Commercial Real Estate Financing

Commercial Real Estate Funding System

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Commercial Real Estate Funding System Overview

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Commercial Real Estate Developers

Office buildings and shopping malls have enjoyed a decade in which their values rose and record numbers of new ones were built. But Table 21.6 Commercial Real Estate Companies Table 21.6 Commercial Real Estate Companies now the cost of heating and air conditioning is up, while consumer spending is being squeezed by high gas and food prices. Combined with lean times in the banking industry (which makes cheap construction loans scarce), this will lower the value of many commercial properties and make the shares of the companies that own and manage them a lot less valuable (see Table 21.6).

Example An office building

An office building has a total external exposed wall area of 1875 m2. It is proposed to fit metal framed windows to a total area of 732 m2, and the windows will be fitted with 16 mm air gap low-E (sn 0.05) argon filled double glazing, U 2.1 W m2K (Table 4.2). The building is to have metal part-glazed personnel doors of U-value 3.3 W m2K to a total area of 15.9m2. There are no rooflights. Check for compliance by the elemental method. The requirements are

Lewis Clark State Office Building Jefferson City Missouri

Constructed on the site of the former Jefferson City Correction Facility, the Lewis & Clark State Office Building houses approximately 400 Missouri Department of Natural Resources employees. The cost for the 120,000 square-feet building was approximately 17 million. Designed to reduce energy consumption by 60 percent over a standard building, this project by BNIM Architects uses daylighting technologies, advanced electrical and lighting control systems, an efficient building envelope and highly integrated and innovative HVAC systems. Rainwater from the roof is captured in a 50,000-gallon storage tank and used for toilet flushing. Bioswales, drain tiles, and a native ecosystem along with detention ponds eliminate the remaining stormwater runoff. Photovoltaics supply 2.5 percent of the building's energy needs, and a solar thermal system supplies hot water.* *Lewis & Clark State Office Building Earns LEED Platinum Certification online , www.oa.mo.gov purch recycling success.pdf,...

Office buildings

Office buildings can be treated by means of the whole-office carbon performance rating method. In principle this is the same as the CPR method for assessing the ACMV systems of office buildings (described in section 3.3.2.13.1 above), and which is part of the elemental method. However, when used as part The calculation procedure is described in Chapter 12. When the CPR value of an office building has been found, it can be considered to comply if it meets all the following Office building type

The Greening of Job Sectors

Programs ranging from EPA's Green Lights to conservation programs from public utilities are reframing perspectives on energy use to include energy conservation practices. Opportunities for communications specialists, planners, and technical experts will grow as our energy needs are evaluated for office buildings and commercial real estate, mass transit, and households. Opportunities for the construction trades and for architectural design firms to better serve client energy conservation needs will also grow in coming years.

The Business Case for Green Buildings

The business case for commercial green buildings in 2007 can be simply stated if your next project is not a green building, one that is certified by a national third-party rating system, it will be functionally outdated the day it is completed and very likely to underperform the market as time passes.1 That bold statement was echoed by a well-known real estate expert, who bluntly claimed that trillions of dollars of commercial property around the world would soon drop in value because green buildings are going mainstream and would render those properties obsolete.2 In a meeting in Sydney, Australia, in February 2007, the head of Australia's Property Council, representing the entire development industry, claimed that no large developer in that country would ever start another project that wasn't going to be at least LEED Silver (Australia 4 Green Stars) certified.3

Threats and Responses Associated with Rapid Climate Change in Metropolitan New York

Metropolitan New York is vulnerable to coastal flooding and widespread damage to urban infrastructure, commercial structures and residential neighborhoods from both seasonal hurricanes and extra-tropical storms. A significant portion of the metropolitan area lies less than 3 m above mean sea level in total covering an area of about 260 km2 (see Figure 9.1). Many types of structures are located within this low-lying region, including commercial properties and financial institutions, apartment buildings and private dwellings, hospitals, police and fire stations, marine transportation terminals, three major airports, heliports, numerous underground railroad and subway lines (with associated station entrances and ventilation shafts), highways, bridge access roads, tunnels, power plants, the underground steam district heating system, electrical and communication networks, landfills, 14 waste water treatment facilities and 770 combined sewer overflows with their tide gate regulators...

New Buildings Institute NBI

The New Buildings Institute is a nonprofit organization that works to promote the use of energy efficient measures in the construction of commercial buildings. It works collaboratively with utility groups to incorporate energy conservation guidelines in the design and construction of new buildings. The NBI Web site contains guidelines for lighting, heating, and cooling systems as well as building design codes.

Policies in the Building and Industrial Sectors

Carbon emissions from fuel combustion in residential and commercial buildings account for about 10 percent of U.S. GHG emissions, and emissions from the industrial sector account for another 20 percent. When emissions associated with the electricity consumed are counted, these levels reach more than 35 percent for buildings and 30 percent for industry. We analyzed a set of policies that include new building codes, new appliance standards, tax incentives for the purchase of high-efficiency products, a national public benefits fund, expanded research and development, voluntary agreements, and support for combined heat and power. Building energy codes require all new residential and commercial buildings to be built to a minimum level of energy efficiency that is cost-effective and technically feasible. Good practice residential energy codes, defined as the 1992 (or a more recent) version of the Model Energy Code (now known as the International Energy Conservation Code), have been adopted...

Resource Depletion and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

According to the US Green Building Council, the annual direct impacts of all US residential and commercial buildings include 39 of total energy use, 68 of electricity consumption and 30 of greenhouse gas emissions. Add in the embodied energy in making building materials, getting them to the job site, installing and servicing them, and total energy use is closer to 48 . Buildings make a major impact on just about every aspect of the world we live in building design and construction can account for up to 30 of raw materials use, 40 of non-industrial landfill waste (including 31 of the mercury in municipal waste) 12 of potable water use, according to the US Green Building Council and the US Environmental Protection Agency.5 Taking firm actions to reduce the environmental impacts of buildings can have a number of beneficial effects

What are the most important findings for residential and commercial air conditioning and heating

Stationary air conditioners generally fall into six distinct categories (1) window-mounted and through-the-wall (2) non-ducted split residential and commercial (3) non-ducted single-package (4) non-ducted water-source (5) ducted residential split and single packaged (6) ducted commercial split and packaged. Water chillers coupled with air handling and distribution systems commonly provide comfort air conditioning in large commercial buildings. Water-heating heat pumps are manufactured using various heat sources air, water from ponds and rivers and the ground.

