1. A great majority of Lepidoptera larvae feed on plants; a small minority are mycophagous, predatory, or parasitic (see Scoble 1992, Pierce 1995).

Armbruster, P.,W. E. Bradshaw, A. L. Steiner, C. M. Holzapfel. 1999. Evolutionary responses to environmental stress by the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii. Heredity 83: 509-519.

Ayres, M. P. 1993. Plant defense, herbivory, and climate change. Pages 75-94 in P. M. Kareiva, J. G. Kingsolver, and R. B. Huey, eds., Biotic interactions and global change. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer.

Ayres, M. P., and M. J. Lombardero. 2000. Assessing the consequences of global change for forest disturbance from herbivores and pathogens. Science of the Total Environment 262: 263-286.

Baker, R. R. 1978. The Evolutionary Ecology of Animal Migration. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

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