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1. The Apollo space program invested on average over $18 billion per year in 2005 dollars, or a total of $165 billion spread over nine years in project costs; "NASA Exploration Systems Architecture Study" (p. 682), November 2005, http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/140649main_esas_full.pdf.

2. Ben Vigil, "What Microsoft Gets for Its $7B R&D Budget," Search Exchange.com, June 10, 2004, http://searchexchange.techtarget.com/ originalContent/0,289142,sid43_gci969606,00.html.

3. "Cleaning Up," Economist, May 31, 2007. Independently substantiated by Steve Wright, director, Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon.

4. All quotes pertaining to the Marshall Islands are from an interview with Essay Note, president, November 2006.

5. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, "3.3.1 Geological History of Atmospheric CO2," 2001, http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/107.htm#331.

6. The data in this paragraph is from two sources: James Hansen, Makiko Sato, Reto Ruedy, Ken Lo, David W Lea, and Martin Medina-Elizade, "Global Temperature Change," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, September 26, 2006; and IPCC, Climate Change 2007:The Physical Science Basis, "Summary for Policymakers," 2007, http://www.ipcc.ch/SPM2feb07.pdf.

7. Numbers are converted from Celsius best estimates of the low-emissions scenario (1.8°C) and high-emissions scenario (4.0°C) in IPCC, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, "Summary for Policymakers," 2007, 10.

8. Naomi Oreskes, "Beyond the Ivory Tower: The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change," Science 306, no. 5702 (December 3, 2004): 1686, http:// www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/306/5702/1686.

9. Jeffrey Ball, "Exxon Mobil Softens Its Climate-change Stance," Wall Street Journal, January 11, 2007, http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/07011/ 753072-28.stm.

10. Interview with Joe Romm, December 2006.

11. G. Marland, T. A. Boden, and R. J. Andres, "Global, Regional, and National CO2 Emissions," Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 2006, http://cdiac .esd.ornl.gov/trends/emis/tre_usa.htm.

12. "National Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions per Capita," Vital Climate Change Graphics Update, UNEP/GRID-Arendal Library of Graphics Resources, 2005, http://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/national_carbon_dioxide _co2_emissions_per_capita.

13. All quotes from Dr. Bitz are from an interview in December 2006.

14. For more information, see the World Bank working paper "The Impact of Sea Level Rise on Developing Countries: A Comparative Analysis," Jian-ping Yan, David Wheeler, Craig Meisner, Benoit Laplante, and Susmita Dasgupta, February 1, 2007, which concludes that just one meter of sea level rise would result in at least 56 million refugees; http://econ.world bank.org / external / default/main?pagePK=64165259&piPK=64165421& theSitePK=469372&menuPK=64216926&entityID=000016406_200702 09161430.

15. All quotes regarding Shishmaref, Alaska, are from an interview with Tony Weyiouanna, Inupiat transportation director, and Luci Eningowuk, chair person of the Shishmaref Erosion and Relocation Coalition, January 2007.

16. All quotes from Ogden Driskill are from an interview at Camp Stool Ranch, Wyoming, December 2006.

17. Interview with Brad Rippee, agricultural meteorologist, U.S. Department ofAgriculture, December 2006.

18. Interview with Corey Moffet, rangeland specialist, U.S. Department of Agriculture, December 2006.

19. Ron Stodghill II, "Pump Up the Volume," CNN.com and Time, June 26, 2000, http://www.cnn.com/ALLP0LITICS/time/2000/06/26/pump .html.

20. "U.S. Crude Oil Supply & Disposition," Energy Information Administration, updated continually, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_sum_ crdsnd_adc_mbblpd_a.htm; see also "International Petroleum (Oil) Consumption," Energy Information Administration, n.d., http://www.eia.doe .gov/emeu/international/oilconsumption.html, and "Table 5.3, Petroleum Imports by Type, Selected Years, 1949-2005," tables 5.1 and 5.3, EIA Annual Energy Review, 2005, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/pages/ sec5_9.pdf.

21. The United States spent $39.3 billion on Persian Gulf oil imports, according to the U.S. Energy Information Agency, http://www.eia.doe.gov/ emeu/aer/txt/ptb0520.html.

22. All Woolsey quotes are from interviews in December 2006.

23. David L. Greene and Nataliya Tishchishnya, "Costs of Oil Dependence: A 2000 Update," Oak Ridge National Laboratory (prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy), December 2000, http://www.esd.ornl.gov/benefits _conference/oilcost_tq.pdf.

