for close State regulation of water companies, both in terms of environmental impacts and in terms of costs, profit-making and services to the consumer. Record fines imposed by the UK regulator Ofwat on Thames Water and SevernTrent Water during the first half of 2008 for presenting misleading information and poor customer services emphasise the point. Similarly, the UK environmental regulators, the Environment Agency...

Promoting water security through demand management

We agree, but we caution that these studies apply particularly well in affluent societies where equity of access to water is taken for granted. The emphasis on efficiency needs to be tempered by social equity in circumstances where there is uneven access to water resources, something that is common in the urban areas of many countries, and even more so in rural areas.

Promoting water security through water soft paths

Results for the urban component of the water soft path study were determined for a generalized urban centre in a semi-arid area with a base population of 200,000 in 2005 and 300,000 in 2050 (Brandes and Maas, 2007). As in other urban areas, the bulk of water use is for residential and commercial uses, secondarily for institutional and light industrial uses. The Demand Management scenario is based on fairly rapid uptake of readily available technologies and easily adopted practices, including low-flow and dual-flush toilets, efficient showers and faucets, and water-saving clothes washers. It results in significant savings but not enough to offset population growth. The Water Soft Path scenario adds adoption of composting toilets, waterless urinals, xeriscaping, widespread reuse and recycling, and rainwater harvesting. With these additions, water savings that are more than enough to overcome the expected population growth indeed, water use in 2050 would be below that in 2000...

Floods in Afghanistan

Afghanistan is a country not only crippled by decades of conflict, but also prone to natural disasters. Earthquakes, droughts, floods and extreme snowfall affect the lives of thousands of Afghans. Severe flooding in 2005 and 2006 made thousands homeless, and destroyed agricultural land, livestock and infrastructure. In the post-Taliban era alone 50 floods have already been reported. However, except for short situational reports many of these floods are not well documented, thus little is known about the Afghan flood issue.

Results and discussion

During the process of treatment, the following different integral parameters of water quality were analyzed chemical oxygen demand, permanganate oxidizability, biological oxygen demand, total organic carbon, residual concentration of ozone, dissolved peroxides, total toxicity and concentration of individual toxic elements. The technology is suitable for the textile industry (band textiles, silken, knitted, artificial technical fabric and cotton factories as well as wool-spinning mills), and for water quality control in galvanizing and oil extraction processes. The using of this technology leads to recycling of the processing water within an industry. The results might be used for wastewater purification from toxic pollutants (surfactants, phenols, pesticides, oil products) and production of drinking water from polluted sources of water supply.

Flooding In Afghanistan A Crisis E Hagen and JF Teufert

Afghanistan is a nation prone to natural disasters such as floods and droughts. Yet the severe floods of 2005 and 2006, which displaced thousands, highlighted how little was known about floods in the mountainous nation. At present no flood hazard maps exist pinpointing the location and extent of the inundated areas, nor are there data on occurrence and impact of floods. This paper explores the flooding crisis and its impact on Afghanistan furthermore it analyses the causes of floods and some aspects of flood mitigation.

Sh Normatov and GN Petrov

For the rational use of water resources in view of the reduction of the area of glaciation and degradation of glaciers in the Aral Sea basin, the paper offers the Integrated Water Resources Management of the region and describes the stages of its introduction via individual sub-basins. Keywords Transboundary water resources, Central Asia