Surface Winds

Winds within 30° of the equator in the Atlantic and Indian oceans were first mapped by Edmund Halley in 1686, and his maps were not superseded till 1855, when Mathew Maury issued charts, based on a recent international exchange of ships' logs, at a conference in Brussels. These charts proved invaluable. For instance, they showed the advantage of sailing from England to Australia by way of the east coast of South America and then passing well south of South Africa (Figure 12.1), whereas on the return journey it is best to hug the African coast.

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