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1. Long-Term Fate of Fossil Fuel CO2. Use the online geologic carbon cycle model at http://understandingtheforecast.org/Projects/geocarb.html. Use the default setup of the model, and notice that the CO2 weathering rates etc. for the transient state are the same as for the spinup state. So if there were no CO2 spike at all, there would be no change in anything at year 0. (Go ahead, make sure I'm not lying about this.) Release some CO2 in a transition spike, 1000 Gton or more or less, and see how long it takes for the CO2 to decrease to a plateau. There are two CO2 plots in the output, one covering 100,000 years and one covering 2.5 million years. How long does it take for CO2 to level out after the spike, according to both plots?

2. Effect of Cutting Carbon Emissions. Look at the online ISAM global warming model at http://understandingtheforecast.org/Projects/isam.html.

a. Run the model for the "Business-as-usual" case (Scenario A), note the pCO2 concentration of the atmosphere in the year 2100.

b. Estimate the decrease in fossil fuel CO2 emission that would be required to halt the increase in atmospheric CO2, based on the present-day CO2 fluxes into the ocean and into the terrestrial biosphere. Test your prediction by imposing these fluxes from the present-day onward to the year 2100.

c. Repeat experiment 2b but delaying the cuts in fossil fuel emissions to the year 2050. What is the impact this time, on the maximum pCO2 value we will see in the coming century?

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