Notes

Chapter 1

1. John Whitfield, "Alaska's Climate: Too Hot to Handle," Nature 425 (2003): 338-339.

2. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Global Warming: Frequently Asked Questions (online) (Asheville, NC: National Climatic Data Center, 2006), http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/globalwarming.html.

3. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Global Warming: Frequently Asked Questions.

4. Mark Maslin, Global Warming: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).

5. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2001: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Section 1.1 "Overview of the Assessment" (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001), www.grida.no/ climate/ipcc_tar/wg2/005.htm.

6. See www.tufts.edu/climb and Paul Kirshen, Tufts Civil Engineer Predicts Boston's Rising Sea Levels Could Cause Billions of Dollars in Damage (online) (Medford, MA: Tufts Institute of the Environment, 2003), http://www.tufts.edu/tie/tci/pdf/Kirshen.pdf.

7. See for example P. Martens, "How Will Climate Change Affect Human Health?", American Scientist 87/6 (1999): 534. Also see United Nations Environment Programme, Potential Impacts of Climate Change: Vital Climate Graphics (online), 2006, http://www.grida.no/climate/vital/impacts.htm.

8. Ann Rappaport and John Blydenburgh, "Industrial Ecology in Large Companies: An Initial Assessment of Practice," unpublished manuscript.

9. Kay Lazar, "Expert: Business Shouldn't Ignore Global Warming," Boston Herald, January 14, 2003, 20.

10. CERES, Value at Risk: Climate Change and the Future of Governance (online) (Boston: CERES, 2002), http://www.ceres.org/reports/main.htm.

11. Andrea Lynn, Americans Most Misinformed about Global Warming (online) (Champaign, IL: Inside Illinois, 2002), http://www.news.uiuc.edu/II/03/0918/ 09globwarm_P.html.

Chapter 2

1. National Weather Service, Climate Glossary (online) (Camp Springs, MD: Climate Prediction Center, 2004), http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/ outreach/glossary.shtml.

2. U. Siegenthaler et al., "Stable Carbon Cycle-Climate Relationship during the Late Pleistocene," Science 310 (2005): 1313-1317.

3. National Weather Service, Climate Glossary (online) (Camp Springs, MD: Climate Prediction Center, 2004), http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/ outreach/glossary.shtml.

4. R. Watson et al., Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001); emphasis added.

5. R. Watson et al., Climate Change 2001.

6. Stephen Schneider et al., eds., Climate Change Policy: A Survey (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2002), 15-16.

7. John D. Sterman and Linda Booth Sweeney, "Cloudy Skies: Assessing Public Understanding of Global Warming," System Dynamics Review 18/2 (2002): 207-240.

8. Sterman and Sweeney, "Cloudy Skies."

9. Sterman and Sweeney, "Cloudy Skies," 208.

10. See IPCC's website, www.ipcc.ch.

11. Union of Concerned Scientists, Key Findings of Working Group II: "Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability" (online), 2001, http://www.ucsusa.org/global_environment/global_warming/page.cfm?pageID= 521.

12. Union of Concerned Scientists, Key Findings of Working Group II.

13. Union of Concerned Scientists, Key Findings of Working Group II.

14. "Negotiations on what was to become the Kyoto Protocol were launched by the Conference of the Parties (COP) at its first session (Berlin, March/April 1995) when it adopted its decision 1/CP.1 (the "Berlin Mandate")" Joanna Depledge, Tracing the Origins of the Kyoto Protocol: An Article-by-Article Textual History (online) (Bonn: UNFCCC, 2000), http://unfccc.int/ resource/docs/tp/tp0200.pdf.

15. Anil Agarwal, "A Southern Perspective on Curbing Global Climate Change," in Stephen Schneider et al., eds., Climate Change Policy: A Survey (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2002).

16. G. Marland, T. A. Boden, and R. J. Andres, Global, Regional, and National CO2 Emissions. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change (Oak Ridge, TN: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, 2003), http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ trends/emis/em_cont.htm.

17. Environmental Protection Agency, Climate Leaders (online) (Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency, 2004), http://www.epa.gov/ climateleaders/.

18. International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives, "US Cities for Climate Protection Campaign (CCP)" (online) (Berkeley, CA: International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives, 2004), http://www.iclei.org/us/ccp/.

19. Andrew Revkin, "New York City and 8 States Plan to Sue Power Plants," New York Times, July 21, 2004, section A, p. 15.