Geothermal Heat Pumps

The geothermal technologies we have discussed so far are suited to generating electricity at a commercial power plant scale, and should not be confused with the totally different technology used in so-called geothermal (or ground source) heat pumps. These are essentially HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning) units, which are commonly used for heating and cooling in residential or commercial buildings. They exchange heat with the Earth using pipes buried about five feet deep in the ground, where the temperature is stable year-round at about 55 degrees.8

Rapid economic expansion will also continue to drive up Indias energy demand boosting the countrys share of global

Reference Scenario, primary energy demand in India more than doubles by 2030, growing on average by 3.6 per year. Coal remains India's most important fuel, its use nearly tripling between 2005 and 2030. Power generation accounts for much of the increase in primary energy demand, given surging electricity demand in industry and in residential and commercial buildings, with most new generating capacity fuelled by coal. Among end-use sectors, transport energy demand sees the fastest rate of growth as the vehicle stock expands rapidly with rising economic activity and household incomes. Residential demand grows much more slowly, largely as a result of switching from traditional biomass, which is used very inefficiently, to modern fuels. The number of Indians relying on biomass for cooking and heating drops from 668 million in 2005 to around 470 million in 2030, while the share of the population with access to electricity rises from 62 to 96 .

Certification programs

We profile a number of building certification programs in this book, including the well-established Energy Star label for commercial buildings in the US. However, in the commercial and institutional marketplace for green buildings (those that go beyond just energy conservation), the LEED rating system of the US Green Building Council is basically the only game in town and is the certification method that most drives green building demand. In 2006, more than 1,100 projects registered for LEED certification for the first time, totaling more than 130 million square feet of space, more than 5 percent of the entire building construction industry.

Building Codes and Standards

Most countries have adopted standards for the construction of newbuildings. Many have now included energy requirements in these building standards. All the International Energy Agency (IEA) countries have energy requirements as a part of their building codes and many recently are strengthening them. For example, France is adopting more stringent thermal regulations for new residential and commercial buildings with the aim of improving energy efficiency by twenty-five percent.15 Building energy standards usually require all new residential, commercial, and industrial construction to be built to a minimum energy efficiency level that is cost effective and technically feasible. In the United States, good practice residential energy codes, as defined by the 1992 Model Energy Code (now known as the International Energy Conservation Code),16 have been adopted by thirty-two states, and good practice commercial energy codes, as defined by the ASHRAE 90.1-1989 model standard, have been adopted...

Drying Flooded Buildings

Over wet wood framing the moisture transfers from the wood to the gypsum board paper and mold frequently begins to grow a few days later. After a ground or surface water flood, wet gypsum board should be removed and discarded. Don't waste time trying to dry it. Once the gypsum board has been removed the structure can be cleaned and dried to prevent further deterioration. The USEPA in their document Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings recommends that rapid drying begin within 24 hours of a water damage and continue until the building is dry. This rapid response generally is not possible after ground or surface water flooding. Biocides are chemicals that under the correct circumstances kill microorganisms. Chlorine bleach does not prevent mold growth or reliably kill the mold spores. Even if bleach did kill mold spores, which are like little invisible seeds, that doesn't make it safe. According to the EPA in their document Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial...

Climate Change Effects

Problem in residential buildings with shallow foundations than with large multi-story commercial buildings with deep foundations. Even though global warming models indicate increased precipitation, this increased rainfall usually does not hydrate the soil. When expansive clay soils get dry they begin to repel moisture instead of soaking it up. The water is more likely to run off creating flash floods. It takes a slow steady rain, over an extended period of time to restore expansive clay soils to a normal condition. Instead, areas are experiencing periods of drought with short bursts of heavy rains that are insufficient to relieve the drought. This is one of the conditions that I recently observed in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The soils had dried out over a period of years resulting in shrinkage. Suddenly in August of 2006 heavy rains broke the drought, resulting in buildings being flooded, arroyos overflowing and flood evacuations in northern parts of the state. Even greater damage is...

Flat Collectors and Roof Shingles

Shingles can be made from a thin film of amorphous silicon on plastic. They can generate solar electricity for private homes or commercial buildings. Flexible roofing laminates can be designed to be bonded on 0.4 m (16-inch) wide, flat Galvalume pans. A 2.75 m (9 ft) PV roof pan is rated to generate a maximum of 64 watts.

Existing building sustainability upgrades

Of course, building owners have long been reducing their buildings' energy use, especially through the federal Energy Star program for commercial buildings. Energy Star benchmarks energy use, in terms of BTUs per year per square foot, for buildings of a similar type within the same climatic region. By the end of 2006, Energy Star awarded ratings to about 3,200 buildings, representing 575 million square feet in all 50 states.3 An Energy Star designation indicates that a building is in the top 25 percent of all similar buildings for lowest annual energy The commercial office building industry spends approximately 24 billion annually on energy and contributes 18 percent of US carbon dioxide emissions. Energy represents the single largest operating expense for office buildings, typically a third of variable expenses.6 In 2006, recognizing the need to assist building owners and managers to reduce energy use, Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA) International, the trade group...

How We Arrived at the Current Situation

Although the economic system is never perfectly efficient, competition tends to drive businesses to improve productivity by making more efficient use of resources. For example, when the first oil price shocks hit the United States in the early 1970s, our energy-consuming industrial and commercial equipment was designed for our historically low-energy-cost, high-wage-cost environment. This meant that industrial machinery and commercial buildings were designed for maintenance-free operation and not primarily for energy efficiency. The same held true for buildings, appliances, and vehicles.

Highperformance Buildings

Many people have begun using the term high-performance buildings instead of green buildings or sustainable buildings because they want to emphasize what is gained from these projects, not what is given up.68 High-performance also appeals to Americans we want everything turbo-charged and super-sized. A high-performance building is one in which energy and water efficiencies are high, indoor air quality is high, recycling rates are high, etc. This is a much easier concept to explain to most executives than a green building, which still sounds vaguely like a tree-hugger term. In my view, high-performance buildings are those that save at least 50 of the energy use of a standard building, compared with a database called the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Database, last updated in 2003.69 (The next survey will be conducted in 2007.) The table below shows an example of the information that's available from this database.

Radiant Heating and Cooling

In commercial buildings, radiant cooling strategies are getting a new look, through the introduction of chilled beams (fins with water tubing that can circulate cool water, providing a surface that appears cool to our bodies even with warmer-than-normal air temperatures). Radiant floors can also be used for heating in cooler climates or for cooling in buildings that require year-round air conditioning. They can also be used in assembly spaces (such as an atrium of a larger building) when exact temperature controls are not required. One LEED Gold-certified renovation project

Residential photovoltaic arrays

As the solar panel will only generate power during daylight hours, grid connection is essential to provide supply at nighttime. For this reason building arrays, although designated residential arrays, are actually most effective on commercial buildings where the daily cycle matches closely that of the sun.

Best Practices in Green Design

Green building encompasses a wide range of design practices, building systems integration, product specification, and construction techniques. This chapter outlines the green building practices that are most applicable to affordable housing. Generally, affordable housing projects utilize readily available, low- to medium-cost materials and systems. Custom products, such as cast-in-place recycled glass terrazzo, or elaborate energy system approaches, such as nighttime ice production, displacement ventilation, or double-glazed facades, that may be found in commercial buildings or custom residential projects are not usually considered because of cost and a desire to maintain simplicity in operations and maintenance. The challenge is to identify opportunities for innovation through the integration of good architectural and mechanical system design with thoughtful and strategic selection of materials, appliances, lighting, and equipment.

