Any of these prevailing surface winds may be considered as partly east—west (i.e. zonal), and partly north—south (i.e. meridional). The zonal components of winds at a certain latitude can be averaged over all longitudes and over a whole year, to obtain Figure 12.5. This shows that there are specially strong westerlies at the latitude of Cape Horn (56°S) at the tip of South America. They are far stronger than those in the northern hemisphere, partly because of the virtual absence of land between 45-60°S (Figure 11.1); the other reason is the notable coldness of Antarctica (Chapter 16).
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