20. The Committee on the Environment and the Northeast International Committee on Energy of the Conference of New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers, Climate Change Action Plan 2001 (Boston: New England Governors/Eastern Canadian Premiers, August 28, 2001), http://www. negc.org/documents/NEG-ECP%20CCAP.PDF.

Chapter 3

1. Thomas Gloria, Tufts University's Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory for 1990 and 1998 (Medford, MA: Tufts University, 2001).

2. See, for example, Clean Air/Cool Planet (www.cleanair-coolplanet.org); Torrie Smith Associates, eMission software (www.torriesmith.com); Environmental Software Providers (ESP) Greenhouse Gas Suite TM (www.esp-net.com).

3. Rocky Mountain Institute, Tunneling through the Cost Barrier: Why Big Savings Often Cost Less Than Small Ones (online) (Aspen, CO: Rocky Mountain Institute, summer 1997), http://www.rmi.org/images/other/Newsletter/ NLRMIsum97.pdf.

4. Erica Noonan, "Wellesley Gift to Generate Years of Buzz: Alumna Leaves $27 m, Most for Power Plant, "Boston Globe, May 20, 2005, A1.

5. Massachusetts Sustainability Office, UMass Boston Energy Retrofit Project (online) (Boston: Department of Environmental Protection, 2006), http:// www.mass.gov/envir/Sustainable/initiatives/initiatives_GHG.htm#umbretrofits.

6. A. B. Rappaport and S. H. Creighton, "Effective Campus Environmental Assessment," Planning for Higher Education 31/3 (2003): 45-52.

Chapter 4

1. Thomas Gold (online), The Economist (London); July 1, 2004, http://www .economist.com/people/PrinterFriendly.cfm?Story_ID=2876655.

2. See, for example, the experiences of Connecticut College and the University of Colorado at Boulder.

3. See http://www.rso.cornell.edu/kyotonow/index.html.

4. See http://www.startingbloc.org/.

5. See http://campusclimatechallenge.org/.

Chapter 5

1. Lights of America, package information on model 2509 compact fluorescent bulb, 2001.

2. See, for example, Frank Ackerman, Why Do We Recycle? (Washington, DC: Island Press, 1997).

3. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) (online) (Pensacola, FL: Professional Interest Groups, 2006), http://www.setac.org/htdocs/who_intgrp_lca.html.

4. CERES, Value at Risk: Climate Change and the Future of Governance (online) (Boston: CERES, 2002), http://www.ceres.org/reports/main.htm.

5. National Association of Energy Service Companies, What Is an ESCO? (online) (Washington, DC: NAESCO, 2006), http://www.naesco.org/about/ esco.htm.

Chapter 6

1. Pew Center for Global Change, Global Warming Basics: Executive Summary (online) (Arlington, VA: Pew Center for Global Change, undated), http://www.

pewclimate.org/global-warming-in-depth/all_reports/buildings/ex__summary.

cfm.

2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA's Draft Report on the Environment 2003 (online) (Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, http://www.epa.gov/indicators/roe/pdf/tdAir1-3.pdf.

3. New Buildings Institute, Integrated Energy Systems: Productivity and Building Science: Final Report (online) (White Salmon, WA: New Buildings Institute, 2003), http://www.newbuildings.org/downloads/FinalAttachments/PIER_Final_ Report(P500-03-082).pdf.

4. Joseph Romm and William Browning, Greening the Building and the Bottom Line: Increasing Productivity through Energy-Efficient Design (Aspen, CO: Rocky Mountain Institute, 1994).

5. Bowdoin College, Bowdoin Works Hard to Make Sustainable Living Decisions a Reality (online) (Brunswick, ME: Bowdoin College, 2003), http://www.bowdoin.edu/news/archives/1bowdoincampus/001330.shtml.

6. Keisha Payson, Sustainability Coordinator at Bowdoin College, personal communication.

7. Stephanie Ebbert, "Wind Turbines Gaining Power: Smaller Communities, Colleges Plan Projects," Boston Globe, February 24, 2006, http://www. mass.gov/envir/Sustainable/pdf/vf05 mma windturbine.pdf.

8. MA DCAM, Division of Capital Asset Management Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Program Highlights: A Contribution to the Mayor's Green Building Task Force (online) (Boston: MA DCAM, December 18, 2003), http:// www.cityofboston.gov/bra/gbtf/documents/DCAM-program03-12-18.PDF.

