Ways to engage civil society should be explored

The EU context provides interesting experiences in the engagement of civil society in the process of identifying laggards and non-compliers. Its informal complaint procedure offers a resource-efficient monitoring system which provides access to information otherwise unobtainable and helps to highlight ambiguous legislation. Probably as a reflection of the differences between an international regime and the supranational EU, there are no similar procedures and practices in the two other international regimes scrutinized in this chapter, so expectations should be moderate also in the case of climate change. However, as further explored in Chapter 8 by Andresen and Gulbrandsen, there are opportunities for NGOs to participate in compliance proceedings under the climate regime, and NGOs can function as watchdogs in connection with projects under the Kyoto Protocol's flexibility mechanisms. Overall, the general point seems valid: in a complex international setting, regime bodies and state authorities cannot keep sight of all relevant activities, and should in principle welcome the additional information and critical perspectives provided by civil society organizations and individuals.

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