References

Bell, G. D., and Chelliah, M. (2006). Leading tropical modes associated with interannual and multidecadal fluctuations in North Atlantic hurricane activity. Journal of Climate, 19, 590-612. Broccoli, A. J., Dixon, K. W., Delworth, T. L., Knutson, T. R., and Stouffer, R. J. (2003). Twentieth-century temperature and precipitation trends in ensemble climate simulations including natural and anthropogenic forcing. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108, D24, 4798, doi:10.1029/2003JD003812. Brohan, P., Kennedy, J. J., Haris, I., Tett, S. F. B., and Jones, P. D. (2006).

Uncertainty estimates in regional and global observed temperature changes: a new dataset from 1850. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, D12106, doi:10.1029/2005JD006548. Camp, J. P., and Montgomery, M. T. (2001). Hurricane maximum intensity: past and present. Monthly Weather Review, 129, 1704-17. Chan, J. C. L. (2006). Comment on ''Changes in tropical cyclone number, duration, and intensity in a warming environment". Science, 311, 1713. DeMott, C. A., and Randall, D. A. (2004). Observed variations of tropical convective available potential energy. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, D02102, doi:10.1029/2003JD003784. Emanuel, K. A. (1987). The dependence of hurricane intensity on climate. Nature, 326, 483-5.

Emanuel, K. A. (1988). The maximum intensity of hurricanes. Journal of Atmospheric

Science, 45, 1143-55. Emanuel, K. (2000). A statistical analysis of tropical cyclone intensity. Monthly

Weather Review, 128, 1139-52. Emanuel, K. A. (2005a). Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past

30 years. Nature, 436, 686-8. Emanuel, K. A. (2005b). Emanuel replies. Nature, 438, doi:10.1038/nature04427. Emanuel, K. (2006). Environmental influences on tropical cyclone variability and trends. Proceedings of 27th AMS Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, No. 4.2. Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/ pdfpapers/107575.pdf. Emanuel, K. (2007). Environmental factors affecting tropical cyclone power dissipation. Journal of Climate (in press). Evans, A., Dunion, J., Foley, J. A., Heidinger, A. K., and Velden, C. S. (2006). New evidence for a relationship between Atlantic tropical cyclone activity and African dust outbreaks. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L19813, doi:10.1029/ 2006GL026408.

Free, M., Bister, M., and Emanuel, K. (2004). Potential intensity of tropical cyclones: comparison of results from radiosonde and reanalysis data. Journal of Climate, 17, 1722-7.

Gettelman, A., Seidel, D. J., Wheeler, M. C., and Ross, R. J. (2002). Multidecadal trends in tropical convective available potential energy. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, 4606, doi:10.1029/2001JD001082.

Goldenberg, S. B., Landsea, C. W., Mestas-Nufiez, A.M., and Gray, W. M. (2001). The recent increase in Atlantic hurricane activity: causes and implications. Science, 293, 474-9.

Gray, W. M. (1990). Strong association between West African rainfall and U.S. landfall of intense hurricanes. Science, 249, 1251-6.

Groisman, P. Y., Knight, R. W., Karl, T. R., et al. (2004). Contemporary changes of the hydrological cycle over the contiguous United States: trends derived from in situ observations. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 5, 64-85.

Held, I. M., Delworth, T. L., Lu, J., Findell, K. L., and Knutson, T. R. (2005). Simulation of Sahel drought in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 102(50), 17 891-6.

Holland, G. J. (1997). The maximum potential intensity of tropical cyclones. Journal of Atmospheric Science, 54, 2519-41.

Holland, G. J., and Webster, P. J. (2007). Heightened tropical cyclone activity in the North Atlantic: natural variability or climate trend? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, doi:10.1098/rsta.2007.2083.

Hoyos, C. D., Agudelo, P. A., Webster, P. J., and Curry, J. A. (2006). Deconvolution of the factors contributing to the increase in global hurricane intensity. Science, 312, 94-7.

International Ad Hoc Detection and Attribution Group (IADAG) (2005). Detecting and attributing external influences on the climate system: a review of recent advances. Journal of Climate, 18, 1291-314.

Jones, P. D., and Moberg, A. (2003). Hemispheric and large-scale surface air temperature variations: an extensive revision and an update to 2001. Journal of Climate, 16, 206-23.

Knaff, J. A., and Sampson, C. R. (2006). Reanalysis of West Pacific tropical cyclone maximum intensity 1966-1987. Proceedings of 27th AMS Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, No. 5B.5. Available online at http:// ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/108298.pdf.

Knutson, T. R., and Tuleya, R. E. (2004) (KT04). Impact of CO2-induced warming on simulated hurricane intensity and precipitation: sensitivity to the choice of climate model and convective parameterization. Journal of Climate, 17, 3477-95.

Knutson, T. R., and Tuleya, R. E. (2005). Reply. Journal of Climate, 18(23), 5183-7.

Knutson, T. R., Delworth, T. L., Dixon, K. W., et al. (2006) (K06). Assessment of twentieth-century regional surface temperature trends using the GFDL CM2 coupled models. Journal of Climate, 19(9), 1624-51.

Knutson, T. R., Tuleya, R. E., and Kurihara, Y. (1998). Simulated increase of hurricane intensities in a CO2-warmed climate. Science, 279, 1018-21.

