Positive incentives, to a greater extent than sanctions, are currently the name of the compliance game in international environmental regimes whenever developing countries, economies in transition or other parties experience difficulties in complying with their commitments. This is clearly visible in the climate regime as well, and notable in the mandate of the Facilitative Branch of the Compliance Committee. Two subsidiary bodies under the FCCC, the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technolo gical Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation, will remain important for the regime's ability to bring life to this mandate.

The effectiveness of the Facilitative Branch will ultimately depend on the actual resources available for support activities. Experience from other environmental regimes suggests that funds for such supportive activities are likely to fall considerably short of the needs. The Global Environment Facility (GEF), set up to provide new and additional grant and concessional funding for environmental projects, including in the climate area, is the main international instrument for climate capacity enhancement and it is expected that some US$3 billion will be available for the 2002-2006 period, up from US$2.4 billion in the preceding fouryear period.17 Environmental organizations seek to influence the operation of this instrument, especially with regard to transfer of technology to developing countries, by participating in the GEF's Ad Hoc Working Group on Global Warming and Energy (see Chapter 8 by Andresen and Gulbrandsen).

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