9. William R. Moomaw, "Aligning Values for Effective Sustainability Planning," Planning for Higher Education 31/3 (2003): 159-164 (quote on 160).

10. William Browning, "Successful Strategies for Planning a Green Building," Planning for Higher Education 31/3 (2003): 114.

11. See http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=new_bldg_design.bus_target_ finder.

12. Jason F. McLennan and Peter Rumsey, "Green Edge" in Environmental Design and Construction (online), September 2003, http://www.edcmag.com/ CDA/ArticleInformation/features/BNP_Features_Item/0,4120,107521,00.html.

13. Interview with author, August 2005.

14. McLennan and Rumsey, "Green Edge."

15. Amory Lovins, "Canada's Energy Efficiency Conference, "Ottawa, May 19, 1999, http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/headsup/archives/jun_1999.cfm?PrintView= N&Text=N.

16. William Leahy, Associate Executive Director of Operation at the Institue for Sustainable Energy at Eastern Connecticut State University, March 13, 2006, personal communication.

17. State University of New York Buffalo. UB Green (online), undated, http://www.wings.buffalo.edu/ubgreen/.

Chapter 7

1. Vermont Law School, Learning by Doing: James L. and Evelena S. Oakes Hall Environmental Features (online) (Royalston, VT: Vermont Law School, undated), http://www.vermontlaw.edu/life/index.cfm?doc_id=559.

2. Donald Wulfinghoff, Energy Efficiency Manual (Wheaton, MD: Energy Institute Press, 1999), 1017.

3. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Arkwright Mutual Insurance Co., U.S. DOE, and Arkwright Education, Campus Lighting: Lighting Efficiency Options for Student Residential Living Units (online), 2004, http://eetd.lbl.gov/EMills/PUBS/PDF/Hal_Fact2.pdf.

4. DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Industrial Technologies Program Best Practices: Collaboration Advances Motor Efficiency (online) (Washington, DC: DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2006), http:// www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/wint2002_collaboration.html.

5. Wulfinghoff, Energy Efficiency Manual.

6. Alan Bandes and Bruce Gorelick, Inspect Steam Traps for Efficient System (online) (Terre Haute, IN: TWI Press, Inc., 2000), http://www.maintenancere-sources.com/ReferenceLibrary/SteamTraps/Inspect.htm.

7. Energy Design Resources, Design Briefs: Energy Management Systems (online) (CA: Energy Design Resources, undated), http://www.energydesignre-sources.com/resource/18/.

8. See http://www.labs21century.gov.

9. U.S. EPA and NREL, Laboratories for the 21st Century: An Introduction to Low Energy Design (online) (Washington, DC: U.S. EPA and NREL, 2000), http://www.labs21century.gov/pdf/lowenergy_508.pdf.

10. Scott Taylor, Fume Hood Study: Tufts University, 2004, unpublished.

11. Taylor, Fume Hood Study.

12. Neil Rasmussen, American Power Conversion, Avoidable Mistakes That Compromise Cooling Performance in Data Centers and Network Rooms, White Paper #49 (online) (W. Kingston, RI: American Power Conversion, 2003), http://www.apcmedia.com/salestools/SADE-5TNRKG_R0_EN.pdf.

13. Tony Evans, American Power Conversion, The Different Types of Air Conditioning Equipment for IT Environments, White Paper #59 (online) (W. Kingston, RI: American Power Conversion, 2004), http://www.apcmedia.com/salestools/ VAVR-5UDTU5_R0_EN.pdf.

14. Wulfinghoff, Energy Efficiency Manual.

15. Wulfinghoff, Energy Efficiency Manual.

16. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators (0RNL/TM-2004/144) (Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2004), http://www1.eere.energy.gov/ industry/bestpractices/pdfs/guide_chp_boiler.pdf.

17. Federal Energy Management Program, FEMP CHP Program Overview (online) (Washington, DC: Federal Energy Management Program, undated), http://www.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/chp_prog_overvw.pdf.

18. For a listing of university CHP applications throughout the United Stated and Canada, see http://www.energy.rochester.edu/us/list.htm.

19. See http://www.eere.energy.gov/states/.

20. Emory University, Emory Research Building First in Southeast to Be Certified by U.S. Green Building Council (online) (Atlanta: Emory University, September 6, 2002), http://news.emory.edu/Releases/LEED1031342654.html.

