Smallscale hydro

In small-scale projects water is usually contained at high level by a dam or weir and led down a pipe (penstock) or channel to a generator about 50 m below to create the necessary force to drive the generator. An intermediate technology version has been designed for developing countries in which a standard pump is converted to a turbine and an electric motor to a generator (New Scientist, p. 29, 29 June 1991) (further information in Smith, P.F. (2002) 'Small-scale hydro,' in Sustainability at the Cutting Edge, Ch. 10, Architectural Press).

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