Furniture and Finishes

There are substitutes, including phenol-formaldehyde, that emit far less formaldehyde gas. So why don't manufacturers and designers use them It's almost always related to cost and performance of the resin binder. In a LEED building, there is a credit for the use of composite wood and agricultural fiberboard products, including glulam beams, that don't use UF resins. In commercial buildings, where designers are specifying products that will influence the air quality for others, shouldn't they use furniture and other wood products that are odor-free, without toxic fumes

DP Workhorse The Recip Engine

Probably the most widely recognized DP device is the oil gas-fired engine generator, a technology more than 100 years old. Thousands of these old stalwarts are installed in commercial buildings, small municipal and cooperative utility grids, industrial sites, and institutional facilities. They are usually connected to the gas distribution system and natural gas is the main fuel. However, a fuel oil tank often accompanies these installations in the event that the gas feed system is curtailed.

Toxic Substances Control Act USC et seq

In 1986, Title II, Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response, was added to address issues of inspection and removal of asbestos products in public schools and to study the extent of (and response to) the public health danger posed by asbestos in public and commercial buildings.

Effective Use of the International Energy Conservation Code

Energy efficiency for commercial buildings Chapter 5 Commercial Energy Efficiency. Chapter 5 contains the energy-efficiency-related requirements for the design and construction of most types of commercial buildings and residential buildings greater than three stories in height above grade. Residential buildings, townhouses and garden apartments three stories or less in height are covered in Chapter 4. Like Chapter 4, this chapter defines requirements for the portions ofthe building and building systems that impact energy use in new commercial construction and new residential construction greater than three stories in height, and promotes the effective use of energy. The provisions within the chapter promote energy efficiency in the building envelope, the heating and cooling system and the service water heating system of the building.

The case for highperformance buildings

Owners and developers of commercial and institutional buildings across North America are discovering that it is often possible to have champagne on a beer budget by building high-performance buildings on conventional budgets. Many developers, building owners and facility managers are advancing the state of the art in commercial buildings through new tools, techniques and creative use of financial and regulatory incentives. For the past 10 years, in ever increasing numbers, we have begun to see development of commercial structures for owner-built, built-to-suit and speculative purposes, using green building techniques and technologies. for example - without requiring specific measures. In this way, LEED is a flexible tool for new construction or major renovations in almost all commercial buildings across North America. As a design tool, LEED has proven its value to help organize the work of design teams tasked with creating green buildings.

Transforming Industrial Processes

In the United States, 36 percent of all energy is consumed in industrial processes and another 16 percent is consumed in commercial buildings. There is an opportunity to more than halve this consumption, using existing technology. This will be an important step, which will also be relatively easy to achieve. It will be necessary in order to reduce the need for new electricity-generating capacity. One of the main activities that will be needed in order to achieve this transformation will be a large-scale training and information program, to spread information about savings opportunities, actions and financing opportunities to companies of all kinds. According to The Guide to Energy Management by Capehart, Turner and Kennedy, companies could often reduce energy consumption by 70 percent in office buildings and halve it for manufacturing plants. Some 60-70 percent of savings could be achieved within 3 years from the start of a program in any particular company. However, with the large...

Increasing The Efficiency Of Energy

Field studies of energy systems, such as central heating plants, have revealed inefficiencies that are traceable to control displays, operating and maintenance procedures, documentation, and training programs poorly designed from a human factors point of view (Drost, 1992). Commercial buildings are believed to be highly inefficient in their use of energy, the cost of which can be as much as 30 of their total operating costs (Bevington & Rosenfeld, 1990). Gibbons, Blair, and Gwin (1989) estimated that monitoring and control systems that can adjust indoor heating, lighting, and air conditioning, depending on outdoor temperatures, direction of sunlight, and location of people, can reduce energy use by as much as 10 to 20 . Bevington and Rosenfeld believe that the energy efficiency of buildings could be doubled over a couple of decades. Any improvements in efficiency that reduce the use of fossil fuels will not only help conserve these resources, but will also have beneficial...

Promoting water security with demand management and soft paths

The soft path approach changes the conception of water. Instead of being viewed as an end product, water becomes the means to accomplish specific tasks, such as sanitation or agricultural production. Demand management asks the question how How can we get more from each drop of water Soft paths ask the question why Why should we use water to do this at all Why, for example, do we use water (and, commonly enough, potable water) to carry away our waste Demand management would urge low-flow toilets, whereas soft paths might promote waterless or composting systems in homes and on-site waste treatment and reuse for commercial buildings. Irrigation is the largest use of water, accounting for around 70 of water withdrawals world-wide and even greater proportions in low-income developing countries. Demand management would urge more efficient technologies, such as drip systems with automatic shut-offs. A soft path approach would ask whether irrigated agriculture might be replaced by other modes...

Appliance Efficiency Standards

Residential and commercial buildings currently account for 36.5 percent of national energy use in the United States, mostly consumed by heating and cooling equipment and electric appliances. Approximately 85 percent of residential energy is consumed in furnaces, boilers, air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, ranges, and dishwashers. Sixty-five percent of commercial energy consumption occurs in heating, cooling, lighting, water heating, refrigeration, and office equipment. In industry, lighting equipment and electric motors account for more than seventy-five percent of electricity consumption.22 The United States has adopted a broad range of appliance efficiency standards starting in 1987, on fluorescent ballasts in 1988, and on a variety of commercial and industrial equipment in 1992. It is estimated that the U.S. standards cumulatively reduced electricity use in the U.S. by 2.7 percent in 2000 and will do so by 6 percent by 2015.23

Energyefficient technologies

Owners and developers of commercial buildings are discovering that it is often possible to build high-performance, energy-efficient buildings on conventional budgets. For the past 10 years, and particularly in the past five years, in ever increasing numbers, we have begun to see development of commercial and institutional structures, for both build-to-suit and speculative purposes, using green building techniques and technologies. It is indeed possible to market smaller LEED building projects to owners and developers. There are many examples of small office projects that have achieved a LEED-certified rating on a conventional budget, ranging from an owner-occupied, 15,000 square foot, three-story office building in Lake Oswego, Oregon, built in 2000 for 130 per square foot,7 to a speculative small office park, Ecoworks (about 350,000 square feet in six buildings) in Lexana, Kansas, built in 2002 for under 90.8 In each of these cases, building developers were convinced that they would...

Appendix green building T Resources

Frej, A. (ed.) (2005) Green Office Buildings A Practical Guide to Development. Washington, DC Urban Land Institute. Monthly trade magazine covering technical aspects of heating, plumbing and air conditioning for commercial buildings. New Buildings Institute (www.newbuildings.org) publishes the Benefits Guide A Design Professional's Guide to High-Performance Office Building Benefits, aimed at helping architects and engineers talk to their clients about the multiple benefits of sustainable design for smaller office buildings.

