Co2 Carbon Capture Sequestration

1. World Resources Institute, "CO2 Emissions: CO2 Emissions per Capita," EarthTrends, 2005, http://earthtrends.wri.org/searchable_db/index.php? theme=3&variable_ID=466&action=select_countries.

2. The information in this section draws from the landmark piece by Stephen Pacala and Robert Socolow, "Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate

Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies," Science 305, no. 5686 (August 13, 2004): 968-72.

3. James Katzer et al., "The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World," Massachusetts Institute of Technology, March 2007, http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf.

4. Energy Information Administration, "International Energy Outlook 2006," Chapter 6: "Electricity," http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/ electricity.html.

5. "Dust, Deception and Death," Louisville Courier Journal, special five-part series on black lung disease, 1998; chart available at http://www.courier-journal.com/dust/illo_lungdeaths.html.

6. Jeff Johnson, "Getting to 'Clean Coal,'" Chemical and Engineering News 82, no. 8 (February 23, 2004), http://pubs.acs.org/cen/coverstory/8208/ 8208coal.html; see also Power Plant Emissions: Particulate Matter—Related Health Damages and the Benefits of Alternative Emission Reduction Scenarios (Abt Associates Inc., Computer Sciences Corporation, and E. H. Pechan Associates, Inc., June 2004), http://www.abtassociates.com/reports/Final_ Power_Plant_Emissions_June_2004.pdf.

7. Data from the "Executive Summary" and "Energy" sections, "U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory Reports," U.S. EPA, http://www.epa.gov/climate change/emissions/usinventoryreport.html.

8. Travis Madsen and Rob Sargent, "Making Sense of the 'Coal Rush': The Consequences of Expanding America's Dependence on Coal," U.S. PIRG, July 20, 2006, http://www.uspirg.org/home/reports/report-archives/ new-energy-future/new-energy-future/making-sense-of-the-coal-rush-the-consequences-of-expanding-americas-dependence-on-coal#nmhhw3g7IQFjMi-DhxrSYg.

9. Energy Information Administration, "Annual Coal Report," 2005, http:// www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/coal/page/acr/acr_sum.html.

10. David J. Lynch, "Corporate America Warms to Fight against Global Warming," USA Today, June 5, 2006, http://www.usatoday.com/weather/ climate/2006-05-31-business-globalwarming_x.htm.

11. James Katzer et al., "The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World," Massachusetts Institute of Technology, March 2007, http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf.

12. These figures are based on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Coal Study's indication of emissions from five-hundred-gigawatt coal-fired plants and the paper by Ken Berlin and Robert M. Sussman, "Global Warming and the Future of Coal," from the Center for American Progress, May 31, 2007, http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2007/05/coal_ report.html. Percentage calculated from U.S. emissions statistics in Energy

Information Administration, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2004, Table C2: "State Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Energy Sectors, 2001," http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/ggrpt/pdf/ appc_tb12.pdf.

13. Ken Berlin and Robert M. Sussman, "Global Warming and the Future of Coal: Carbon Capture and Storage," Center for American Progress, May 31, 2007, http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2007/05/coal_report .html.

14. Interview with Ernie Moniz, codirector of the Lab for Energy and the Environment, Massachusetts Institute ofTechnology, January 2007.

15. Ibid., James Katzer et al., "The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World," Massachusetts Institute of Technology, March 2007, http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf.

16. John Douglas, "Generation Technologies for a Carbon-Constrained World," Electric Power Research Institute, 2006, http://mydocs.epri.com/ docs/CorporateDocuments/EPRI_Journal/2006-Summer/1013720_ Generation.pdf.

17. The plant is the Dakota Gasification Company's Great Plains Synfuels Plant, whose CO2 is used by the Weyburn Oil Fields in Saskatchewan. For more information, see "Practical Experience Gained During the First Twenty Years of Operation of the Great Plains Gasification Plant and Implications for Future Projects," U.S. Department of Energy, April 2006, http://www.fe.doe.gov/programs/powersystems/publications/Brochures /dg_knowledge_gained.pdf.

18. James Katzer et al., "The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World," Massachusetts Institute of Technology, March 2007, http://web.mit.edu/coal/The_Future_of_Coal.pdf.

19. Announcement by President George W. Bush, February 27, 2003; details available at DOE Web site, http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/ powersystems/futuregen/.

20. Ken Berlin and Robert M. Sussman, "Global Warming and the Future of Coal: Carbon Capture and Storage," Center for American Progress, May 31, 2007, http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2007/05/coal_report .html.

21. Interview with Antonia Herzog, staff scientist, Climate Center, Natural Resources Defense Council, January 2007.

22. Ken Berlin and Robert M. Sussman, "Global Warming and the Future of Coal: Carbon Capture and Storage," Center for American Progress, May 31, 2007, http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2007/05/coal_report .html.

23. Jeff Johnson, "Getting to 'Clean Coal,'" Chemical and Engineering News

82, no. 8 (February 23, 2004), http://pubs.acs.org/cen/coverstory/8208/ 8208coal.html.