21. University of California Office of Strategic Communications, Green Building Policy and Clean Energy Standards (online), August 2003, http:// www.ucop.edu/news/factsheets/greenbuildings.pdf.

22. LEED EB website, http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID= 221&.

23. Bill Von Neida and Tom Hicks, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Building Performance Defined: The ENERGY STAR National Energy Performance Rating System (online) (Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, undated), http://www.energystar.gov/ia/business/tools_resources/aesp .pdf.

24. See https://www.energystar.gov/istar/pmpam/.

25. Von Neida and Hicks, Building Performance Defined.

Notes SSS

1. Kevin Lyons, Buying for the Future: Contract Management and the Environmental Challenge (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999).

2. See http://www.mass.gov/?pageID=osdmodulechunk&L=1&L0=Home&sid= Aosd&b=terminalcontent&f=osd_es_green&csid=Aosd.

3. G. Norris, Direct and Upstream Emissions of Carbon Dioxide from Fossil Fuel Combustion, report submitted to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (North Berwick, ME: Sylvatica, February 1998).

4. Thomas Gloria, unpublished letter to Environmental Defense, March 2001.

5. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, What Is Green Power? (online) (Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2006), http://www. epa.gov/greenpower/whatis/intro.htm.

6. U.S. Department of Energy, Mercury Emission Control R&D (online) (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy, 2006), www.fossil.energy.gov/ programs/powersystems/pollutioncontrols/overview_mercurycontrols.html.

7. Environmental News Service, Global Wind Power Industry Spins into High Gear (online), 2006, www.ens-newswire.com/ens/feb2006/2006-02-23-04.asp.

8. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Guide to Purchasing Green Power (online) (Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2004), www.epa.gov/greenpower/pdf/purchasing_guide_for_web.pdf.

9. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Guide to Purchasing Green Power.

10. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Green Power 2004 Award Winners (online) (Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2004), http://www.epa.gov/greenpower/winners/2004_awards.htmttcollege.

11. Western Washington University, WWU Receives National Green Power Award: Western Honored for Environmental Commitment, Student Initiative (online) (Bellingham: Western Washington University, 2005), http://west. wwu.edu/ucomm_news/articles/988.asp.

12. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Green Power Partners. (online) (Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2005), www.epa .gov/grnpower/partners/partners/universityofpennsylvania.htm.

13. Tufts Climate Initiative (online) (Medford, MA: Tufts University, undated), http://www.tufts.edu/tie/tci/WashingMachines.html.

14. See http://www.tufts.edu/tie/tci/VendingMisers.html.

15. Energy Star Program, "Office Equipment" (online) (Washington, DC: Energy Star Program, undated), http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c= ofc_equip.pr_office_equipment.

16. Energy Star Program, "Buy Products That Make a Difference" (online) (Washington, DC: U.S. EPA Energy Star Program, undated), http://www. energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=find_a_product.

17. William Cowart and Veronika Pesinova, An Assessment of GHG Emissions from the Transportation Sector (online) (Washington, DC: U.S. EPA 2003), http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/conference/ei12/green/pesinova.pdf.

18. Donald Shoup, in Will Toor and Spenser Havlick, Transportation and Sustainable Campus Communities (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2004), 81.

19. Melissa Burden, "Big Ten Student Bus Fees, Services Vary by University" (online) (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan: 1999), http://www.statenews.com/ editionsspring99/022399/p1_cata.html.

20. North Carolina State University. "Transportation" (online) (Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University, 2005), http://www2.acs.ncsu.edu/trans/transit/ upass.html.

21. National Biodiesel Board, Environmental Benefits. (online) (Jefferson City, MO: National Biodiesel Board, 2004), http://www.biodiesel.org/pdf_files/Enviro _Benefits.PDF.

22. Beth, Potier, "Goodbye Black Smoke, Hello Green Transit," Harvard University Gazette, March 4, 2004. http://www.hno.haward.edu/gazette/ 2004/03.04/07-biodiesel.html.

23. Kathleen Burge, "Ice and Isolation for Nantucket: Severe Freeze Pinches Supplies and Island Residents' Sense of Freedom," Boston Globe, January 27, 2004, section Metro, A1.

24. National Biodiesel Board. Environmental Benefits.

25. Harry, Rijnen, "Offsetting Environmental Damage by Planes," New York Times, February 18, 2003, C6.

26. Thomas Gloria, unpublished manuscript.

27. Rijnen, "Offsetting Environmental Damage by Planes."

28. U.S. Energy Information Administration, "Technical Assistance: General Guidance, Project-Specific Guidance, Reporting Tools, and Emission Factors" (online) (Washington, DC: U.S. Energy Information Administration, undated), http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/techassist.html.