American Civil Society in Revolt Breaking Ranks with the National Government

While various AE programs are funded by customer rates and city grants and low and zero interest loans, the utility has simultaneously succeeded in achieving lower rates through avoiding construction of new electric plants (Regelson 2005). Aided by approximately 5 million in rebates for 40 000 area apartment units, utility expenses have decreased up to 40 for some Austin residents. Approximately 1100 homes recently achieved a 'star' rating or better under AE's Green Building programs, and 19 commercial buildings have received LEED (US Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Efficiency Design) silver certification (Magnusson 2005) . Additionally, GreenChoice has achieved the greatest US sales of utility-sponsored green power ( NREL 2004), generating 340 GWh of electricity from renewable sources and lowering CO2 emissions by nearly 255 000 tons (ICLEI, n.d.). Collectively, Austin 's efforts have allowed the utility to forego electricity generation equivalent to that of a 500...

Engineering a Sustainable World

Building design focuses so much on architecture that many people forget that it's the engineers who make all the building systems work, from structural systems to heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) to plumbing, lighting, electricity, technology systems, external water supply and waste disposal, fire protection and life-safety systems. About 15 to 20 of the construction cost of a typical commercial building is taken up by engineered systems, not by the building structure or furnishings, while an additional 15 to 20 comes from the civil construction outside the building.49 It's easy to see that the engineer's role is critical to achieving high-performance building design with economy.

The Many Uses Of Hydrogen

Hydrogen fuel cells could also power marine engines and provide supplemental electricity for office buildings. The owners of fuel-cell cars could stop at hydrogen stations or even generate their own hydrogen at home using the power from solar arrays. at a warehouse). Hydrogen fuel cells could also power marine engines and provide supplemental electricity for office buildings. The owners of fuel-cell cars could stop at hydrogen stations or even generate their own hydrogen at home using the power from solar arrays.

Using up energy in buildings

About 15 percent of civilization's emissions come from the energy expended to heat and produce electricity for buildings, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA). Two-thirds of that energy is used in homes (see Chapter 6) commercial and institutional buildings, such as schools, colleges and universities, hospitals, shopping malls, and office buildings, use the other third. Think of all the ways that people use and waste energy and electricity in buildings. How many times have you walked into an office building in the middle of summer and felt like you were being transported back to the Ice Age because of the extreme air conditioning People wear suit jackets and sweaters indoors in the summer, and shirt sleeves and skirts in the winter, reversing the seasonal shifts

Public Transportation in Densely Populated Areas

In many European cities, public transportation has been well developed for decades. The urban transit needs have been solved through a combination of trains, subway systems and buses. Through a building structure consisting largely of apartment and office buildings in city centers, population density is high and many people live within easy reach of a train station or a bus stop. In this type of city the public transportation system can be used for most purposes. Besides this, in many cities, a system of foot and bicycle paths and sidewalks are in place, which can facilitate short-range transportation that is entirely manual and thus CO2-free. People who live a short distance from a bus - Increase the population density of cities, by planning the construction of new office buildings and new houses within existing city limits.

Lighting Efficiency How Many Scientists Does It Take to Screw in a More Efficient Light bulb

A little over one-third of all energy is used to produce electricity. Slightly more than one-fifth of all electrical energy is used for lighting. Incandescent light bulbs are extremely inefficient, wasting over 95 percent of the electrical energy by producing heat rather than light. What makes matters worse is that heat generated by light bulbs constitutes a significant part of the cooling load for office buildings. Figure 8-3 compares the various types of light bulbs that are presently available or under development.

The US House of Representatives Going Carbon NeutraL

House of Representatives in 2007 made plans to become carbonneutral. The Chief Administrative Officer of the House, Dan Beard, who was directed in March 2007 by Speaker Nancy Pelosi to find ways to make the House side of the Capitol carbon-neutral, has worked to omit coal from the fuel mix that heats and cools the U.S. Capitol and nearby buildings. In addition, Beard's office also installed compact fluorescent bulbs and dimmers in 12,000 desk lamps in the House's office buildings. Next, the House would buy its electricity from renewable sources such as wind and solar through an arrangement with Pepco, a Washington, D.C., electric The Capitol power plant, four blocks from the House's office buildings, has burned coal since it opened in 1910 and is the only remaining coal-burning facility in the District. The Capitol power plant (which produces no electricity) generates steam and chilled water to heat and cool the Capitol, the Supreme Court, the Library of Congress, and 19...

Sources of Drinking Water Public and Private Supply

NTNCWS Non-Transient Non-Community Water System A public water system that regularly supplies water to at least 25 of the same people at least six months per year, but not year-round. Some examples are schools, factories, office buildings, and hospitals which have their own water systems. NTNCWS Non-Transient Non-Community Water System A public water system that regularly supplies water to at least 25 of the same people at least six months per year, but not year-round. Some examples are schools, factories, office buildings, and hospitals which have their own water systems.

Air Pollution in the Office

In the United States, up to 21 million employees are exposed to poor indoor air quality.40 Several major office buildings have recently made headlines by being diagnosed as sick. A new disease called sick-building syndrome (SBS) has arisen. The disease had its origin in 1973 when the energy crisis caused by the Arab oil embargo dictated a cut in air-handling costs. The standard for the minimum amount of outdoor air brought into buildings was reduced by 70 percent.41

Light Pollution Reduction

I always wonder why large office buildings in cities have so many floors lit up during the night when no one is working. Some simple engineering, providing multiple lighting zones for each floor, would allow the janitors and other nighttime workers to have light for their work without wasting so much energy. Even corporations who pay millions of dollars to put their names on the top of all buildings may not realize how much adverse public relations they are creating by keeping the lights on at night.

Pearl Street Where It All Started

It was a long battle, and Edison was well-financed. Moguls from the history books such as J. Pierpont Morgan backed Edison to the hilt. Maybe it had something to do with Edison building generators and electric systems to light the homes of the wealthy. Located in what became the financial district of Lower Manhattan, Pearl Street also electrified the office buildings of the big financiers, including J. P. Morgan's. Pearl Street Station, however, also initiated the electricity industry's troubled tango with investors and Wall Street throughout history.

Case Study Green building roles for structural and civil

Structural engineers work hand-in-hand with architects to select appropriate structural systems for projects. Structures that use a lot of steel can contribute greatly to the recycled-content and (possibly) locally-sourced materials credits in LEED-NC projects. For projects with a lot of concrete use, structural engineers can help with recycled-content credits by specifying up to 50 percent fly-ash replacement for Portland cement and other cementitious materials in concrete mixtures.5 Choices of structural systems can also reduce floor-to-floor heights (and therefore materials use and cost) in office buildings, if structural engineers coordinate locations for HVAC distribution systems with the mechanical engineer.6

Thermal Energy Storage

Thermal energy storage is a simple concept make ice or chilled water when power is cheap, then avoid buying electricity to operate mechanical cooling systems when it is expensive. Just about any large office building, hospital, hotel and similar 24 7 facilities can benefit from thermal energy storage. As utilities are forced to increase peak-period electrical rates to

Views of the Outdoors

The Lewis and Clark State office building in Jefferson City, Missouri, designed by BNIM Architects, is a LEED Platinum-certified building with abundant views ofthe outdoors. The Lewis and Clark State office building in Jefferson City, Missouri, designed by BNIM Architects, is a LEED Platinum-certified building with abundant views ofthe outdoors.