26. Ken Berlin and Robert M. Sussman, "Global Warming and the Future of Coal: Carbon Capture and Storage," Center for American Progress, May 31, 2007, http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2007/05/coal_report .html.

27. Interview with Steve Clemmer, senior energy analyst, Union of Concerned Scientists, January 2007.

28. Interview with Hunt Ramsbottom, CEO of Rentech, Inc., January 2007.

29. Natural Resources Defense Council, "Climate Facts: Why Liquid Coal Is Not a Viable Option to Move America Beyond Oil," February 2007, http://www.nrdc.org/globalWarming/coal/liquids.pdf, based on data from Robert Williams of Princeton indicating that coal to liquids from Fischer-Tropsch produces 49.5 pounds of CO2/gge (gallon of gasoline equivalent), or a 96 percent increase over gasoline at 25.26 pounds of CO2/gge. With carbon capture and sequestration during manufacturing, coal to liquids still produces an increase of 8 percent over gasoline, or 27.28 pounds of CO2/gge.

30. Interview with Andrew Perlman, CEO of Great Point Energy, January 2007.

31. Interview with Steve Clemmer, senior energy analyst, Union of Concerned Scientists, January 2007.

32. Interview with Dallas Burtraw, January 2007.

33. One report with such projections is Lucy Johnston et al., "Climate Change and Power: Carbon Dioxide Emissions Costs and Electricity Resource Planning," Synapse Energy Economics, Inc., June 8, 2006, http://www .synapse-energy.com/Downloads/SynapsePaper.2006-06.0.Climate-Change-and-Power.A0009.pdf.

34. Interview with Jim Rogers, president and CEO of Duke Power, February 2007.

35. Jeff Johnson, "Getting to 'Clean Coal,'" Chemical and Engineering News 82, no. 8 (February 23, 2004), http://pubs.acs.org/cen/coverstory/8208/ 8208coal.html.

36. Interview with Jim Rogers, February 2007.

37. Ken Berlin and Robert M. Sussman, "Global Warming and the Future of Coal: Carbon Capture and Storage," Center for American Progress, May 31, 2007, http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2007/05/coal_report .html.

38. "Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative," U.S. Department of

Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy Fact Sheet, January 2006, http:// www.ne.doe.gov/pdfFiles/GENIV.pdf.

39. Brice Smith and Arjun Makhijani, "Nuclear Is Not the Way," Wilson Quarterly, August 2006, http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?essay_id= 204360&fuseaction=wq.essay.

40. The 52,000 tons of spent fuel is a common Nuclear Regulatory Commission estimate, but for the context of the quotation see Shankar Vedantam, "Storage Plan Approved for Nuclear Waste," Washington Post, September 10, 2005, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/ 09/09/AR2005090901935.html.

41. Shankar Vedantam, "Storage Plan Approved for Nuclear Waste," Washington Post, September 10, 2005, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ content/article/2005/09/09/AR2005090901935.html; see also "Hard Won Victory Against Environmentally Racist Nuke Waste Dump Targeted at Native Land!" Nuclear Information and Resource Service, September 18, 2006, http://www.nirs.org/radwaste/scullvalley/sv_victory91406 .htm.

42. Patricia Reaney, "Study Casts Doubt on Nuclear Waste Storage Safety," Reuters News Service, January 10, 2007, http://www.planetark.com/ dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/39786/newsDate/11-Jan-2007/story.htm, based on Ian Farnan et al., "Canned Nuclear Waste Cooks Its Container," Nature 445 (January 11, 2007): 190-93.

43. "X Marks the Spot," Environmental Working Group Action Fund, October 2004, http://www.ewg.org/reports/nuclearwaste/exec_summ.php.

44. Anne Trafton, "Regional Storage Facilities Could Handle Nuclear Waste, Researcher Says," Massachusetts Institute ofTechnology News Office, August 17, 2006, http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2006/nuclear-storage.html; see also Richard Lester, "New Nukes," Issues in Science and Technology Online, Summer 2006, http://www.issues.org/22.4Zlester.html.

45. "Reprocessing Cannot Solve Our Nuclear Waste Problem," Public Citizen Critical Mass Energy Program Fact Sheet, http://www.citizen.org/ cmep/energy_enviro_nuclear/nuclear_power_plants/nukewaste/reproces sing/articles.cfm?ID = 14637; see also David Lochbaum, Nuclear Waste Disposal Crisis (Tulsa, Oklahoma: PennWell Publishing, 1996).

46. "Nuclear Reprocessing: Dangerous, Dirty, and Expensive," Union of Concerned Scientists Fact Sheet, January 2006, http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/ documents/global_security/Nuclear-Reprocessing-Factsheet.pdf.

47. Christopher Flavin and Nicholas Lenssen, "Nuclear Power Nears Peak," Worldwatch Institute, March 5, 1999, http://www.worldwatch.org/node/ 1646.

48. "China Awards Massive Nuclear Deal," BBC News Online, December 17,

2006, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/6187491.stm.

0 0

Post a comment