24. Michael T. Klare, "Oil Wars: Transforming the American Military into a Global Oil-Protection Service," TomDispatch.com, October 8, 2004, http://www.commondreams.org/views04/1008-23.htm.

25. Iraq has the world's second-largest proven reserves of oil, according to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy, 1996, cited in Oil: A Natural Resource (Institute of Petroleum, online), http://www.energyinst.org.uk/ education/natural/3.htm.

26. Thomas L. Friedman, "The First Law of Petropolitics," Foreign Policy, May/June 2006, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/cms.phpPstory_id =3426.

27. Energy Information Administration, "International Energy Outlook 2006," Table 3: "World Oil Reserves by Country as of January 1, 2006," June 2006, http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/oil.html.

28. World Resources Institute, "Transportation: Passenger Cars per 1000

People," EarthTrends, http://earthtrends.wri.org/searchable_db/index.php ?theme=6&variable_ID=290&action=select_countries.

29. Jad Mouawad, "Once Marginal, Now Kings of the World," NewYork Times, April 23, 2006.

30. Energy Information Administration, "International Energy Outlook 2007," Appendix A: "Reference Case Projections," May 2007, http:// www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/pdf/ieorefcase.pdf.

31. America spends over $200,000 a minute, or $13 million per hour, on imported oil, based on 2003 import numbers; Natural Resources Defense Council, "Safe, Strong, and Secure: Reducing America's Oil Dependence," http://www.nrdc.org/air/transportation/aoilpolicy2.asp.

32. "U.S. Trade Deficit Soars to Record, Reflecting Higher Oil Bill," International Herald Tribune, December 15, 2006, http://www.iht.com/articles/ ap/2006/12/19/america/NA_FIN_US_Economy.php.

33. Michele Cavallo, "Oil Prices and the U.S. Trade Deficit," Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Economic Letter, September 22, 2006, http:// www.frbsf.org/publications/economics/letter/2006/e12006-24.html.

34. Speech by Leo Gerard at the Apollo Alliance State Leadership for a New Energy Future Press Conference, National Press Club, Washington, D.C., December 8, 2006.

35. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, "Current Employment Statistics Survey, 2006," http://www.bls.gov/ces/home.htm; see also L. Josh Bivens, "Trade Deficits and Manufacturing Employment," Economic Snapshots, Economic Policy Institute, November 20, 2005, https://www .epi.org/content.cfm/webfeatures_snapshots_20051130.

36. Bureau of Economic Analysis, National Income and Products Accounts, Table 1.14, 2006, http://www.bea.gov/bea/dn/nipaweb/index.asp.

37. U.S. Census Bureau, "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2005," http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/ income.html.

38. Janet L. Sawin et al., American Energy: The Renewable Path to Energy Security, Worldwatch Institute and Center for American Progress, September 2006, http://images1.americanprogress.org/i180web20037/american energynow/AmericanEnergy.pdf.

39. David Morris, "Energizing Rural America," Center for American Progress, January 19, 2007, http://www. americanprogress.org/issues/2007/01/rural _energy.html.

40. "U.S. Metro Economies: Energy Costs: Impact on U.S. Household Budgets," report prepared for the U.S. Conference of Mayors and the Council for the New American City by Global Insight, January 2007, http://www .usmayors.org/metroeconomies/0107/Energyreport.pdf.

41. Apollo Alliance, "New Energy for America: Apollo Jobs Report," January 2004, http://www.apolloalliance.org/docUploads/ApolloReport%5F 022404%5F122748%2Epdf.

42. Burton C. English et al., "25% Renewable Energy for the United States by 2025: Agricultural and Economic Impacts," University of Tennessee, Department of Agricultural Economics, November 2006.

43. John M. Urbanchuk, "Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States," prepared for the Renewable Fuels Association, February 21, 2006, http://www.ethanolrfa.org/objects/documents/576/ economic_contribution_2006.pdf.

44. Sir Nicholas Stern, The Stern Review: The Economics of Climate Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, October 2006), http://www .hm-treasury.gov.uk/independent_reviews/stern_review_economics_ climate_change/stern_review_report.cfm.

45. International Energy Agency, "The World Energy Outlook 2006 Maps Out a Cleaner, Cleverer and More Competitive Energy Future," press release, November 6, 2006, http://www.iea.org/Textbase/press/pressdetail .asp?PRESS_REL_ID=187.

46. Winston Churchill, World Crisis, vol. 1 (London: Thornton Butterworth, 1923).

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