The Change Wave Thesis

Solar installations, which once consisted mainly of small projects paid for by homeowners or small businesses, are increasingly being financed by companies that offer cheaper electricity or lease payments in exchange for the use of a roof. The solar panels are installed on the roof of an office building or retail outlet, but belong to and are maintained by someone else.

Turbines and Fuel Cells Ready for Prime Time

They can be packaged in ways that make them appear to be like any other appliance you might buy. They can sit on a concrete pad outside your home, your office building, or your favorite fast-food joint, humming along like an air conditioner. Depending on the model, they can be even smaller than your refrigerator. However, in the scheme of things, they are not very efficient in converting fuel to electricity. A microturbine generator might exhibit efficiency between 25 to 30 percent, and engine generator between 30 to 35 percent, an old central utility station between 33 to 35 percent, and a brand new gas-fired combined cycle power plant up to 50 percent.

Example Air conditioning

One area of a new office building is to be used as an archive area for the storage, retrieval and examination of ancient documents, many of which are of a delicate nature. The building will have a centralised air conditioning system, but the archive area will be treated as a separately controlled zone. Cooling will be provided by three electrically powered speed-controlled compressors. Metering will be provided to measure the energy consumption of the refrigerant compressors, and the energy consumption of the fans used to distribute the cooled air will also be metered. Timing controls will also be provided to restrict the operation of the refrigeration and air distribution system to occupancy hours in the office areas. The archive area requires continuous operation to maintain constant environmental conditions. The system data is

Example Mechanical ventilation

In a new mechanically ventilated office building the total floor area treated by the ventilation system is 4200 m2. The input power rating of the fans will be 80 kW. The fans will be driven by variable speed motors, with the speed being controlled from C02 sensors in the exhaust ducts. The controller will include a time function to limit operation to occupancy hours, but there is no separate metering of the ventilation plant. The required data is therefore

Night of the Living Dead

At the office the next day, power is available. The high-rise office building has a backup generating system in the basement and is connected to the grid in such a way that it can get electricity from more than one source. You do some Internet research on your local utility or electricity service provider. You find that the utility's customer satisfaction indices have slipped this year compared to last. You also discover that there have been controversies between the utility and the

Sand and Sun Not Just a Vacation Mantra

Other benefits of solar power include the end user ' s freedom from traditional power grid sources of energy. If there ' s a blackout, or if a utility company hikes power, it doesn ' t affect your solar PV cell operations. The cells just keep converting photons into electrical current, so you can light up your home, warehouse, or office building.

Example Wholebuilding CPR for a new air conditioned building

A new 10 storey office building is a conventional rectangular shape, 45 m x 15 m on plan, and 35 m in height. The office areas are arranged on either side of corridors which run centrally along the major axis of the building, so that the inner wall of all offices is within 6 m of the window wall. The total gross floor area is 6750m2, and the treated occupied area is 90 of this total. Glazing is restricted to the two main facades and is 40 of the area of these facades. The U-values are 0.3 W m2K for the external walls, an average of 2.0 W m2K for the glazing, 0.25W m2K for the roof, and 0.2W m2K for the ground floor.

Government Procurement

Of San Diego decreased its energy consumption by 70 when energy efficient measures were implemented in its office building. The 73,000-sq.-ft. building received a new high-efficiency heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system high-efficiency window films fluorescent lamps and fixtures and daylight and occupancy sensors. These improvements helped the building surpass California's Title 24 building code by more than 50 . Actual savings for ESD have been approximately 80,000 per year ( 1.10 square foot). The building went from operating at 21-22kWh square foot to 7-8kWh square foot. J. Romm, Cool Companies, Island Press (Washington, DC, 1999).

Development through Landscape Recycling

Ecological building and design is another significant theme, and many of the new buildings constructed on Emscher Park sites incorporate significant ecological design measures. The Rheinelbe Science Park (in Gelsenkirch e n ) , built on the site of a former steel mill, incorporates extensive photovoltaic panels on its rooftop (MacDonald, undated). A housing project in the city of Bottrop (constructed on a brownfield site) incorporates a rainwater collection system and centralized district heating (USEPA, undated). This gre e n design emphasis has extended to the cities and towns throughout the region. A new thirty-floor office building in Essen, for instance (the corporate headquarters for RWE AG), has been designed to provide each floor with natural ventilation (through a system of double-skinned insulated glass).

Ecological Buildings and Institutional Structures

Examples of a number of larger institutional structures designed and built according to sustainability principles also exist in the case study communities. These include the Queens Building (in Leicester), the ING-headquar-ters building (in Amsterdam), and the SAS-headquarters building (in Stockholm), among others. Examples of mixed residential office buildings designed around green principles can also be cited, including the green building in Temple Bar (Dublin).

Photochromic thermochromic and electrochromic glass

Pilkington has recently marketed a self-cleaning or 'hydrophilic' glass known commercially as 'Pilkington Activ'. Rainwater forms an overall film on the glass rather than collecting in drops that deposit dirt which remains after drying. This should offer significant revenue cost savings in maintenance, especially for commercial buildings.

Historic Preservation

In Portland, the Jean Vollum Natural Capital Center is a great example of building renovation. Under the leadership of Ecotrust, a regional nonprofit, the ioo-year-old two-story warehouse was transformed into a modern office building. A partial third story was added onto the original build-

Changing the DNA of a major construction firm Swinerton Builders

Design decisions enabled Swinerton to beat Title 24 (California's stringent commercial building energy code) by more than 12 percent on a 20-year-old building. A state-of-the-art, digital building management system continuously monitors temperature, CO2 and humidity, maximizing outside air and running the HVAC systems only to meet actual rather than anticipated demand, thus saving over 30 percent on utility bills. New high-efficiency light fixtures with motion sensors were also installed.

High and superinsulation

Jaywick Green

In recent years attention has been focused towards the use of very thick layers of insulation within the building fabric in order to minimise heat flow. This technique has become known as superinsulation. The use of superinsulation has so far been best demonstrated at the domestic scale. This may be partly due to the problems of overheating experienced in many larger, deeper plan commercial buildings, problems which override the benefits of reduced winter heating requirements. In the future, however, buildings which exhibit less tendency to overheat due to better environmental design may modify the priorities and make superinsulation attractive in all circumstances where buildings experience cold seasons.