Knutson, T. R., Tuleya, R. E., Shen, W., and Ginis, I. (2001). Impact of CO2-induced warming on hurricane intensities as simulated in a hurricane model with ocean coupling. Journal of Climate, 14, 2458-68.

Kossin, J. P., Knapp, K. R., Vimont, D. J., Murnane, R. J., and Harper, B. A. (2007). A globally consistent reanalysis of hurricane variability and trends, Geophysical Research Letters, 34, LO4815, doi:10.1029/2006GL028836.

Kraft, R. H. (1961). The hurricane's central pressure and highest wind. Marine Weather Log, 5, 155.

Landsea, C.W. (1993). A climatology of intense (or major) Atlantic hurricanes. Monthly Weather Review, 121, 1703-13.

Landsea, C. W. (2005). Hurricanes and global warming. Nature, 438, doi:10.1038/ nature04477.

Landsea, C. W. (2007). Counting Atlantic tropical cyclones back to 1900. EOS, 88, 197, 202.

Landsea, C. W., Anderson, C., Charles, N., et al. (2004). The Atlantic hurricane database re-analysis project: documentation for the 1851-1910 alterations and additions to the HURDAT database. In Hurricanes and Typhoons: Past, Present, and Future, ed. R. J. Murnane and K.-B. Liu. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 177-221.

Landsea, C. W., Harper, B. A., Hoarau, K., and Knaff, J. A. (2006). Can we detect trends in extreme tropical cyclones? Science, 313, 452-4.

Mann, M., and Emanuel, K. (2006). Atlantic hurricane trends linked to climate change. Eos, 87, 233-41.

Marchok, T., Rogers, R., and Tuleya, R. (2007), Validation schemes for tropical cyclone quantitative precipitation forecasts: evaluation of operational models for US landfalling cases. Weather and Forecasting, 22, 726-46.

Mears, C. A., and Wentz, F. J. (2005). The effect of diurnal correction on satellite-derived lower tropospheric temperature. Science, 309, 1548-51.

Meehl, G. M., Washington, W. M., Amman, C. M., et al. (2004). Combinations of natural and anthropogenic forcings in twentieth-century climate. Journal of Climate, 17, 3721-7.

Michaels, P. J., Knappenberger, P. C., and Landsea, C. (2005). Comments on ''Impacts of CO2-induced warming on simulated hurricane intensity and precipitation: sensitivity to the choice of climate model and convective scheme.'' Journal of Climate, 18, 5179-82.

Parker, D. E., Folland, C. K., and Jackson, M. (1995). Marine surface temperature: observed variations and data requirements. Climate Change, 31, 559-600.

Rayner, N. A., Parker, D. E., Horton, E. B., et al. (2003). Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108 (D14), 4407, doi:10.1029/2002JD002670.

Santer, B. D., et al. (2005). Amplification of surface temperature trends and variability in the tropical atmosphere. Science, 309, 1551-6.

Santer, B. D., et al. (2006). Forced and unforced ocean temperature changes in Atlantic and Pacific tropical cyclogenesis regions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 103, 13905-10, 10.1073/pnas.0602861103.

Shen, W., Tuleya, R. E., and Ginis, I. (2000). A sensitivity study of the thermodynamic environment on GFDL model hurricane intensity: implications for global warming. Journal of Climate, 13, 109-21.

Sherwood, S. C., Lanzante, J. R., and Meyer, C. L. (2005). Radiosonde daytime biases and late-twentieth-century warming. Science, 309, 1556-9.

Smith, T. M., and Reynolds, R. W. (2003). Extended reconstruction of global sea surface temperatures based on COADS data (1854-1997). Journal of Climate, 16,1495-510.

Smith, T. M., and Reynolds, R. W. (2004). Improved extended reconstruction of SST (1854-1997). Journal of Climate, 17, 2466-77.

Tonkin, H., Holland, G. J., Holbrook, N., and Henderson-Sellers, A. (2000). An evaluation of thermodynamic estimates of climatological maximum potential tropical cyclone intensity. Monthly Weather Review, 128, 746-62.

Trenberth, K. (2005). Uncertainty in hurricanes and global warming. Science, 308,1753-4.

Trenberth, K. E., and Shea, D. J. (2006). Atlantic hurricanes and natural variability in 2005. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L12704, doi:10.1029/2006GL026894.

Trenberth, K. E., Fasullo, J., and Smith, L. (2005). Trends and variability in column-integrated atmospheric water vapor. Climate Dynamics, 24, 741-58.

Tuleya, R. E., DeMaria, M., and Kuligowski, R. (2007). Evaluation of GFDL and simple statistical model rainfall forecasts for U.S. landfalling tropical storms. Weather and Forecasting, 22, 56-70.

Vecchi, G. A., and Soden, B. J. (2007). Increased tropical Atlantic wind shear in model projections of global warming. Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L08702, doi:10.1029/2006GL028905.

Webster, P. J., Holland, G. J., Curry, J. A., and Chang, H. -R. (2005). Changes in tropical cyclone number, duration, and intensity in a warming environment. Science, 309, 1844-6.

Zhang, R., and Delworth, T. L. (2005). Simulated tropical response to a substantial weakening of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Journal of Climate, 18(12), 1853-60.

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment