Climate Change Policies

Water resources

We examined four studies that assessed the potential impacts of climate change on water resources Alcamo et al. 1997 , Arnell 1999 , Vorosmarty et al. 2000 , and Doll 2002 . Arnell 1999 used a macro-scale hydrological model to simulate river flows across the globe, and then calculated changes in national water resource availability. These changes were then used with projections of future national water resource use to estimate the global effects of climate change on water stress, and to...

Human health

The effects of climate change on human health could find expression in numerous ways. Some health impacts would doubtless result from changes in extremes of heat and cold or in floods and droughts. Others might result indirectly from the impacts of Parry et al. (2001) and Arnell et al. (2002) both presented results that suggest steadily increasing numbers of people at risk of water shortage as global mean temperature increases, for both the 2050s and the 2080s. However, they considered only the...

Terrestrial ecosystem productivity and change

Climate change could potentially affect a number of physical and biological processes on which the health and composition of terrestrial ecosystems depend. Changes in these ecosystem processes could in turn affect an equally diverse set of services on which people rely, some of which are considered elsewhere in this paper (agriculture, forestry, and biodiversity). However, a significant portion of the overall value of terrestrial ecosystems could be related to non-market sorts of goods and...

Source taken from IPCC

In the first case (normative), multiple value judgements by pertinent actors are condensed into definitions of tolerable ranges of acceptable outcomes. In the second Fuzzy set theory defines set membership as a possibility distribution. Such imprecise probabilities can provide a basis for partial ordering of preferences, which may be sufficient to enable policy-related decision-making, whilst better reflecting the very significant uncertainties. For further discussion, see Allen (2003). case...

By Sam Hitz and Joel Smith Stratus Consulting Inc United States

We surveyed the literature to assess the state of knowledge with regard to the presumed benefits or avoided damages of reducing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases to progressively lower levels. The survey included only published studies addressing global impacts of climate change studies that only addressed regional impacts were not included. The metric we used for change in climate is increase in global mean temperature GMT . The focus of the analysis centred on determining the...

References

Alcamo, J. ed. , 1984 , IMAGE 2.0 Integrated Modeling of Global Climate Change, Kluwer Academic Publishers, London. Alcamo, J., P. Mayerhofer, R. Guardans, T. van Harmelen, J. van Minnen, J. Onigkeit, M. Posch and B. de Vries 2002 , An integrated assessment of regional air pollution and climate change in Europe findings of the AIRCLIM project, Environmental Science and Policy, 5, 257-272. Allen, M. 2003 , Climate forecasting possible or probable Nature, 425, 242 pp. Azar, C., and S.H. Schneider...

Ancillary benefits of climate protection

Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions has a number of ancillary benefits. Climate change mitigation policies also reduce the concentration of many harmful air pollutants in the atmosphere that could lead, inter alia, to human health and eco-system benefits (Jochem and Madlener, 2003). Furthermore, if dependence on oil is reduced, other environmental impacts such as oil spills will be reduced, and significant benefits to energy security will be achieved. Davis et al. (2000) review the...

Policy benefits

In this section we select three recent examples to demonstrate the application of IAM to the benefits issue a. the ICLIPS project of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research b. the Coastal Simulator being pioneered at the Tyndall Centre and c. the novel Community Integrated Assessment System, also being pioneered at the Tyndall Centre. a) The ICLIPS project at the Potsdam Institute An integrated modelling system was assembled a few years ago to address the issue of a definition of...

Coastal resources

We examined two studies that investigated the effects of rising sea level Fankhauser (1995) and Nicholls et al. (1999). A key difference in how adverse impacts from sea level rise were estimated in each of these studies has to do with what was assumed in terms of adaptation. With sea level rise, adaptation typically refers to the decision of whether or not to protect coastal development. Fankhauser assumed an economic paradigm of optimal protection, based on benefit-cost analysis, while...