Benefits that build a business case

Building built to code (this savings might result from saving only 0.50 per year per square foot for a 75,000 square foot building). At capitalization rates of six to eight percent, typical today in commercial real estate, green building standards would add 468,750 ( 6.25 per square foot) to 625,000 ( 8.33 per square foot) to the value of the building. For a small upfront investment, an owner can reap benefits that typically offer a payback of three years or less and a rate of return exceeding 20 percent. Corporate Office Properties Trust (COPT) developed 318 Sentinel Drive in the National Business Park in Annapolis Junction, Maryland this project received the 2005 NAIOP National Green Development Award. A four-story, 125,000 square foot office building, this project was fully leased during construction. The property earned a LEED Gold rating and is one of 12 projects currently under development that COPT intends to certify under the LEED-CS program. A companion project at 304...

Section General Definitions

For this code, all buildings that are not included in the definition of Residential buildings. ENTRANCE DOOR. Fenestration products used for ingress, egress and access in nonresidential buildings, including, but not limited to, exterior entrances that utilize latching hardware and automatic closers and contain over 50-percent glass specifically designed to withstand heavy use and possibly abuse. STOREFRONT. A nonresidential system of doors and windows mulled as a composite fenestration structure that has been designed to resist heavy use. Storefrontsystems include, but are not limited to, exterior fenestration systems that span from the floor level or above to the ceiling ofthe same story on commercial buildings.

Soft Costs For Green Building Projects

The 2004 GSA study mentioned earlier also looked at soft costs, costs for things that are not part of building construction. The study estimated soft costs for additional design and documentation services ranged from about 0.40 to 0.80 per square foot (0.2 to 0.4 ) for the courthouse and 0.35 to 0.70 per square foot (0.3 to 0.6 ) for the office building modernization project. One caution the added percentage of total cost may be higher for smaller projects.

Chapter Prevention of overheating

5.3 This office building at No. 1 Bridewell Street in Bristol is air-conditioned but is a low-energy consumer due to the adoption of passive load-reducing strategies. 5.3 This office building at No. 1 Bridewell Street in Bristol is air-conditioned but is a low-energy consumer due to the adoption of passive load-reducing strategies. Figure 5.19 shows the heating curves for a lightweight and a heavyweight office building heated for normal daily occupancy. Note that the 24-hour average temperature is higher for the heavy than for the light building. This has to be paid for. Note that the area under the curve during the warming-up period is greater for the heavy building than the light building and this represents a greater heat input from the heating plant. Bearing in mind that as soon as the building is occupied casual gains may provide the majority of the heating load, the heavy option may use considerably more energy due to the increased load at warm-up.

Photovoltaic applications

Mont Cenis Academy Complex Germany

Commercial buildings have perhaps the greatest potential for PV cells to be integrated into their glazing as well as being roof mounted. Even at the present state of the technology, Ove Arup and Partners estimate that one third of the electricity needed to run an office complex could come from PVs with only a 2 per cent addition to the building cost. The main advantage of commercial application is that offices use most of their energy during daylight hours. The case study of the Zicer building in the University of East Anglia will serve as an example (Chapter 18).

Waterfront Growth Decline and Redevelopment in the Great Lakes Basin

Centuries, and the need for additional docking space and railroad yards required further shoreline stabilization, anchorage improvements, and land creation. The spoils of harbor dredging and the garbage of the city were often used for land reclamation 3,10,12,13 . These new transportation facilities and the commercial buildings they required expanded into the settlement, often blocking access to the port area from other parts of the city.

Buildings and other sectors

This title is used here, in preference to the usual designation of the Residential, services and agricul- o ture sector. This is because, although the figures given relate to the whole of that sector, the discussion of policy instruments is limited to those applying to residential and commercial buildings and the energy- J consuming equipment and appliances therein.

Construction technologies

Climate facades The glass curtain wall is a familiar feature of office and institutional buildings dating from the 1950s, though the feature first appeared in the US at the end of the nineteenth century. Liverpool can boast a number of office buildings that point the way to the glass curtain wall such as Oriel Chambers in Water Street, designed by Peter Ellis and completed in 1864.

Platinum Project Profile

Completed in April 2006, the McKinney Green Building is a 61,000-square-feet, three-story speculative office building. The facility is projected to reduce energy use by more than 70 percent and reduce water use by 30 percent compared to a similar, conventional office building. A rooftop photovoltaic system comprises 152 panels that provide approximately 10 percent of the building's electricity requirements. Two cisterns, each with a 9000-gallon capacity, collect rainwater for landscaping use. Nearly 18 miles of underground geothermal well piping and 120 wells in the parking lot will support the groundwater-based cooling system.*

Introduction Global warming and the built environment the challenge

The major strategies are examined broadly and then in detail in terms of the specific options open to us. These options provide a discussion of an approach to architectural form in terms of climate modification and the development of a benign architecture. The potential for energy efficiency in the commercial building sector and understanding of user preferences in the residential sector leads to the establishment of a performance-based system of standards for design. The focus shifts again in the search for energy efficiency. This time to one of the largest, yet underestimated sources of energy consumption in the built environment the commercial building sector. From consideration of the effects of commercial building construction and operation on the environment the discussion focuses on the question of energy consumption in the residential sector.

How Does Society Use Energy

Before describing the various ways in which energy can be harnessed, it is important to understand how energy resources are used in society. There are four primary end uses of energy industrial, residential, commercial, and transportation applications. In the industrial sector, energy is used to make metal and paper, for petroleum refining, agriculture, the chemical industry, and the manufacturing industry. This sector comprises approximately 33 percent of the energy used in a developed society. The residential sector uses energy in homes for heating and cooling, lighting, electrical appliances, and water heating. This sector comprises 22 percent of the energy used by society. The commercial sector uses energy for much of the same applications as the residential sector. Heating, cooling, and lighting are the main uses of energy in restaurants, retail and office buildings, schools, hospitals, and churches. Commercial energy uses comprise 18 percent of energy consumed in society....

Finding Energy Saving Opportunities

At the same time, the needs of building users should be evaluated in a policy effort to determine whether the university should meet all faculty and student demands. For example, if a large faculty office building can be closed during the summer weekends, significant energy savings will result due to reduced air-conditioning loads. However, if one faculty member expects cool summer temperatures in his or her office on a summer Sunday afternoon, the savings will quickly evaporate. Chapter 9 addresses policies regarding building temperatures.

Highperformance on a budget

With certain project types, such as science and technology laboratories, it can be costly to change established models designs for office buildings are easier to change Climate can make certain levels of LEED certification harder for project types such as laboratories and even office buildings

Use of certification programs for green building projects

In the buildings sector, Energy Star has evaluated more than 26,000 commercial and institutional buildings for energy performance. Eligible building types for an Energy Star rating currently include offices (general, bank branch, courthouse, financial centers), K-12 schools, hospitals, hotels, supermarkets, dormitories and medical offices. The Energy Star program provides energy-use evaluations of building types that now include 38 percent of hospitals, 25 percent of office buildings, 24 percent of supermarkets, 15 percent of schools and 14 percent of hotels. This corresponds to 20 percent of the square footage of all commercial buildings representing a huge database of building energy use with which engineers can compare their designs. EPA has awarded the Energy Star designation for energy efficiency to more than 3,200 buildings. These buildings represent more than 575 million square feet (about the same amount as the end of 2006 LEED-registered project area), save an estimated 600...

