Guilt Free Desserts
Rate of weathering of small areas of relatively uniform rock type, subject to similar climates and relief (Meybeck, 1987 Taylor and Lasaga, 1999), have shown that basalts weather faster then granites or other acidic igneous and metamorphic rocks. This is mainly because of the presence of highly calcic plagioclase, pyroxenes, and volcanic glass in basalts, which dissolve more rapidly than the characteristic weatherable minerals of granites and gneisses, sodic calcic plagioclase, potassic feldspars, and micas (Goldich, 1938). As pointed out in the Introduction, the weathering of Ca and Mg silicate minerals is of primary interest in the long-term carbon cycle because the released Ca and Mg ions eventually are precipitated as carbonates in the oceans, whereas Na and K do not form carbonates. Thus, basalt weathering is an important factor in controlling atmospheric CO2. Gaillardet et al. (1999) and Dessert et al. (2003) estimate that at present 25-35 of total CO2 uptake by silicate...
Living in those villages, I learned to draw my water for laundry, drinking, and cooking from the river in buckets. In the fall and spring men on snow machines bring caribou to the villages, where I helped the women cut and dry the meat. I went to fish camps where families lived along the Mauneluk River during the spawning period in late summer and fall and helped cut hundreds of fish to be dried and put away for winter use. During this time, we also hiked along the tundra to pick salmonberries, cranberries, and blueberries to store for the rest of the year. While the women picked berries and cut and dried fish, men went out onto the tundra and often came back with caribou, moose, or bear. Every day we ate salmon, whatever fresh meat might have been caught, and berries with condensed milk for dessert. At
Nonetheless, it is still possible to use strontium isotope in a long-term carbon cycle model. One approach (Berner and Rye, 1992) is to ensure carbon mass balance while letting the variation of 87Sr 86Sr be due to changes in the relative proportions of granite (high 87Sr 86Sr) weathering versus basalt (low 87Sr 86Sr) weathering on the continents. In this case variations in oceanic 87Sr 86Sr do not represent changes in anything other than the source of the strontium. This approach has been suggested recently by studies that emphasize the quantitative importance of basalt weathering over time (Dessert et al., 2003).
Deborah experienced this kind of hoarding when she served as a camp cook for her husband's geology field camp one summer. Although she did her best to estimate group uses of various foods, within a week in the wilderness area, she realized that they were running low on hot chocolate. She hoped that as scarcity became apparent to other camp members, its value would go up and they would be more careful about using it, rationing it until the end. Instead, as soon as scarcity became apparent, the remainder of the hot chocolate disappeared very quickly, much faster than it was used before scarcity was obvious. Apparently, camp members wanted to be sure they got their share before it completely tan out. Being somewhat of a hoarder herself, Deborah wanted to put the chocolate away and use it only on special occasions, so that it would last. Simply perceiving a commodity as scarce will increase the demand for it. Restaurant servers use this principle when they strategically hint to their...
Sudden and rapid perturbations of the long-term carbon cycle can bring about changes requiring the direct use of non-steady-state modeling. Some examples are the effect on the level of atmospheric CO2 and oceanic 813C of instant decarbonation of limestones accompanying extraterrestrial bolide impacts (Caldeira and Rampino, 1990 Kump, 1991 Beerling et al., 2002), degassing of CO2 accompanying massive volcanic eruptions (Dessert et al., 2001), and degassing of CH4 from the
Ever wonder why dessert is served after dinner The origins of modern Western cooking can be traced to ideas about diet and nutrition that arose during the 17th century The moral was clear sugar was dangerous, perhaps even a poison. Such dire warnings would surely have given any chef second thoughts about sprinkling it over the main dishes of the meal, leaving the diner no choice but to eat it. Thus, sugar moved to the periphery of the menu, served only in desserts, which were prepared in a separate kitchen. Sugar became the subject of a distinct genre of books dedicated to its decorative, not medical, properties.
System which covers too many fields with the same plant falls afoul of the ecological principle which states that the simplest systems are apt to be the most unstable. 14 Soil toxins, parasites, and erosion worked to deplete the land of its nutrients. Historian Eugene Genovese instead places the blame on slavery, arguing that slavery and the plantation system led to agricultural methods that depleted the soil. 15 Slaves were worked to exhaustion in gangs to produce profits for their owners at the expense of the soil. With declining soil fertility, profits also declined, leaving little labor or funds to invest in agricultural improvement. Despite knowledge of the benefits of marl, gypsum, guano, and lime, the slave system was too inefficient and the slaves too overworked for planters to use fertilizers. With soil degradation, Genovese concludes, planters reaped their just desserts for enslaving and
Various marine macroalgae are used as human food in many parts of the world, notably in Japan. In the British Isles Red Laver (Porphyra umbilicalis), Green Laver (Ulva lactuca), Carrageen Moss (Chondrus crispus and Gigartina stellata) and Pepperdulse (Osmundea pinnatifida) are each eaten in certain localities. However, seaweed does not contribute significant quantities to human food supplies and seems unlikely to increase much in consumption. The chief commercial importance of seaweed is as a source of alginic acid which, in addition to innumerable other uses, has many applications in the food industry as an emulsifier (Booth, 1975). A surprising number of processed foods and household products now contain substances derived from seaweed. Examples include ice cream, toothpaste, cakes, milk desserts, milk chocolates, fruit juice, beer and baby foods.
Making Chocolate 101
If you love chocolate then you can’t miss this opportunity to... Discover How to Make Homemade Chocolate! Do you love gourmet chocolate? Most people do! Fine chocolates are one of life’s greatest pleasures. Kings and princes have for centuries coveted chocolate. Did you know that chocolate used to be one of the expensive items in the world, almost as precious as gold? It’s true!