Design of the simulation experiments

During LIA the solar radiation was 0.5% less than the average of modern time, the average optic depth of stratosphere volcanic dust is 0.15 and the vegetation of the underlain surface is slightly changed by human activities. We therefore design seven simulation experiments (Table 2.1).

In all the LIA simulation experiments (Table 2.1), atmospheric CO2 level, sea surface temperature, background and preliminary field of atmospheric aerosol have consistent values. The integration time of the model is 15 years, taking the average result of the last 10 years as the equilibriums of these simulations. Running the experiments involved above, we can compare the effects and mechanisms caused by changes of solar radiation, optic depth of stratosphere volcanic dust, underlain surface vegetation and CO2 content in the formation of LIA.

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