Tax Benefits And Incentives

*Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, The Cost-Effectiveness of Commercial-Buildings Commissioning, 2004 online , accessed April 2008. This research reviewed 224 studies of the benefits of building commissioning and concluded that based on energy savings alone, such investments have a payback within 5 years.

Distributed Generation Technologies

Office building with natural gas microturbines (0.5 MW) Office building with natural gas microturbines (0.5 MW) Standby power, PQ, peak-shaving, and cogeneration applications. Some types of microturbines are well suited for small commercial building establishments such as restaurants, hotels, small offices, retail stores, and many others. Several hundred phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) demonstration and test plants have been built in the mid-1990s to early twenty-first century, mostly with 200-kW capacity appropriate for DG applications, in many commercial buildings to provide premium PQ for demanding loads. The operating temperature is about 200 C, which is suitable for cogeneration applications in buildings and in small industrial plants. They do not offer opportunity of self-reforming and they require platinum for their catalyst. PAFCs' efficiency and peak output capability deteriorate by about 2 per year. Grid attached residential and commercial buildings

The World Trade Center

Shortly after the collapse, the EPA collected air samples at or near ground zero to monitor fine PM. However, a team from the Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) analyzed 243 of the collected samples. According to Dr. Stephen M. Rappaport, the team leader, the PAH levels declined rapidly, indicating the unlikelihood of long-term risks of cancer from PAH exposure. Also discovered was the fact that workers engaged in cleanup efforts could have been exposed to much higher levels of PAH than those in the collected air samples, and thus would have higher cancer risks. Also, because PAH levels were high for weeks after the collapse, the potential for adverse reproductive effects cannot be discounted among women who were pregnant during that period. The researchers caution that indoor air cannot be overlooked as a source of PAH as huge levels of dust seeped into both residential and commercial buildings, and...

Solar thermal energy systems

One way of utilizing solar energy is to use it directly as a source of thermal energy, either to provide space heating for residential and commercial buildings, or to generate electricity using a conventional Rankine steam cycle. As we have seen, a great deal of energy is used to provide basic comfort in buildings, and in the populous mid-latitude countries this is primarily used for heating during the winter months. The use of both active and passive solar thermal energy systems for these applications could provide a significant reduction in the need for non-renewable primary energy sources. Passive solar heating simply refers to architectural design techniques which enable the building structure to absorb as much solar energy as possible during daylight hours in the winter months, and then using this stored energy to replace heat that would normally be provided by a fossil fuel-fired furnace, or by electric heating. Design concepts can be as simple as ensuring that windows are...

International Solid Waste Management

The international Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) compiles worldwide data, including environmental statistics, for its thirty member countries. The bar graphs on the next page compare the total amount of municipal waste generated annually and the annual amount of municipal waste generated per capita, respectively, by the United States and other selected OECD member countries in 1997. Per capita waste generation rates vary significantly by country factors contributing to such discrepancies may include individual lifestyle and national economic structure. Although individual national definitions may differ, for the purpose of analysis here, OECD regards municipal waste as waste collected by or on the order of municipalities, including that originating from households, commercial activities, office buildings, institutions such as school and government buildings, and small businesses.

Typical Day of Enviro Culture

A day in the life of an average American is filled with popular culture's representations of pollution and the environment. A person makes breakfast with cereal from a company that touts itself as environmentally conscious. Flipping channels while eating breakfast, an individual learns from CNN that an oil spill has occurred overnight near a sensitive coastline, while the Weather Channel reports that beach erosion caused by a hurricane off the coast of North Carolina is harming the natural resources of the sensitive Outer Banks. This average American drives to work in a sport utility vehicle (SUV), which was bought on its ability to drive up rugged mountain roads, but declined to buy a compact car that was advertised to help save the environment because of its fuel economy. This individual arrives in a crowded, concrete parking lot that surrounds a multiple-story office building, as do the other thousands of employees who also drive up singly and sometimes in pairs. The person stops...

List of Illustrations and Photos

10.1 Originally used as a warehouse, office and stables, Opsis Architecture designed the upper 10,000 square foot floor for use as their own office space in the 75-year-old Lovejoy Office Building which is LEED-NC Gold certified. 10.2 DPR Construction gained an even greater understanding of the development process from an owner's perspective when they pursued (and received) LEED-NC Silver certification for its own 52,000 square foot Sacramento office building.

Leed For Commercial Interiors

LEED-CI represents a wholly different situation, with an average size of only 50,000 square feet (one or two floors of an office building) and a quick project turnaround time. Most remodeling and tenant improvement projects happen quite fast, so that a decision to pursue LEED-CI must be made at or near the outset of a project. In that case, one expects the client and the design team to be committed to the end results. However, a countervailing factor is that the average project cost is less than 5 million, often less than 2 million, so that the fixed cost of completing a LEED-CI project (perhaps 50,000 to 100,000) is a more significant factor in the overall project budget. As a result, the percentage of registered projects already completed under LEED-CI version 2.0 (in place since November of 2004) is less than that of LEED for New Construction. As an example, Exelon Corporation, a major electric utility, used LEED-CI to fit out its new headquarters office space (Fig. 5.1).

Reduced Operating Costs

With the real price of oil likely to stay above 80 to 100 per barrel (in today's dollars) for the forseeable future,* natural gas prices at near-record levels, and peak-period (typically summer air-conditioning times) electricity prices rising steadily in many metropolitan areas, energy-efficient buildings make good business sense. Even in commercial triple-net leases (the most common type) in which the tenant pays all operating costs, landlords want to offer tenants the most economical space for their money (not doing so amounts to a hidden tax on the renter). For small added investments in capital cost, green buildings offer lower operating costs for years to come. Many green buildings are designed to use 30 to 50 percent less energy than current codes require some buildings achieve even higher efficiency levels. Translated to an operating cost of 3.00 per square foot for electricity (the most common source of energy for office and commercial buildings), this level of savings could...

Increased Building Value

Increased annual energy savings also create higher building values. Imagine a building that saves 72,000 per year in energy costs versus a comparable building built to code (this savings might result from saving only 0.90 per year per square foot for an 80,000-square-foot building). At capitalization rates of 6 percent, typical today in commercial real estate, green building upgrades would add 1,200,000 ( 15 per square foot) to the value of the building. For a small upfront investment, an owner can reap benefits that typically offer a payback of three years or less and an internal rate of return exceeding 20 percent. The CoStar study cited earlier and others show that ENERGY STAR-rated and LEED-certified buildings exhibit resale premiums of up to 30 percent.

More Competitive Product

A study of 2000 large office buildings (defined as having at least 200,000 square feet of leasable area) in the CoStar database by Professor Norman Miller of the University of San Diego, released late in 2007, showed that over the period of 2004 through the first half of 2007, ENERGY STAR buildings (in the top 25 percent of energy efficiency in the United States) had 2.00 per square foot higher rents and 2 percent higher occupancy. Each of these two factors increases building value measurably. In fact, the ENERGY STAR-rated buildings that were sold in 2006 commanded a 30 percent premium (sales price per square foot) over those buildings that weren't so rated.* This is consistent with the larger CoStar study cited at the beginning of this chapter.

Timing Of The Project

A significant determinant of cost is when the project is bid in 2006 and 2007, for example, I've been told that some projects in major cities had trouble even getting subcontractor bids, because everyone was just flat-out too busy. As the commercial building sector slows down in 2008 and 2009, as seems likely, contractors will likely be more eager for work, and prices should come down a little. Continuing inflation of construction materials is also a factor in adding cost to project budgets.

Summary of Cost Influences

With certain project types, such as science and technology labs, it can be costly to change established design approaches designs for office buildings are easier to change Climate can make certain levels of LEED certification harder and costlier for project types such as labs and even office buildings.

World energy demand and supply

In Figure 11.2 is shown how the energy we consume is generated and used. Also summarised are the energy flows from source to users in the main sectors and the size of the various resources that are available using conventional technologies. Taking the world average approximately 25 of primary energy is used in transport, 35 in industry and 40 in buildings (two-thirds in residential buildings and one-third in commercial buildings). It is also interesting to know how much energy is used in the form of electricity. Rather more than one-third of primary energy goes to make electricity at an average efficiency of conversion of about one-third. Of this electrical power about half,

Where are we heading Components of energy strategy

In the buildings sector grew by about 3 per year averaged worldwide from 1970 to 1990 and, apart from countries with economies in transition, has been growing during the last decade by about 2.5 per year. How can these trends be reversed 17 To achieve the greatly increased energy efficiency required from the buildings sector it is essential that there be an effective programme for retrofitting existing buildings with adequate insulation so as to reduce the requirement for heating in winter (see box) and cooling in summer. Many countries, including the UK and the USA, still have relatively poor standards of building insulation compared, for instance, with Scandinavian countries. It is also essential that all new domestic and commercial buildings are designed and constructed to the highest possible standards so as to require the minimum energy input (i.e. with higher insulation standards than those listed in the box) and with maximum use of passive solar design (see box on page 362).19...

Efficiency of appliances

There is large potential for reducing the electricity consumption from appliances used in domestic or commercial buildings. If, in replacing appliances, everyone bought the most efficient available, their total electricity consumption could easily drop by more than half.

The Christman Building Lansing Michigan

Lansing Christman

The Christman building is the first building to be certified at both LEED-CS Platinum and LEED-CI Platinum levels. A renovated 1928 landmark, the Christman Building is located on a former brownfield. Over 90 percent of the former walls, roof, floors and office furnishings were reused. The 12 million project is expected to save 40,000 a year in energy costs. The Christman Company, who provided construction management, historic preservation, LEED coordination and real estate development services for the project, occupies about half of the six-story, 62,000-square-feet class A office building.

Renewable energy sources

Per unit cross-sectional area, or surface area. Both solar energy and wind energy, for example, have very low energy density, which means that relatively small quantities of energy are available from each square meter of the earth's surface area. This is notably not true, however, for hydroelectric power, as in this case the radiant energy originating from the sun has enabled the global climate system and the earth's geography to concentrate the energy. The power from a hydroelectric installation is then derived from the potential energy stored in a large body of water in an elevated position which is used to drive turbines as it falls to a lower level. The reservoir is continually refilled by rainfall, which is collected over a very large area, and then guided by the natural topography and river systems to run back into the reservoir. In order to use solar energy directly, however, the sun's rays must be intercepted over a very large area, since the incoming insolation, or incident...

Investing in Green Buildings

In 2006 real estate investment in green buildings grew dramatically with the announcement of a joint venture by the California Public Employees Retirement System (CalPERS) to fund future commercial real estate projects by the Hines development organization. A large national real estate developer, Hines is well-known for its commitment to Energy Star and LEED certification for its buildings.80 The Hines CalPERS Green Development Fund (HCG) was capitalized with over 120 million of committed equity and, with leverage, will have the ability to invest up to 500 million. HCG will concentrate on developing high-performance, sustainable office buildings certifiable through the LEED for Core and Shell Program.

Energy and the environment

Nitrogen oxides, NO and NO2, collectively described as NOx, together with unburned hydrocarbons, are primarily a concern because of the potential to form ground-level ozone (O3). Nitric oxide (NO) is formed during the combustion of fossil fuels in the presence of nitrogen in the air, whether in motor vehicles, thermal power stations, or in furnaces and boilers used to heat homes and commercial buildings. The NO formed during the combustion process is normally converted rapidly to NO2 due to the presence of excess oxygen when it is discharged into the atmosphere. In the presence of sunlight, however, the NO2 may subsequently be dissociated, resulting in the free oxygen atoms reacting with O2 molecules to form high levels of ground-level ozone. Ozone is a very reactive oxidant and can cause irritation to the eyes and lungs, and can also destroy vegetation as well as man-made materials such as synthetic rubber and plastic. In high concentrations, found mainly in large urban centers with...

Drivers of green building market growth

Moderate impact, a long-standing trend that will increase the market for green commercial buildings More cities that have subscribed to climate change initiatives will begin to require green buildings from commercial and residential projects, especially large developments with major infrastructure impacts. For example, by early 2007, 367 mayors from both political parties representing over 55 million Americans in all 50 states and Washington, DC had signed on to the US Mayor's Climate Protection Agreement. Mayors of seven of the ten largest US cities had signed along with mid-size and smaller cities.20 Mayors who sign on to the agreement are making a commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in their own cities and communities to 7 percent below 1990 levels by 2012 through actions like increasing energy efficiency, reducing vehicle miles traveled, maintaining healthy urban forests, reducing sprawl and promoting use of clean, renewable energy resources. In 2006, Washington, DC,...

Green Offices More Ecological Ways of Working

Office Building These energy and ecological features have been estimated to add about 10 percent to the cost of the building. But, the building illustrates that these costs can be fairly quickly recouped through reduced energy and water costs. Table 12.1 shows that when projected environmental savings are taken into account, the per-square-meter cost of the Eco-kantoor is equal to that of a standard Dutch office building.

Short History Of Solar Technologies

A new generation of direct solar thermal devices is aimed at space heating and process heat. Such large-scale solar thermal systems are most often used for large commercial buildings, such as hotels or breweries. One of the largest such systems heats the million-gallon swimming pool built for the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, saving an estimated 12,000 per year.3 However, innovative, small rooftop designs are also gaining popularity, helping to heat homes and businesses without greenhouse gas emissions.

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