Conclusion

AIJ projects are intended for technological transfer and aid. These objectives overlap greatly with China's and the South's position in international climate change negotiations. However, in multilateral rhetoric, the developing countries stress that AIJ could be harmful in the long term, since low-cost abatement would be taken away and there would be an export of pollution from the North to the South. China was thus often pressured into taking the developing countries' stance in spite of its...

The Japan factor

AIJ project approval is also helped by the fact that China and Japan have a long history of cooperation regarding the environment and technology. While the United States is barred from giving aid to communist regimes, Japan is presently the number one donor to China totaling 102 million in environmental assistance from 1993 to1996 (UNDP 1996 50). This relationship was strengthened at the UNCED where then Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto pledged to increase ODA between 9 billion and 10 billion...

Strategy

The literature on Chinese cooperative behavior suggests that China is a pragmatic actor, and a practitioner of realpolitik. In this vein, it adopts the best strategy to maximize its gains, and adopts different tactics at the multilateral and bilateral levels of international negotiation. Self-interest drives China to adopt the G-77 and China coalition approach at the multilateral level. China will sacrifice short-term interest in aid and technological transfer through AIJ and CDM for image vis-...

Comparing multilateral and bilateral negotiations

Although both China and India have rhetorically opposed the AIJ CDM concepts on the grounds that the North first needs to address its responsibilities before the South, there is a difference in their activity on AIJs China has five AIJ projects whereas India has just one. However, it may be considered that part of the difference can be accounted for by China's greater economic appeal and specifically (in this context) an edge in attracting environmentally sound technologies. But what else...

Bilateral cooperation and Chinas AIJ projects

As a non-Annex I country, China is not obliged to take part in any AIJ projects. However, as is apparent with its five projects, it is not opposed to the mechanism. Although their rhetoric (together with the G-77) at the multilateral level showed opposition to these mechanisms, China's AIJ project efforts show that Beijing was not as reluctant to participate as its multilateral stance suggested. China has three official AIJ projects with Japan that are registered with the FCCC secretariat. Two...

Bilateral cooperative frameworks within a multilateral convention

China leads the developing countries in climate change negotiations, voicing their interests against the developed countries. This often sees China being pulled into the North-South ideological battle, sometimes being more recalcitrant in multilateral negotiations than it would actually like to be. As a result, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and Northern governments characterize China as a problematic actor in the FCCC negotiations. Domestically, there is increasing recognition that...

International factors

After the Chinese government's response to democracy supporters in Tiananmen Square, China was diplomatically isolated and internationally condemned. Furthermore, most of its aid was temporarily cut off. Aid and loans from the IMF and World Bank were suspended for a year, and there was a sharp deterioration in Sino-US relations (Smith 1994 103). The climate change issue came into focus at the same time, thereby serving as an ideal tool for China to regain its international position. To achieve...

Explaining Chinas negotiating position

Advocating equity and the historical responsibility of the developed countries, China has resisted any commitment that would limit its ability to develop the economy. China's chief objective has been to avoid eco-colonialism and any impingement on its sovereignty (Eastbrook and Palmer 1997 see Chapter 4). Chinese officials have summarized China's objectives in environmental diplomacy as follows (Cao et al. 1998 171-189) 2 Develop environmental industries. 3 Advance sustainable development. 4...

China and multilateral negotiations on climate change

China was a participant in the negotiations for the FCCC from it preliminary stages. The FCCC is a framework convention that provides for general cooperation in climate change, with the anticipation of subsequent agreements establishing more concrete obligations. These have been discussed at the Conference of Parties (COP) and Meetings of Parties. The FCCC's objectives are to protect the world's climate system against the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), most notably CO2, and...

Introduction

With the emergence of global environmental problems (e.g. ozone, climate change and bio-diversity) in the 1980s, and the introduction of the concept of sustainable development by the 1987 Brundtland Report, Our Common Future, the environment has become an important area of international focus (WCED 1987). While there are many studies in international relations and in law on the formation, compliance and effectiveness of global environmental regimes, there are relatively few on developing...

Notes

1 The Berlin Mandate was adopted at the First Conference of the Parties (COP1) to the FCCC in April 1995. Among other things, the Berlin Mandate specifies that the process for the implementation of the FCCC beyond 2000 will not introduce any new commitments for developing countries (United Nations 1995). 2 The notion of common but differentiated responsibilities was also affirmed in Principle 7 of the Rio Declaration issued at the UNCED In view of the different contributions to global...

The context of climate change policymaking

China is a major contributor to, and by many accounts a major victim of, global climate change. At present, China ranks second in the world, only after the United States, in terms of total GHG emissions. On a per capita basis, however, China's emissions are only a fraction of developed countries' and are even lower than the average of developing countries. Rapid economic growth in China during the past two decades has been associated with rapid increases in fossil fuel use, the primary source...

International negotiations and politics of climate change in China

Fairly early on in the process leading up to the climate change negotiations, China had begun to monitor developments in global warming, primarily as a consequence of the attention devoted to the climate change issue within the scientific community. In 1987, the SSTC established the National Climate Committee, with its secretariat located in the State Meteorological Administration (SMA). That same year the Chinese Academy of Sciences signed a collaborative research agreement with the US...

