Climate Research

Distributions of Climate Variables

3.0.1 The Components of the Climate System. The climate system is composed of all processes that directly or indirectly control the atmospheric environment of humans and ecosystems. The main components of the system are the hydro- and thermodynamic states of the atmosphere and the ocean. Sea ice affects the exchange of heat, momentum and fresh water between oceans and atmosphere. On longer time scales, the shelf ice and the land ice become relevant since these components are able to store and...

FXi X X X feX fx X

For all X2 such that f X2 is nonzero. The same result can be obtained directly from 2.15 and 2.16 as follows 2.8.7 The Multivariate Mean, the Covariance Matrix, and the Correlation Matrix. The long-term mean value of repeated realizations of an m-dimensional random vector XX is given by Note that the elements of Xx are the means of the corresponding marginal distributions. We will usually refer only to rather than jx unless clarity requires that specific reference be made to the random vector....

Concepts in Statistical Inference

Our purpose here is to introduce some basic ideas about how information is extracted from data. Section 4.1 deals with the fundamental concept of inference.' The keywords here, estimation' and 'hypothesis testing,' are introduced in a rather intuitive manner. The technicalities will be explained in detail in Chapters 5 and 6. However, special attention is given to the type of knowledge that can be gained under certain circumstances. This is done by presenting simple examples and...