Trends and trend breaks with regard to direct energy consumption in the period

Consumer behaviour is determined by three main factors individual and household needs, opportunities (external facilitating conditions) and abilities (internal capacities) (see Gatersleben and Vlek, 1998 for a description of this explanatory model). The trends in gas and electricity consumption are related to changes in these factors. First, trends relating to 'opportunities' (i.e., the connection of households to the natural-gas pipeline system and to the electricity grid and the availability...

The choice between technologyspecific and generic policies

System innovation requires special support. In appraising innovations eligible for support, one has to ask does the innovation that produces benefits for climate protection improve the existing regime or offer possibilities for inducing a 'system innovation' Is there a need for support, and if so how should it be organized In defining policies, the following elements should be considered 1. the improvement in environmental performance of an innovation, e.g. strict CO2 reduction potential 2. the...

Vision A

In this vision, the gap in prosperity between rich and poor countries has disappeared, partly due to rapid developments in transport and communication technology. International co-operation promotes productivity growth and facilitates the faster diffusion of technology. This has led to significant mobility of people and ideas. The world is characterized by rapid and successful economic development. The most important factor behind the economic dynamism is the trust placed in market-oriented...

Vision B

In vision B, different regions in the world have developed in different directions. There is less international trade and interaction. There are also fewer powerful international institutions. In vision B, the emphasis is on regional identity and self-sufficiency. These important values are developed within the individual cultural and or economic regions. Nature is highly valued. The well-being of people and animals and a good environment are regarded as just as important as prosperity. Social...

Trends in the total household energy requirement

The second half of the 20th century is very important for an analysis of present developments in household energy requirements. Economic growth and greater prosperity for households and families followed the period of post-war reconstruction in the 1950s. This resulted in a higher standard of living, better education and a desire for more possessions. The majority of households came to have more disposable income than they needed for the primary necessities of life. At the same time, family...

A comparison of the energy systems in the two visions

This section summarizes some of the main choices, differences and quantitative aspects to be found in the envisioned energy systems of the future. Figure 2.2 summarizes the extent to which greenhouse gas emissions would be reduced with the various main categories of options (efficiency measures, renewables, CO2 storage) compared to 1990 levels and a baseline development where the growing energy demand arising from economic growth is covered by the present-day fuel mix which is dominated by...

Environmental and energy policy

Energy policy targeted at industry can focus on the energy efficiency of production processes and distribution, possible co-operation in CHP and energy supply and the choice of renewable energy. The actual policy concentrates on improving energy efficiency through voluntary agreements mainly based on energy conservation methods. These agreements are intended to be incorporated in firms' environmental permits. Research has shown that these voluntary agreements are generally effective, although...

Direct and indirect energy consumption by households

In the Dutch energy statistics the energy consumption by households constitutes only a minor part (20-25 per cent) of the total energy consumption in The Netherlands. These household energy consumption figures only reflect the use of electricity and natural gas by households. The figures do not include energy use for private and public transport and the energy use required for the production and distribution of goods and services acquired by households. In our analysis we adopt the central...

Conclusion

This chapter demonstrates that it is possible to reduce CO2 emissions by 80 per cent in 2050 in The Netherlands provided that a trend break is made away from the kind of policy instruments now used. The history of environmental and climate policy in The Netherlands has led to a policy framework which is mainly built on standards, covenants, taxes and subsidies. If this framework is to be made more flexible in order to afford the envisaged 80 per cent emission reduction, it is likely to show an...

References

Aoberg, H., Sustainable waste management in households -from international policy to everyday practice, Experiences from Swedish field studies, Ph. D. Thesis, G teborg Studies in Educational Sciences 150, G teborg, Sweden, 2000. Biesiot, W. and H.C. Moll, Reduction of CO2 emissions by lifestyle changes. IVEM onderzoeksrap-port no. 80, Groningen, 1995. Boardman, B., Rural transport policy and equity, in Energy Efficiency and CO2 Reduction The dimension of social challenge, Proceedings of the...

The general design of a permit trading scheme

In order to function effectively and efficiently, a permit trading scheme must be designed properly. The essential design characteristics of a tradeable permit scheme in which the participants can trade under an emissions cap can be summarized in five aspects 1 'what' - permit definition and effectiveness The government defines a unit of pollution. A tradeable permit is the right to emit a unit of pollution. For instance, one carbon permit allows the holder to use a quantity of fossil fuel...

Improvement in environmental efficiency

Partial system redesign System optimization Figure 4.1 Improvements in environmental efficiency for different types of system change Partial system redesign System optimization Figure 4.1 Improvements in environmental efficiency for different types of system change The figure shows that in the short term the greatest gains in environmental efficiency can be achieved through system optimization - the retrofitting or environmental upgrading of existing systems. Examples of system optimization...

A design for downstream permit trading with upstream monitoring

Permit trading should focus on restricting fuel use. The first reason is that, for the time being, fuel saving and fuel substitution are the principal, and almost only, economically feasible options for reducing emissions of CO2. The second reason relates to administrative efficiency and enforcement. The discussion on the design of a domestic permit-trading scheme usually focuses on the choice between a downstream or upstream trading system. In a downstream trading system both large and small...