Clean Coal Technologies in Japan

Technological Innovation in the Coal Industry

Preface 2

Part 1 CCT Classifications 3

(1) CCT Classifications in the Coal Product Cycle 3

(2) Clean Coal Technology Systems 5

(3) CCT in the Marketplace 6

(4) CCT in Japanese Industries 7

(5) Environmental Technologies 11

(6) International Cooperation 13

Part 2 CCT Overview 15

(1) Technologies for Coal Resources Development

1A1. Coal Resource Exploration Technology 15

1A2. Coal Production Technology 17

1A3. Mine Safety Technology 19

1A4. Environment-friendly Resource Development Technology--21

(2) Coal-fired Power Generation Technologies

A. Combustion Technologies

2A1. Pulverized Coal-fired Power Generation Technology

(Ultra Super Critical Steam Condition) 23

2A2. Circulating Fluidized-bed Combustion Technology (CFBC) ---25 2A3. Internal Circulating Fluidized-bed Combustion Technology (ICFBC) --26 2A4. Pressurized Internal Circulating Fluidized-bed Combustion

Technology (PICFBC) 28

2A5. Coal Partial Combustor Technology (CPC) ---------------------29

2A6. Pressurized Fluidized-bed Combustion Technology (PFBC) ---31 2A7. Advanced Pressurized Fluidized-bed Combustion

Technology (A-PFBC) 33

B. Gasification Technologies

2B1. Hydrogen-from-Coal Process (HYCOL) 35

2B2. Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) -------37

2B3. Multi-purpose Coal Gasification Technology Development (EAGLE) --39 2B4. Integrated Coal Gasification Fuel Cell Combined Cycle

Electric Power Generating Technology (IGFC) 41

2B5. Next-generation, High-efficiency Integrated Coal Gasification Electric Power Generating Process (A-IGCC/A-IGFC) 42

(3) Iron Making and General Industry Technologies

A. Iron Making Technologies

3A1. Formed Coke Process (FCP) 43

3A2. Pulverized Coal Injection for Blast Furnaces (PCI) 45

3A3. Direct Iron Ore Smelting Reduction Process (DIOS) 47

3A4. Super Coke Oven for Productivity and Environment

Enhancement toward the 21st Century (SCOPE21) 49

3A5. Coke Dry Quenching Technology (CDQ) 51

B. General Industry Technologies

3B1. Fluidized-bed Advanced Cement Kiln System (FAKS) 53

3B2. New Scrap Recycling Process (NSR) 55

(4) Multi-purpose Coal Utilization Technologies

A. Liquefaction Technologies

4A1. Coal Liquefaction Technology Development in Japan 57

4A2. Bituminous Coal Liquefaction Technology (NEDOL) 59

4A3. Brown Coal Liquefaction Technology (BCL) 61

4A4. Dimethyl Ether Production Technology (DME) ----------------63

B. Pyrolysis Technologies

4B1. Multi-purpose Coal Conversion Technology (CPX) 65

4B2. Efficient Co-production with Coal Flash Partial

Hydropyrolysis Technology (ECOPRO) --------------------------67

C. Powdering, Fluidization, and Co-utilization Technologies

4C1. Coal Cartridge System (CCS) 69

4C2. Coal Water Mixture Production Technology (CWM) 70

4C3. Briquette Production Technology 71

4C4. Coal and Woody Biomass Co-firing Technology 73

D. De-ashing and Reforming Technologies 4D1. Hyper-coal-based High-efficiency Combustion

Technology (Hyper-coal) --------------------------------------------75

4D2. Low-rank Coal Upgrading Technology (UBC Process) 77

(5) Environmental Protection Technologies

A. CO2 Recovery Technologies

5A1. Hydrogen Production by Reaction Integrated Novel

Gasification Process (HyPr-RING) 79

5A2. CO2 Recovery and Sequestration Technology ----------------81

5A3. CO2 Conversion Technology ---------------------------------------82

5A4. Oxy-fuel Combustion (Oxygen-firing of Conventional

PCF System) 83

B. Flue Gas Treatment and Gas Cleaning Technologies

5B1. SOx Reduction Technology 85

5B2. NOx Reduction Technology 87

5B3. Simultaneous De-SOx and De-NOx Technology 89

5B4. Particulate Treatment Technology and Trace Element

Removal Technology -------------------------------------------------91

5B5. Gas Cleaning Technology ------------------------------------------93

C. Technologies to Effectively Use Coal Ash

5C1. Coal Ash Generation Process and Application Fields 95

5C2. Effective Use of Ash in Cement/Concrete ----------------------97

5C3. Effective Use of Ash in Civil Engineering/Construction and Other Applications ----------------------------------------------99

5C4. Technology to Recover Valuable Resources from Coal Ash 101

(6) Basic Technologies for Advanced Coal Utilization

6A1. Modeling and Simulation Technologies for Coal Gasification ----103

(7) Co-production Systems

7A1. Co-generation Systems 107

7A2. Co-production Systems 109

Part 3 Future Outlook for CCT 111

Definitions, Conversions 114

Preface

The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) and the Japan Coal Energy Center (JCOAL) have jointly prepared this guide as a review of the history of "Clean Coal Technology (CCT)" in Japan, to systematically describe the present state of CCT insofar as possible, and to provide useful material for novel technological innovation. NEDO and JCOAL hope this brochure will be helpful in elucidating why Japan's CCT is an attractive technology in the ever-increasing complexity of coal utilization owing to global warming and other environmental issues. NEDO and JCOAL also hope this brochure will encourage rapid progress in CCT development and the foundation of innovative clean coal utilization systems.

