For a more comprehensive study of climate change and the oil industry, see Skjarseth and Skodvin, 2003.

'Oil Giant Bids to Replace Climate Expert',, 5 April 2002.

'UK's Blair Defends London Meeting With Exxon Mobil's Raymond',,

24 January 2002.

It should be noted, however, that within Europe and North America differences in climate strategies also exist between oil companies. For example, other US-based oil companies such as Texaco-Chevron have chosen a more ambitious approach than ExxonMobil, but they nevertheless oppose the Kyoto Protocol.

In 2001, ExxonMobil was the largest company in the world with revenues amounting to US$210,392 million. In 2001, Shell was ranked as number six (US$149,146 million) and BP as number seven (US$148,062 million). The UNFCCC states that the parties shall adopt policies and measures that would limit man-made GHG emissions and protect and enhance sinks and reservoirs within their territories with the aim of stabilizing GHG emissions at their 1990 levels by the year 2000. The vague character of the commitment makes it questionable whether it can be considered binding and enforceable.

In addition, indifferent and innovative strategies are frequently included.

See the corresponding discussion of environmental organizations' influence in Chapter 8

by Andresen and Gulbrandsen.

These types are borrowed from the literature on leadership. See particularly Underdal, 1991.

According to Agrawala and Andresen (1999, p461), the UNFCCC 'was solely a result of US adamancy even in the face of complete isolation'.

'Documents Show Energy Officials Met Only With Industry Leaders', New York Times, 27 March 2002.

'A Dinosaur Still Hunting For Growth', Financial Times, 12 March 2002.

The question of compliance was barely mentioned, according to the summary record of a workshop organized by the OECD/IEA on industry views on the climate change challenge with special emphasis on the Kyoto mechanisms (BIAC/OECD/IEA, 1999).

Personal communication with Glenn Wiser, CIEL, Washington, DC, 20 March 2002.

Personal communication with Philip A. Cooney and William O'Keefe, API, Washington,

DC, 21 March 2000.

'Global Warming Business Group Cools Its Message', Reuters, 9 November 2000. Personal communication with GCC represented by Glenn Kelly and Eric Hold, 2000. Early in 2003, ExxonMobil decided voluntarily to report carbon emissions, and the company is now backing mandatory reporting as a first step towards targets on emissions reduction.

'US Senate Marks Earth Day with Global Warming Debate', Planetark, 22 April 2002. 'MEPs Reject Mandatory Company Reporting', ENDS Report, 26 March 2002. '"Hot Air" Blows Gaping Hole In Emissions Trading Scheme', ENDS Report, March 2002. Ibid.

23 It is too early to judge the success of the scheme since trading has taken place only since 2 April 2002. Nevertheless, critics have already questioned the ability of the scheme to deliver 'real' reductions in emissions. Half or more of the reductions are claimed to be not real (hot air) or would have been delivered anyway due to the expected reduction in market shares.

24 Planet Ark, 'EU Parliament Launches Climate Emissions Trading', dailynewsstory, 3 July 2003.

25 Personal communication with EUROPIA represented by V. Callaud, 30 November 2000.

26 Personal communication with EUROPIA represented by V. Callaud, 2000.

27 UNICE suggests deleting 'or twice the average market price... [whichever] is the higher', arguing that 'penalties are sufficient to ensure a high degree of compliance, and providing for a penalty twice an average market price, if higher, brings unnessary uncertainty' (UNICE, 2002, p3).

28 The 'beauties and beast' expression is borrowed from Rowlands, 2000.

29 For a comprehensive account of company, domestic and regime explanations, see Skjœrseth and Skodvin, 2003.

30 See, for example, Roome, 1992; Steger, 1993; Ghobadian et al, 1998.

31 In 1995, for example, 60 per cent of the population in the Netherlands stated their willingness to pay higher prices for environmentally-friendly products (VROM, 1997).

32 Personal communication with Barend van Engelenburg, Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, 28 November 2000.

33 Personal communication with Greenpeace, Washington, DC, 23 March 2000.

34 Personal communication with B. P. Flannery and G. Ehling, ExxonMobil, Irving, TX, March 2000.

35 Personal communication with Ir Henk J. van Wouw, Manager of Environmental Affairs, Shell Netherlands BV, 28 November 2000.

36 Personal communication with Philip A. Cooney and William O'Keefe, API, Washington, DC, 21 March 2000.

37 Personal communication with B. P. Flannery and G. Ehling, ExxonMobil, Irving, TX, March 2000.

38 However, a recent consultant report argues that ExxonMobil will actually benefit more than other oil companies from measures such as carbon taxes, since it is less dependent on growth than some of its competitors, like BP. 'Carbon Tax Could Benefit ExxonMobil', Financial Times, 7 May 2002.

39 'ExxonMobil Rubbishes Green Investor Report', Planet Ark, 7 May 2002.

40 The objective of the Center is to educate policy makers as well as the general public about the causes and possible consequences of climate change, and to encourage the domestic and international communities to reduce emissions of GHGs.

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