The built form

• The internal layout should place rooms on appropriate sides of the building either to benefit from solar heat gain or to avoid it where necessary.

• Shading (externally if possible) should be installed for windows posing overheating risk.

• The effect on heat gain of window frames and glazing bars can be significant.

• In the design and positioning of windows the effect of solar gain must be considered in conjunction with daylight design.

• As a general rule it is desirable to maximise south facing windows and minimise north facing windows.

• High thermal mass construction levels out the peaks and troughs of temperature.

• Internal surfaces should maximise solar heat absorption.

to south to avoid maximise

• A conservatory or other buffer space can be used to preheat incoming ventilation air.

Climate change is predicted to increase the risk of flooding from a combination of rising sea level, increased storm surges, greater precipitation and river run-down. In areas where there is the probability of flood risk special measures should be adopted, for example:

• Most living accommodation should, if possible, be on the first and upper floors.

• Floor and wall surfaces on the ground floor should be capable of recovery from flooding, e.g. tiled finishes.

• Power sockets should be at least at bench height.

• Door openings should be water tight for at least 1 m about ground;

• Windows sills should be at least 1 m above ground.

• Ventilation grilles and air bricks should be capable of being sealed.

• Bathrooms should be on the first floor; where they are on the ground floor non-return valves should be fitted to WCs.

• The electrical circuit on the ground floor should be able to be isolated, allowing power to be available on upper floors in times of flooding.

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