Environmental policy in China

The cumulative effect of this resource-intensive growth strategy pursued in the decades after 1949 - and the increasing reliance on indigenous coal that this precipitated - had important environmental ramifications for China beyond those of global warming. China has experienced water shortages, exacerbated by extensive water pollution, and degraded land resources resulting from deforestation and soil erosion but among the most serious environmental problems - and the one most directly related...

Energy policy in China

Before the late 1970s, energy policy in China - to the extent that one existed -was dominated by production interests and focused almost exclusively on expanding supply. With the beginning of economic reforms, however, a reevaluation of the energy situation was initiated through a series of national symposia organized by the SSTC. These resulted in a report critical of past energy policies and brought to the attention of the leadership the serious energy shortages facing the country as a...

Chinese energy policy and its environmental implications

The global warming issue in China has been intimately linked with efforts to modernize the economy and the energy strategy employed to fuel that modernization. With over 1.2 billion people, China is the most populous country in the world it is also one of the poorest. Economic growth has been accelerating in recent decades, averaging over 9 percent annually since the early 1980s, raising per capita GDP to approximately 800 in 1999 (though enormous regional disparities persist). Energy use...

Common but differentiated responsibility

International justice has been codified in recent years in a host of international environmental agreements, such as the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (and its amendedments), the Convention on Biological Diversity, and the FCCC (Banuri et al. 1996 87-91 Harris 1996, 1997). The overriding goal of the FCCC is stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate...

Conceptions of international climate change justice

How can we, and how do policymakers, conceive of international justice in the context of climate change We can first think of international justice from largely philosophical perspectives. That is, philosophers can help us understand the meaning of international justice (and similar concepts, such as equity and fairness). Having said this, it is nearly impossible to state definitively what is a just or equitable distribution of the burdens associated with climate change.7 Many philosophers have...

Climate change and international justice

Increasing understanding of the regional and local effects of climate change logically influence governments' attitudes toward this problem, with the likelihood that improved understanding of adverse impacts will increase their willingness to do something about the problem (see Harris 2001a). Indeed, attitudes in China are changing as the potential adverse impacts from climate change become clearer, and China is arguably moving toward a less hostile stand on emissions targets for developing...

Global warming and climate change impacts in East Asia

Clearly, the global effects of climate change are potentially major, and will likely lead to many adverse consequences, difficult choices, and expensive adaptation measures for much of the world's population. The countries of East Asia will not be immune to these changes, and in most cases will be among the worst affected due to their vulnerable geographies and economies. Effects may not always be adverse, but even if they are not they will likely increase unpredictability and require...

Ecological and socioeconomic impacts of climate change

The ecological and socio-economic impacts of climate change are likely to be very significant and often painful. The TAR's findings on these impacts include the following (IPCC Working Group II 2001) Regional changes in climate have already affected many physical and biological systems, with temperature increases being the most proximate cause. Observed changes in regional climate have occurred in terrestrial, aquatic, and marine environments, and effects have included shrinking glaciers,...

Global warming causes and resulting climate change

The most authoritative reports on the causes and consequences of climate change come from the IPCC, particularly its 1995 Second Assessment Report (SAR) (Bruce et al. 1996 Houghton et al. 1996 Watson et al. 1996) and its 2001 Third Assessment Report (TAR) (IPCC 2001 see Albritton et al. 2001 and IPCC Working Group II 2001). The latter report refined the findings of the first assessment, pointing out that climate change is likely to be worse and occur more rapidly than initially predicted (see...

Domestic factors

One domestic factor promoting AIJ approval is the environmentally oriented SSTC, which has acted as the gateway for bilateral negotiations. The SSTC is headed by leading figures in the Chinese environmental movement, Song Jian and Deng Nan (Deng Xiaoping's daughter). Deng Nan once remarked that if environmental problems are ignored in the process of development, economic development will be seriously hampered. We should extensively launch international cooperation (Economy 1998 276). AIJs are...

Chinas position on climate change

On May 13, 1998, at a hearing before the US House of Representatives' Committee on International Relations entitled The Kyoto Protocol Problems with US Sovereignty and the Lack of Developing Country Participation, Benjamin Gilman, chairman of the committee, characterized China's position on climate change at the Kyoto Conference as a policy of 'Three Nos' no obligations on China, no voluntary commitments by China, and no future negotiations to bind China US House 1998 . Despite its political...

Contents

Perspectives on the politics of climate 1 Introduction the politics and foreign policy of global warming in East Asia 3 2 Climate change priorities for East Asia socio-economic impacts and international justice 19 China and the politics of climate change 41 3 Chinese politics, energy policy, and the international 4 The forces behind China's climate change policy interests, sovereignty, and prestige 66 5 Navigating between luxury and survival emissions tensions in China's multilateral and...

Domestic politics and international negotiations

Any significant international agreement on global warming will have profound effects on a broad set of interests spanning society and, hence, have important ramifications for the domestic politics of any country. Given the potential impact on important constituencies, global warming negotiations have become a concern of bureaucratic interests as activities coming under their purview become subject to negotiations. One sees, for example, competing claims arising between the departments and...