References

Tropical cyclones Coastal Bangladesh. In Natural Hazards Local, National, Global, ed. G.F. White, pp. 19-25. New York Oxford University Press. Baumann, D.D. & Sims, J.H. (1974). Human response to the hurricane. In Natural Hazards Local, National, Global, ed. G.F. White, pp. 25-30. New York Oxford University Press. Burton, I., Kates, R. & Snead, R. (1969). The Human Ecology of Coastal Flood Hazard in Megalopolis. Chicago University of Chicago, Department of...

Three decades of spectacular development

The Polish fishery industry started with modest catches in the southern Baltic. The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), established in 1902 in Copenhagen, Denmark, reported the total landings in 1903 of all countries surrounding the Baltic to be 50,000 metric tons. By 1908, landings had increased to 113,000 mt. It would be a very speculative (and arbitrary) task to separate out the pre-World War I catches of Polish fishermen, as Poland was not independent at that time....

Early history of the fishery

The commercial harvest of king crab in the eastern Bering Sea began with a Japanese fishery in 1930 (Otto, 1981). Between then and 1939, when the fishery closed with the start of World War II, nearly eight million crabs were taken. Meanwhile, in 1940 the US Congress appropriated funds for Alaska fish surveys, and Lowell Wakefield began to can crab near Kodiak (Blackford, 1979). But the US fishery, which started as a supplement to salmon and halibut, did not really begin until 1947. Until 1965,...

World War II and recovery

With the onset of World War II, the lobster industry began to recover a recovery which has continued to the present. Since 1947, the lobster catch has averaged about 18 million pounds (8.2 million kg) and at no time in this period has it fallen below 15 million pounds (6.8 million kg). By any measure, it is the most important fishery in Maine today. It is no exaggeration to say that it is a mainstay of the coastal economy. In 1978, for example, there were 440 employed males in Bristol (Maine),...

Life history and environmental setting

Atlantic menhaden are found from Nova Scotia (Canada) to Florida (USA) (Reintjes, 1969). They undergo extensive migration, encountering variable environmental conditions throughout their life cycle. Migration is generally northward in the spring and summer with adults stratifying by age and size (older and larger fish are usually farther north), and southward in the fall and winter (Nicholson, 1978). Spawning most probably occurs during every month of the year along the US Atlantic coast from...

ITkrlT Ldms

ATLANTIC NORTH WEST (Newfoundland Coast) ATLANTIC EASTERN CENTRAL (Mauritanian Coast) ATLANTIC SOUTH EAST (Namibian Coast) ATLANTIC SOUTH WEST (Patagonian Shelf) RACIFIC NORTH EAST (Aleutian and US West Coast) Fig. 13.4 Distribution of catches over fishing areas, 1970-The second big shift in fishing operations After the first shock in the late 1970s, the Polish fishery reclaimed its ability to operate in distant waters in the 1980s. However, the institutional and economic terms of catches...

Other regional developments

There has been a series of important changes in the Indian Ocean tuna infrastructure and processing capabilities that has made the development of the Indian Ocean surface tuna fisheries viable. The first was the investment in and development of tuna processing facilities in Thailand. These facilities were established in response to the general collapse of the Hawaii- and California-based tuna processing capacities because of rising domestic labor costs and the recent decade's sharp increase in...

Maine lobstering general information

The American lobster (Homarus americanus, see Fig. 7.1) is found in the waters off the Atlantic coast of North America from Newfoundland to Virginia. Concentrations of lobsters are greatest in waters less than 55 meters deep. Although lobsters are found on all kinds of bottom types, they prefer rocky areas, especially where there is a good deal of kelp in which to hide. Lobsters eat a wide variety of foods, both living and dead organisms. Their preferred foods are fish, mollusks and small...

The responses to the sea lamprey

Governmental and institutional response Prior to the mid-1940s, the various agencies of the Great Lakes tended to regard the resources of these waters as self-sustaining. The commercial fishery was the favored user-group access to the fishery was open to fishermen who understood the politics involved. Frick (1965, p. 89) noted Regulation of the Great Lakes fisheries has been carried out through a patchwork accumulation of laws and directives rather than by well-organized uniform legislation....

Introduction

Lamprey Distribution

Ecosystemic science as applied in the Great Lakes The irruption of the sea lamprey into the upper Great Lakes -Huron, Michigan, and Superior (see Fig. 9.1) - occurred at a time when both cultural and natural aspects of the Basin ecosystem were under increasing stress by factors other than the invading sea lamprey. At the time there was intense disagreement among some experts about the causes of particular fishery effects in the Great Lakes. Thus, J. Van Oosten inferred that overfishing was...

Causes of the disaster of the s and s

During the entire inter-war period, the lobster industry was in the worst condition in its entire history. Catches fell dramatically from their pre-World War I levels, and remained low until World War II. Between 1880 and 1900 the lobster catch ranged from 14 million pounds (6.4 million kg) to a high of 24.5 million pounds (11.1 million kg) in 1889 (Dow, 1967, p. 4 Martin & Lipfert, 1985, p. 51). It appeared to be about the same until World War I, although the data from this period...

An analogy the federal shrimp plan and its impact on the fishery

Management by action pros and cons of the action portion of the plan There were at least two negative aspects associated with the federal shrimp plan. First, the expansion into foreign fishing grounds was reversed. Unilateral extension of the US exclusive fishing zone out to 200 miles resulted in similar, retaliatory extensions by Central and South American countries. This was not unexpected. Indeed, shrimpers who had traditionally fished these waters had lobbied unsuccessfully to have shrimp...