29. See http://www.dumpandrun.org.

30. Energy Star Program, "Restaurants" (online) (Washington, DC: Energy Star Program, undated), http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=small_business.sb _restaurants.

31. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Methane: Sources and Emissions" (online) (Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2006), http://www.epa.gov/methane/sources.html.

32. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Technical Approaches and Policy Options for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions" (online) (Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, undated), http://yosemite.epa.gov/OAR/ globalwarming.nsf/UniqueKeyLookup/SHSU5BVKEX/$File/part-2.pdf.

1. See, for instance, www.iclei.org/index.php?id=1118 and http://yosemite. epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/ActionsStateActionPlans.html.

2. F. Jacobs and J. Kapuscik, Making It Count: Evaluating Family Preservation Services (Medford, MA: Tufts University, 2000).

3. The program has expanded beyond Burlington. See http://www. 10percentchallenge.org/.

4. UNEP Finance Initiatives Climate Change Working Group, CEO Briefing (online) (New York: UNEP Finance Initiatives Climate Change Working Group, undated), http://www.innovestgroup.com/pdfs/2003-11_ceobriefing.pdf.

5. UNEP, Global Environmental Outlook, Chapter 2: Natural Disasters (online) (New York: UNEP, 2000), http://www.unep.org/geo2000/English/0038.htm# img31a.

6. Kay Lazar, "Expert: Business Shouldn't Ignore Global Warming," Boston Herald, January 14, 2003, 20.

7. See www.tufts.edu/climb and "Tufts Civil Engineer Predicts Boston's Rising Sea Levels Could Cause Billions of Dollars in Damage," March 2003, http://www.tufts.edu/tie/tci/pdf/Kirshen.pdf.

8. Brown University News Service, Corporation Adopts Strategic Framework for Physical Planning (online) (Providence, RI: Brown University, October 11, 2003), http://www.brown.edu/Administration/News_Bureau/2003-04/03-039.html.

9. Middlebury College, Environmental Studies and Awareness: An Environmental Peak of Excellence (online) (Middlebury, VT: Middlebury College, undated), http://www.middlebury.edu/offices/enviro/initiatives/environmental_ peak.htm.

10. Johns Hopkins University, A Plan for the Homewood Campus, Principles (online) (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 2000), http://www.jhu.edu/mas-terplan/principles.

11. Brandeis University, Campus Master Planning Project (online) (Waltham, MA: Brandeis University, undated), http://www.brandeis.edu/masterplan/.

12. University of Chicago, Campus Utilities (online) (Chicago: University of Chicago, undated), http://www.uchicago.edu/docs/mp-site/masterplan/c7infra-struc/c7z-utilities-a.html.

13. Graham Jones, World Oil and Gas "Running Out," (online), October 2, 2003, http://edition.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/europe/10/02/global.warming/.

14. Larry Goldstein, Behind the Scenes in the University Boardroom: How Decision Makers Assess Facility Expenditures (online), Agile Planner Workshop, October 16, 2003, http://www.agileplanner.org/pdf/Goldstein_Fall2003.pdf.

15. CERES, "Value at Risk: Climate Change and the Future of Governance" (online) (Boston: CERES, April 2002), http://www.ceres.org/pdf/climate.pdf.

16. UNEP Finance Initiatives Climate Change Working Group, undated.

17. CERES, "Value at Risk."

18. Kevin Morrison, "European Index Marks New Era in Investing," Financial Times (London), June 22, 2004, 47.

19. Joseph J. Romm, Cool Companies (Washington, DC: Island Press, 1999).

20. http://ceres.org/our_work/sgp.htm.

21. "Memorandum to Faculty in Arts, Sciences and Engineering on Budget Challenges," February 23, 2006.

22. Romm, Cool Companies, 47.

23. Eric A. Kriss, Use of State Vehicles by Executive Agencies, Commonwealth of Massachusetts ANF Bulletin 10, December 1, 2003.

Chapter 10

1. Press release, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, "Americans among Most Misinformed about Global Warming," http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_ releases/2003-09/uoia-aam090303.php. For the journal article on the study, see "Comparative Public Opinion and Knowledge on Global Climatic Change and the Kyoto Protocol: The U.S. versus the World?", International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 23/1 (2003): 106-134.

