Cloud Processes

9.1 Clouds and Rain 170

9.2 Forming Raindrops 172

9.3 Cloud Seeding 174

9.4 Kinds of Precipitation 175

9.5 Thunderstorms 177

9.6 Cloud Electricity 184

9.7 Global Electricity 188

9.8 Hail 189

10 PRECIPITATION 192

10.1 General 192

10.2 Rainfall Intensity 193

10.3 Spatial Differences 195

10.4 Variations of Rainfall 199

10.5 Water Balances 205

10.6 Floods 208

10.7 Droughts 209

10.8 Snow 215

11 OCEANS 219

11.1 Oceans and Climates 219

11.2 Ocean Temperatures 220

11.3 Salinity 227

11.4 The Coriolis Effect and the Oceans 229

11.5 Ocean Currents 234

Part IV Winds

12 GLOBAL WINDS 243

12.1 Surface Winds of the Globe 243

12.2 Factors Governing Global Winds 248

12.3 Circulations within the Troposphere 252

12.4 The Upper Westerlies 258

12.5 Jet Streams 261

12.6 Models of the General Circulation 262

12.7 ENSO 264

13 SYNOPTIC-SCALE WINDS 271

13.1 Introduction 271

13.2 Air Masses 272

13.3 Fronts 273

13.5 Tropical Cyclones 284

13.6 Highs 292

14 LOCAL WINDS 295

14.1 General 295

14.2 Sea Breezes 299

14.3 Mountain Winds 305

14.4 Turbulence 308

14.5 Wind Energy 311

14.6 Sea Waves 313

14.7 Urban Air Pollution 316

Part V Climates

15 WEATHER AND CLIMATE CHANGE 321

15.1 Weather Data 321

15.2 Weather Forecasting 323

15.3 Past Climates 331

15.4 Climates in the Twentieth Century 339

15.5 Future Climates 343

16 SOUTHERN CLIMATES 348

16.1 Introduction 348

16.2 Climate Classification 349

16.3 Antarctica 355

16.4 South America 359

16.5 South Africa 368

16.6 Australia 374

16.7 New Zealand 380

16.8 Conclusions 382

Part VI Supplements

17 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 387

17.1 Assistance 387

17.2 Advice 387

17.3 Tables, Notes and Illustrations 388

List of Plates 395

List of Figures 396

List of Tables 404

List of Notes 406

List of Abbreviations 412

Bibliography 414

Index 422

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