1 This chapter is a significantly revised version of 'Institutional Aspects of Implementation, Compliance, and Effectiveness' in Luterbacher, U. and Sprinz, D. (eds 2001) International

Relations and Global Climate Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. Reprinted by permission of the publisher. The current version has benefited greatly from comments from Thomas Gehring, Olav Schram Stokke, David Victor, the editors and contributors to the earlier volume, and contributors to the current volume. Much of my thinking on these issues has been influenced by Abram Chayes and Antonia Handler Chayes, Oran Young and Edward Parson. I wish to express my appreciation to all these scholars for their insights on these issues. The writing of this chapter was supported by a 2002 Summer Research Award from the University of Oregon and by a Sabbatical Fellowship in the Humanities and Social Sciences from the American Philosophical Society.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Art 2. Kyoto Protocol, Art 3.

Marrakesh Accords, Decision 24/CP.7, Annex, Sec XV Id, Sec, XIII.

Marrakesh Accords, Decision 18/CP.7, Annex, para 6.

Whether the Marrakesh Accords permit unilateral CDM has been a contentious issue. The relevant text is found in Decision 17/CP.7, Sec G, para 40(a) : 'The designated operational entity shall: (a) Prior to the submission of the validation report to the executive board, have received from the project participants written approval of voluntary participation from the designated national authority of each Party involved, including confirmation by the host Party that the project activity assists it in achieving sustainable development.' Marrakesh Accords, Decision 24/CP.7, Annex, Secs IV and XIV. Id, Sec XV.

Marrakesh Accords, Decision 16/CP.7, Annex, Appendix B. Id, Annex, Sec E.

Marrakesh Accords, Decision 24/CP.7, Annex, Sec XIII. Id, Sec IV. Id, Sec XIV.

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