1. American Society of Civil Engineers, "Report Card for America's Infrastructure," 2005, p. 3, reportcardpdf.pdf.

2. American Society of Civil Engineers, "2003 Progress Report," http://

3. Quotations on metropolitan high-road economic development from interview with Joel Rogers, Center on Wisconsin Strategy/Apollo Alliance, January 2007.

4. Clean Edge, "Clean-Energy Trends 2007," reports-trends2007.php.

5. According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 225,956,060 people, or 79.219 percent of the population, live in urban areas; see "Census 2000 Population Statistics" (U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration),

6. John DeCicco and Freda Fung, "Global Warming on the Road" (Environmental Defense), http: / / www. environmentaldefense. org/documents/ 5301_Globalwarmingontheroad.pdf.

7. Background information on the Portland TriMet public transportation system comes from an interview with Rick Gustafson, former director of TriMet, November 2006.

8. Portland Development Commission, "Portland Area QuickFacts," http://

9. Interview with Rick Gustafson, former director of Portland TriMet, November 2006.

10. Interview with Fred Hansen, TriMet general manager, November 2006.

11. "Slicker Cities," Business Week, August 21, 2006,

13. Interview with Gary Nelson, Grays Harbor port commissioner, November 2006.

14. Interview with John Plaza, Imperium Renewables, November 2006.

15. All quotes on Newark reconstruction are from an interview with Baye

Adofo-Wilson, executive director, Lincoln Park/Coast Cultural District, November 2006.

16. Chicago Department of Environment, "Monitoring the Rooftop Garden's Benefits: Data Comparison Between the City Hall Rooftop Garden and the Black Tar Roof of the Cook County Building," egov.cityofchicago .org.

17. Detailed analysis of Chicago City Hall green roof temperature impacts is available at "Building Healthy, Smart, and Green: Chicago's Green Building Agenda 2005,"

18. Interview with Sadhu Johnston, Chicago secretary of the environment, November 2006. Additional information on Chicago green roofs from report prepared by MWH (for Chicago Department of the Environment), "Green RoofTest Plot: 2003 End ofYear Project Summary Report," February 2004, COC_ATTACH/2003GreenRoofReport.pdf.

19. April Smith, "Building Momentum: National Trends and Prospects for High-Performance Green Buildings," U.S. Green Building Council, February 2003, whitepaper.pdf.

20. Quotes on mountaintop removal from an interview with Julia Bonds, Marsh Fork, West Virginia, November 2006.

21. Ken Ward Jr., "Mountaintop Removal Battle Continues," Charleston Gazette, February 19, 2006, 2006/02_19.html.

23. Minnesota House of Representatives, "The Ethanol Industry in Minnesota," House Research, September 2006,

24. City of Benson, "History of Benson, MN Area," http://www.bensonmn .org/home/history.html.

25. Facts on Benson, Minnesota, Ethanol Cooperative from an interview with Bill Lee, plant manager of Chippewa Valley Ethanol Company, November 2006.

26. Facts on Luverne, Minnesota, Ethanol Cooperative and Minwind Energy from an interview with Dave Kolsrud, CEO, CORN-er Stone Ethanol Cooperative, November 2006.

28. President Thomas Jefferson, in a letter to James Madison dated October 28, 1785.

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