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Medium distillate e

Heavy distillate

Separation, purification process

Recycling

High value-added product

BTX and mono- and di-cyclic components

Residue coal

Multi-purpose Coal Conversion Technology (CPX)

Efficient Co-production with Coal Flash Partial Hydropyrolysis Technology (ECOPRO)

Hyper-coal-based High-efficiency Combustion Technology (Hyper-coal)

Low-rank Coal Upgrading Technology (UBC Process)

Coal

Part 1 CCT Classifications

Environmental Technologies

Efforts to reduce CO2 emissions

The Kyoto Protocol, which requires Japan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and alternative CFCs, by 6 percent from the 1990 level between 2008 and 2012, came into effect on February 16, 2005. Among these global warming gases, carbon dioxide (CO2) has the greatest impact on the environment. To reduce emissions of CO2, Japan, with the most highly advanced clean coal technologies in the world, is promoting further technological developments, including:

[1] Reduction of CO2 generation by enhancing coal utilization efficiency,

[2] Control of CO2 emissions generated through direct coal burning by utilizing the carbon component in coal for material production, and

[3] Underground CO2 sequestration and storage by decomposing and capturing CO2 contained in flue gas. Japan also promotes the reduction of CO2 emissions through international cooperation using the Kyoto Mechanisms.

Energy-derived CO2 emission trend in Japan Source: cct journal voi.11

A-IGCC 170CPC-class GT 57%

IGFC 55"%

A-IGCC 1500°C-class GT 53%

IGCC 15FC-class GT wet gas cleaning 46% IGCC demonstration unit 120C°C-class

_GTdry gas cleaning 405%^^^ GCc-cta* A™C 13arc-dass GT 46% GT dry gas cleaning 48%

2010 2020 Year of commercialization

Co-production

Source: JCOAL Journal, First issue

Gas engine/GT & DME synthesis

Power, synthetic fuel

Co-production

Source: JCOAL Journal, First issue

Gas engine/GT & DME synthesis

Power, synthetic fuel

Membrane Separation Green Chemistry
CO2 capture and sequestration

Separation and capture

Chemical absorption Physical adsorption Membrane separation Oxygen burning

Separation and capture

Chemical absorption Physical adsorption Membrane separation Oxygen burning

CO2 fixation and CH4 collection in coal seams

Power plants

CO2 separation and capture (flue gas decarburization)

lue gas aecarDurizationj . i n

. ; CH4 collection

CH4 utilization

CO2 fixation and CH4 collection in coal seams

CH4 replacement -f CO2 fixation

Coal seam

CH4 replacement -f CO2 fixation

Energy-derived CO2 emission trend in Japan

Source: General Energy Statistics of Japan (2004 edition) -i 2.55

Energy-derived CO2 emission trend in Japan

Source: General Energy Statistics of Japan (2004 edition) -i 2.55

Jcoal Japan
90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Year

CO2 emissions in major countries (million tons)

Source: IEO 2005

1990

2001

2002

2010

2015

2020

2025

U.S.

4,989

5,692

5,751

6,561

6,988

7,461

7,981

Canada

473

573

588

681

726

757

807

Western Europe

3,413

3,585

3,549

3,674

3,761

3,812

3,952

Russia

2,347

1,553

1,522

1,732

1,857

1,971

2,063

China

2,262

3,176

3,322

5,536

6,506

7,373

8,133

India

583

1,009

1,025

1,369

1,581

1,786

1,994

Japan

990

1,182

1,179

1,211

1,232

1,240

1,242

World total

21,460

24,072

24,409

30,201

33,284

36,023

38,790

Jcoal Japan

F 55

S 45

2000

2030

Injection

Bore hole

Bore hole

Flue gas treatment technologies

Coal preparation technologies

Emission reduction technology to remove dust, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides has been developed by treating and combusting flue gas from coal combustion through a superior process design.

Flue gas denitration Flue gas desulfurization Electrostatic precipitator unit schematic diagram unit schematic diagram schematic diagram

NH3 (Ammonia)

Clean ga (to stack)

0 DC high voltage

0 DC high voltage

Catalyst

Flue gas (from boiler)

Pump

Flue gas (from boiler)

Electrostatic precipitator

Flue gas containing ash and dust passes between two electrodes that are charged by a high voltage current. The negatively charged ash and dust are attracted toward and deposited on the cathode. The ash and dust deposited on the cathode are tapped periodically, and are collected in the lower section of the electrostatic precipitator and then subsequently removed. The principle is the same as the phenomenon where paper and dust adhere to a celluloid board electrostatically charged by friction. Flue gas desulfurizer

Limestone is powderized to prepare a water-based mixture (limestone slurry). The mixture is injected into the flue gas to induce a reaction between the limestone and the sulfur oxides in the flue gas to form calcium sulfite, which is further reacted with oxygen to form gypsum. The gypsum is then separated as a product.

Flue gas denitrizer

Ammonia is injected into the flue gas containing nitrogen oxides. The gas mixture is introduced to a metallic catalyst (a substance which induces chemical reactions). The nitrogen oxides in the flue gas undergo catalyst-induced chemical reactions, causing them to decompose into nitrogen and water.

