Contents

Preface ix

Part I Air

1 THE ATMOSPHERE 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Origin of the Atmosphere 4

1.3 Composition of Air 6

1.4 Ozone in the Upper Atmosphere 10

1.5 Atmospheric Pressure 12

1.6 Atmospheric Temperature 16

1.7 Atmospheric Electricity 19

1.8 Atmospheric Structure 20

Part II Energy

2 RADIATION 25

2.1 Kinds of Radiation 25

2.2 Solar Radiation reaching the Earth 27

2.3 Attenuation within the Atmosphere 33

2.4 Radiation at Ground Level 36

2.5 Albedo 38

2.6 Ultra-violet Radiation 40

2.7 Longwave Radiation 43

2.8 Net Radiation 48

3 TEMPERATURE 50

3.1 Temperature Measurement 50

3.2 Screen Temperatures 54

3.3 Seasonal Changes 61

3.4 Daily Changes 65

3.5 Ground Temperatures 69

3.6 Frost 71

3.7 Urban Temperatures 72

4 EVAPORATION 76

4.1 Changes of State 76

4.2 Vapour Pressure and Evaporation 78

4.3 Features of the Evaporation Process 79

4.4 Determining the Evaporation Rate 82

4.5 Various Evaporation Rates 84

4.6 Values of the Evaporation Rate 87

5 ENERGY BALANCES 93

5.1 The Energy-balance Equation 93

5.2 Energy Balances of Large Scale 96

5.3 Local Energy Balances 98

5.4 Altering the Energy Balance 101

5.5 The Energy Balance of the Human Body 103

Part III Water

6 HUMIDITY 109

6.1 The Hydrologic Cycle 109

6.2 Describing the Air's Humidity 110

6.3 Measuring the Air's Humidity 113

6.4 Humidity at the Surface 116

6.5 Humidity and Human Comfort 122

6.6 Humidity Aloft 124

7 ATMOSPHERIC INSTABILITY 127

7.1 Instability and Feedback 127

7.2 Lapse Rates 128

7.3 Instability of the Atmosphere 130

7.4 Examples of Instability 134

7.5 Tornadoes, Dust-devils and Waterspouts 138

7.6 Stable Layers 139

8 CLOUDS 146

8.1 The Formation of Clouds 146

8.2 Cloud Droplets 151

8.3 Categories and Changes 152

8.4 Fog 155

8.5 Stratiform Clouds 158

8.6 Cumuliform Clouds 158

8.7 High Clouds 161

8.8 Observing Cloudiness 162

8.9 Amounts of Cloud 164

8.10 Effects of Clouds 166

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