2. John D. Sterman and Linda Booth Sweeney, "Cloudy Skies: Assessing Public Understanding of Global Warming," System Dynamics Review 18/2 (quote on 233) (2002): 207-240.

3. John D. Sterman and Linda Booth Sweeney, "Understanding Public Complacency about Climate Change: Adults' Mental Models of Climate Change Violate Conservation of Matter," working paper, undated, http://web.mit.edu/jster-man/www/.

4. W. Kempton, J. S. Boster, and J. A. Hartley, Environmental Values in American Culture (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995).

5. Rawle O. King, "Hurricane Katrina: Insurance Losses and National Capacities for Financing Disaster and Risk," Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Order Code RL33086, September 15, 2005, http://fpc.state.gove/ documents/organization/53686.pdf.

6. UNEP/GRID-Arendal-Climate Change, http://www.grida.no/activities.cfm? pageID=2.

7. Hadley Centre, Climate Information, http://www.meto.gov.uk/research/ hadleycentre/models/climate_system.html.

8. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Global Warming website, http:// yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/index.html.

9. Energy Information Administration, Household Vehicle Energy Consumption Report Series: DOE/EIA-0464, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/rtecs/chapter3.html.

10. http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/ResourceCenter-ToolsGHGCalculator.html.

11. See, for example, http://www.pollingreport.com/enviro.htm.

12. James Hannah, "As Students Use More Power, Colleges Must Rewire Rooms," Associated Press, November 20, 2003, http://msnbc.msn.com/id/ 3607032/.

13. Hannah, "As Students Use More Power, Colleges Must Rewire Rooms."

14. http://www.rowan.edu/studentaffairs/reslife/welcomeback/move_in_day/.

15. Greg Winter, "Jacuzzi U? A Battle of Perks to Lure Students," New York Times, October 5, 2003, 1.

16. Walter C. Swap, "Psychological Factors in Environmental Decision Making: Social Dilemmas," in R. A. Chechile and S. Carlisle, eds., Environmental Decision Making: A Multidisciplinary Perspective (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1991).

17. See, for example, W. Kempton, J. S. Boster, and J. A. Hartley, Environmental Values in American Culture (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995).

18. For a concise review of social marketing literature, see Kristin Marcell, Julian Agyeman, and Ann Rappaport, "Cooling the Campus: Experiences from a Pilot Study to Reduce Electricity Use at Tufts University, USA, Using Social Marketing Methods," Sustainability in Higher Education 5/2 (2004): 169-189.

19. Marcell, Agyeman, and Rappaport, "Cooling the Campus."

20. D. Meadows, "Places to Intervene in a System (in Increasing Order of Effectiveness)," Whole Earth, winter 1997, 78-84.

21. Kurt Teichert, panelist, Agile Planner Workshop, Boston, October 26, 2004.

22. Ross Gelbspan, The Heat Is On (Reading, MA: Perseus, 1998).

23. Ross Gelbspan, Boiling Point (New York: Basic Books, 2004).

24. According to http://www.uoregon.edu/~ecostudy/slp/energy/Energyuse.html, University of Oregon students are paying a $20/term electricity surcharge, which covers more than half the electric bill. Most schools in the Oregon system had an energy surcharge (http://www.ous.edu/news/press/072001a.htm).

25. A state judge ruled that the University of Washington did not have the authority to charge an energy fee because the fee constituted a tuition increase and only the legislature is authorized to increase tuition at state institutions. See Ben Gose, "Students in Washington Win Energy-Fee Dispute," Chronicle of Higher Education, November 30, 2001, 21.

Chapter 11

1. The Piedmont Project, http://www.scienceandsociety.emory.edu/piedmont/.

2. Kristin Marcell, Julian Agyeman, and Ann Rappaport, "Cooling the Campus: Experiences from a Pilot Study to Reduce Electricity Use at Tufts University, USA, Using Social Marketing Methods," Sustainability in Higher Education 5/2 (2004): 187.

3. http://www.usgcrp.gov/usgcrp/Library/ocp2004-5/default.htm.

4. For the report from the project Climate's Long-Term Impacts on Metro Boston, see http://www.tufts.edu/tie/climb/.

Chapter 12

1. Kresge Foundation, http://www.kresge.org/.

2. Massachusetts Technology Collaborative, http://www.mtpc.org/.

3. Energy Star, http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfmPfuseactionfind_a_product.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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