Reaction formulae

(;itrogen (Ammonia) monoxide)

6NO2+8NH3 -

(Nitrogen dioxide)

(Nitrogen gas)

(Nitrogen gas)

Emissions of SOx and NOx per generated power in major countries

Source; The Federation of Electric Power Companies of Japan

(Thermal power plants)

Emissions of SOx and NOx per generated power in major countries

Source; The Federation of Electric Power Companies of Japan

(Thermal power plants)

Coal Power Plant Pyrites
U.S. Germany U.K. France Canada Italy Japan (2002) (2002) (2002) (2002) (2002) (2002) (2004)

Reducing sulfur oxide emissions during coal utilization is an important environmental conservation challenge. Coal preparation is an environmental control technology that removes iron pyrite particles that may be a source of ash content or sulfur oxides before coal is used.

Jcoal Japan
Heavy media cyclone

Sludge coal collection and dehydration technologies

Coal preparation leaves an effluent containing pulverized coal. Releasing the effluent into rivers and streams without treatment may cause environmental problems. To resolve the issue, and to also make effective use of this resource, a high-efficiency sludge coal collection and dehydration technique is now under development.

Upgrading Ash Utilisation

Effluent thickener

Dehydrator

Effluent thickener

Dehydrator

Effective coal ash utilization technologies

Ash generated during coal combustion can be effectively used as a raw material for cement and other products. The use of ash for multiple purposes is under study.

Effective use of coal ash from power generation or general industries in Japan (FY2003) Source: Survey report on actual usage of coal ash in Japan (JCOAL)

Fertilizer, soil improvements, etc. 172 2.1% Other building materials 19 0.2% N

Other 663 7.9%

Other 7.9%

Cement raw material 5,876 70.1%

Building material boards 377 4.5%—

Civil work materials.

Road and base materials 160 1

Agriculture, forestry Total 8,380

and ishery 21% (thousand tons)

Construction 4.7%

Civil work 9.8%

Cement 75.5%

Coal mine filler 204 2.4%

Coal mine filler 204 2.4%

-Cement admixture 308 3.7%

-Concrete admixture 143 1.7%

- Ground improvements 242 2.9%

Catalyst

Mixed liquid of limestone aid water

Gypsum

Part 1 CCT Classifications

International Cooperation

Current State of International Cooperation

Concomitant with the progress of industrialization and urbanization, developing countries are now facing serious air and water pollution issues. Coal is utilized to produce a significant proportion of the energy consumed in developing countries, particularly in Asia. As their economies have developed, it has become an increasingly significant challenge for these countries to develop and disseminate coal utilization technologies, along with broad environmental conservation measures. Unfortunately, insufficient capital, techniques and expertise limit how much developing countries can improve environmental conditions on their own. They require the assistance of international organizations and of industrialized countries, including Japan. Japan has therefore promoted international cooperation with a focus on the Green Aid Plan (GAP) with counterpart countries, including China, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, India and Vietnam. In recent years, the global warming issue has attracted intense international concern. Global warming is a serious problem for the future of the earth and humankind, and is closely related to human economic activity and its accompanying energy consumption. Thus, it is important to address environmental needs during the pursuit of economic development.

The Kyoto Protocol, adopted in Kyoto in December 1997 and which came into effect on February 16, 2005, includes the "Kyoto Mechanisms," an important instrument for international

cooperation. One of the Kyoto Mechanisms, a market mechanism known as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), is a new international cooperation system that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through cooperation between developed and developing countries. To address global environmental issues that have continued to worsen worldwide, developing countries are encouraged to maximize their self-help efforts toward improving the environment by stemming the increases in pollution and the worsening of global warming.

Japan has been encouraged to contribute to the economic growth and environmental improvement of developing countries through the active promotion of Japanese Clean Coal Technology (CCT) to Asian countries including China, which is expected to show a continued increase in coal demand. Japan also promotes technological cooperation with Australia in order to make coal a more effective energy resource with even greater cost efficiency and supply stability.

(1) Developing human resources

1) Training project on coal mining technology

Domestic mines have developed coal production and mine safety techniques with first-rate underground mining over a long period of time. Making use of these techniques, Japan provides technical cooperation to coal producing countries in the Asia-Pacific region to improve their coal production and mine safety. Japan also provides a human resource training project that accepts engineers from abroad and sends Japanese engineers to overseas coal-producing countries to ensure a stable supply of imported coal. Over 300 manager-level or higher ranking coal engineers from China, Indonesia and Vietnam have participated in the training program in Japan annually to receive face-to-face technical transfer sessions on business management, coal mining, mine safety and mechanical/electrical equipment at Japan's Kushiro mine and the Nagasaki Coal Mine Technology

Coal Mining Training

Training Center.

For overseas training, Japan sends coal engineers to China to provide seminar-style training, and sends coal engineers to Indonesia and Vietnam to provide direct guidance on-site at local mines.