Year

Fig. 14.7 Mean landing prices at the Kushiro Fish Market for all three species, Alaska pollock, mackerel, and sardine (a), and breakdowns of landing to different utilization categories for each species (b -d), 1964-87. pollock has also been downward as its supply gradually increased 56 yen in 1987, down from 79 yen kg in 1980 (Fig. 14.7). Thus, Kushiro has become a city which depends on large amounts of low-value sardine and Alaska pollock for its economic well-being. There are many fish...

Ocean environment El Nio and salmon

Interior Fraser Coho Migration

While a comprehensive discussion of the effects of the marine environment on salmon is beyond the scope of this chapter, this section provides a brief summary of the apparent effects of ocean conditions on salmon both during El Ni o events and over longer time periods. Some plausible explanations of the mechanisms that might relate changes in ocean conditions to salmon harvests are discussed. At sea, salmon are constantly moving (Quinn & Groot, 1984). Their migratory patterns and behavior...

Anglo Icelandic Cod Wars

Iceland, an island nation, is poorly endowed with land-based natural resources. With no minerals to speak of, its main potential land-based resource lies in energy production from hydro-logical and geothermal sources. Its natural energy supply might be used to attract foreign industrial development to the country. However, the valuable resources that Iceland does not have on land are present in its coastal waters. The biological productivity of the water above Iceland's continental shelf is...

The impact of climate

As shown by Hjort (1914), the early stages of the life cycles are the crucial ones for Atlanto-Scandian herring. Abiotic factors and food supply play an important, maybe decisive, role during this period. The spawning season begins earlier in warm years than in cold years. According to Dr. Axel Boeck (referenced in Devoid, 1963), one of the symptoms of decline in the Norwegian herring fishery toward the end of the previous century was that herring arrived later each year for spawning at the...

History of Atlanto Scandian herring fishery

The Atlanto-Scandian herring fishery began about one thousand years ago (Seliverstov & Seliverstova, 1991). Traditionally, the main fishery of adult herring had been a winter fishery along the Norwegian west coast prior to and during the spawning season. Available data show that periods of rather sharp fluctuations of catches occurred in the nineteenth century (Fig. 11.3). Gradual increases of catches occurred during the period 1810-30 from several hundred metric tons in 1810 to 70,000...

Modeling the growth and contraction of Peruvian Chilean fisheries

Since climate variations alone do not suffice to explain the contraction and resurgence of these fisheries, it is necessary to examine as well 1 the burden placed on living marine resources by overfishing, 2 the impact of ecological crises such as El Ni o on fish landings, 3 the observed variations in marine environments, and 4 the influence of the demand for fish in international markets. Time series analysis allows the calibration of a model that validates the statistical significance of...

General biology and environmental conditions

Although the distribution and migration patterns of Atlanto-Scandian herring have changed during the last decades, it may be fruitful to study their common characteristics based on situations observed in the 1950s when the stock was at a high level. Spawning of Norwegian spring-spawning herring occurs in February-March along the Norwegian coast in bottom layers af fected by warm Atlantic waters with temperatures of 4-7.5 C and salinity 32-35 00 Fig. 11.1 . The surface layers, as a rule, are...

Identifying potential tuna fishing grounds

There are many published studies for tunas, and all related scombroid fishes, that indicate that there are distinct physical boundaries that, although permeable to varying degrees, appear to inhibit major abundances or aggregations of schools, individuals, or some size groups within a given species e.g., Sharp amp Dizon, 1978 . Acoustic tagging studies e.g., Carey amp Olson, 1982 of the behavior of individual scombroids while free swimming in the open ocean show clearly that they exhibit...

The rise and fall of the California sardine empire

Miraflores

Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary San Francisco, CA 94123, USA National Marine Fisheries Service Tiburon, CA 94920, USA The plane circled slowly, searching. The US Navy pilot and crew had been trained to locate and report the position of the prey under the waves. Once sighted, a message would be sent to the US Navy Air Station ashore which then relayed the sighting to a subchaser or US Coast Guard cutter in the area. The warship would signal 10 to 15 pursuit vessels, inform them...

King crab dethroned

School of Marine Affairs University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195, USA The king crab stock in the eastern north Pacific eastern Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska see Fig. 2.1 has varied nearly tenfold in abundance in the last 25 years Hayes, 1983 . Since the late 1960s, the fishery has been the second most valuable Alaskan seafood industry, exceeded in value only by the combined six salmonid species harvested in Alaska Hanson, 1987 . The small Alaskan port of Dutch Harbor, a major center for crab...

Fisheries prior to modern times in South Sinaloa

Human exploitation of marine resources on Mexico's Pacific coast began as early as 8,000 years ago Hubbs amp Gunnar, 1964, p. 145 , and large aboriginal populations inhabited South Sinaloa's Initial field work for this study took place from fall 1971 through fall 1972, and was sponsored by the Latin American Studies Institute at The University of Texas at Austin. Brief field studies were also conducted from 1974 through 1978. Communications with key informants have been ongoing through the...

James R McGoodwin

Department of Anthropology University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309, USA The coastal plain in the south of the modern-day Mexican state of Sinaloa, known locally as Sur de Sinaloa South Sinaloa , is the site of Mexico's most productive inshore marine fisheries, producing shrimp, fish and, until fairly recent times, oysters and similar mollusks. The region encompasses a strand plain and inshore marine region which is roughly 17 km wide by 120 km long Fig. 8.1 . The main features of the terrain...

Ecosystem variations induced by El Nio events

Shortly after the beginning of the development of industrial fisheries in the coastal regions bordering the Humboldt Current, it was discovered that oceanic variations along the coasts of Peru and northern Chile had a noticeable impact on living marine resources. El Ni o phenomena in 1972-73 and 1982-83 revealed the severity of their impacts on fish availability and accessibility as well as on the vulnerability of certain species and the resilience of others. Furthermore, the relatively minor...