Human Resource Development

Transfer of Japan's coal mining technology to Asia-Pacific region to ensure a stable supply of coal

Transfer of environmental technology through Green Aid Plan

Transfer of environmental technology through Green Aid Plan

Training Project on Coal Mining Technology

Clean Coal Technology Transfer Project

Training of coal engineers worldwide within ODA system

Training of coal engineers worldwide within ODA system

2) Promoting dissemination of clean coal technology

For the purpose of promoting the dissemination of clean coal technology, improving coal utilization technology and deepening the understanding of these technologies, Japan promotes technical transfers on coal utilization and quality management, including pollution countermeasures to reduce SOx, NOx and dust emissions, as well as the promotion of high-efficiency power generation to improve energy usage efficiencies, by inviting engineers from APEC countries to participate in training programs in Japan.

3) Supporting JICA training projects

JCOAL supports or carries out coal-related projects and training programs supported by the Japan International Corporation Agency (JICA). JCOAL also provides domestic training programs on coal mining and mine safety techniques to engineers from Indonesia and Vietnam.

(2) List of clean coal technologies and model projects relating to GAP

List of clean coal technologies and model projects relating to GAP

Project name

Project period

Target country Site

Counterpart

Post-combustion cleaning

Simplified desulfurization unit

FY1993-FY1995

Peopes Repubic of China Weifang Chemical Plant

# Nanning Chemical Industrial Group 0 Changshou Chemical Works

The State Planning Commission/Ministry of Chemical Industry The State Planning Commission/Ministry of Chemical Industry The State Planning Commission/Ministry of Chemical Industry

FY1995-FY1997

Thailand • The Union Paper Public Co., Ltd.

Department of Industrial Works, Ministry of Industry

FY1998-FY2001

Peopes RspuPic of China Hunan Province Xiang Jiang Nitrogenous Fertilizer Industrial Co.,Ltd.

The Slate Development Planning Commission/Slate Administration of Petrochemical Industry/Hunan Provlncial Planning Commission

Coke oven gas desulfurization unit

FY1999-FY2002

Peopes RepuOic of China Anyang Iron and Steel Group Co., Ltd.

The State Development Planning Commisson/Henan Provlncial Planning Commission/The State Administration of Metallurgical Industry

Cleaning during combustion, improvement of combustion efficiency

Circulating fluidized bed boiler

FY1993-FY1995

Peopes RepjPic of China Fangshan Garment Group Co.

# Lingzi Coal Mine Zibo Mining Administration

The State Planning Commission/Beijing Planning Commission The State Planning Commission/Ministry of Coal Industry

Philippines Batangas Coal-fired Thermal Power Plant

Department of Energy

FY1995-FY1997

Indonesia # PT. Kertas Basuki Rachmat

Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT)

Peopes Repjbic of China Chaili Colliery, Zaozhuang Coal Mining Administration

The State Planning Commission/Ministry of Coal Industry

FY1996-FY1998

Peopes Repjbic of China Jinzhou Heat-power General Co.,Ltd.

The State Planning Commission/Planning Committee of Liaoning Provincs

FY1996-FY1999

Peopes Repjbic of China Zhejiang Huba Corporation

The State Planning Commission/Zhejiang Provincal Planning Commission

FY1997-FY1999

Thailand # Saraburi factory of Indorama Chemicals (Thailand) Ltd.

Department of Industrial Works, Ministry of Industry

FY1997-FY2001

Peopes Repubic of China Liaoyuan City Heating Power the Source of Energy Co

The State Planning Commission/Jilin Provinclat Planning Commission

Pre-combustion cleaning

Briquette production

FY1993-FY1995

Peopes Repubic of China Tangzhuang Mine of Linyi Coal Mine Administration

The State Planning Commission/Ministry of Coal Industry

unit

Indonesia • Tanjung Enim Mine

Ministry of Mines and Energy

FY1996-FY1998

Indonesia # PT. Alas Wiratema Briket

Ministry of Mines and Energy

FY1997-FY1999

Thailand # Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand Mae Moh Mine

Department of Industrial Works , Ministry of Industry

FY1998-FY2002

Philippines # Filipines Systems Inc.

Department of Energy

< !

Water-saving coal preparation system

FY1994-FY1997

Peopes Republic of China Wangfenggang Coal Preparation Plant of Huainan Coal Mining Bureau # Preparation Plant of Dongtan Coal Mine of Yanzhou Coal Mining Bureau

The State Planning Commission/Ministry of Coal Ind The State Planning Commission/Ministry of Coal Ind

uussttrryy

Desulfurization-type CWM unit

FY1995-FY1998

Peopes Republic of China Beijing Yanshan Petrochemical Corp.

The State Planning Commission

: prefect of Canter far Coal Utilization. Japan :pra]ect of other organizations

: prefect of Canter far Coal Utilization. Japan :pra]ect of other organizations

Introduction support projects (Model projects) ■"Simplified desulfurization unit •••Coke oven gas desulfurization unit •••Fluidized bed boiler I •••Briquette

'"Desulfurization-type CWM Joint demonstration project •—Water-saving coal preparation system

Saraburi

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