As described herein, CCT development in Japan has reached the world's highest level of technological superiority, making the technology highly attractive to Asian countries that depend on coal as an energy source. In Japan, coal consumption has rapidly increased since 1998, with gross thermal power generation efficiency increasing from approximately 38% to 41% over the past dozen or so years. In addition, emissions of CO2, SOx and NOx per generated power unit from thermal power plants are far below the level of other industrialized countries. In this regard, CCT is expected to become standardized worldwide, satisfying both economic and environmental requirements by reducing CO2 emissions and maintaining GDP growth. Technological innovation has no boundaries; significant progress can be attained sustainably and progressively. Patient, consistent efforts to build on technological developments can support a continually evolving society. NEDO and JCOAL are confident this publication will contribute to CCT development and we look forward to the emergence of dramatic technological innovations in the coal industry.

Clean Coal Technology

CCT Classifications in the Coal Product Cycle

Hyper Coal Project Nedo

Cave-in prediction

Coal preparation plant Coal train

Cave-in prediction

Coal preparation plant Coal train

Exploration, mining, safety and preparation

Crushing, transportation and storage

Processing, reforming and converting

Technologies for Coal Resources Development

Coal Resource Exploration Technology Coal Production Technology

Mine Safety Technology

Environment-friendly Resource Development Technology

Physical properties of coal

Anthracite

Bituminous coal

Brown coal

Specific gravity

1.5-1.B

1.2-1.7

0.B-1.5

Apparent specific gravity

-

0.75-0.B0

0.55-0.75

Specific heat

0.22-0.24

0.24-0.26

0.26-0.2B

Thermal conductivity (W/mK)

-

1.26-1.65

-

Ignition point (oC)

400-450

300-400

250-300

Heating value (kcal/kg(dry basis))

B,200-B,500

7,500-B,B00

5,500-7,500

Coal classification by degree of carbonization

Classification

Heating value (kcal/kg(dry basis))

Fuel ratio

Caking property

Anthracite

-

4.0 or greater

Non-caking

Bituminous coal

8,400 or greater

1.5 or greater

Strong-caking

1.5 or less

8,100 or greater

1.0 or greater

Caking

1.0 or less

Weak-caking

Subbituminous coal

7,800 or greater

1.0 or greater

Weak-caking

1.0 or less

Non-caking

7,300 or greater

-

Non-caking

Brown coal

6,800 or greater

-

Non-caking

5,800 or greater

Coal classification by utilization (expressed as coal)

Source: TEXT report

Source: Trade Statistics

Anthracite

Anthracite

Coking coal

Coking coal A

Bituminous coal

Strong-caking coal for coke

Ash content of 8% or less

Coking coal B

Ash content exceeding 8%

Coking coal C

Other coal for coke

Ash content of 8% or less

Coking coal D

Ash content exceeding 8%

Steam coal

Steam coal A

Other

Ash content exceeding 8%

Steam coal B

Other coal

Ash content of 8% or less

Steam coal C

Ash content exceeding 8%

Multi-purpose Coal Utilization Technologies

Coal Gasification and

Hydrogenation

Technologieies

Liquefaction Technologies

Pyrolysis Technologies

Powdering, Fluidization and Co-utilization Technologies

De-ashing and Reforming Technologies

Basic Technologies for Advanced Coal Utilization

Hydrogen-from-Coal Process (HYCOL)

Multi-purpose Coal Gasification Technology Development (EAGLE)

Hydrogen Production by Reaction Integrated Novel Gasification Process (HyPr-RING)

Coal Liquefaction Technology

Development in Japan

Bituminous Coal Liquefaction Technology (NEDOL)

Brown Coal Liquefaction Technology (BCL)

fe Dimethyl Ether Production F Technology (DME)

Multi-purpose Coal Conversion Technology (CPX)

Efficient Co-production with Coal Flash Partial Hydropyrolysis Technology (ECOPRO)

Coal Cartridge System (CCS)

Coal Water Mixture Production Technology (CWM)

n gy

Briquette Production Technology

4C4& Coal and Woody Biomass wSP Co-firing Technology

Hyper-coal-based High-efficiency Combustion Technology (Hyper-coal)

4re>k Low-rank Coal Upgrading Technology F (UBC Process)

Modeling and Simulation Technologies for Coal Gasification

Coal Upgrading Technology

Utilization

Environmental countermeasures

Hyper Coal Process

2AM Coal Partial Combustor Technology (CPC)

Pulverized Coal-fired Power Generation Technology (Ultra Super Critical Steam Condition)

Circulating Fluidized-bed Combustion Technology (CFBC)

Internal Circulating Fluidized-bed Combustion Technology (ICFBC)

Pressurized Internal Circulating Fluidized-bed Combustion Technology (PICFBC)

2AM Coal Partial Combustor Technology (CPC)

Pressurized Fluidized-bed Combustion Technology (PFBC)

Advanced Pressurized Fluidized-bed Combustion Technology (A-PFBC)

Hyper-coal-based High-efficiency Combustion Technology (Hyper-coal)

Hydrogen-from-Coal Process (HYCOL)

Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)

Integrated Coal Gasification Fuel Cell Combined Cycle Electric Power Generating Technology (IGFC)

Next-generation, High-efficiency Integrated Coal Gasification Electric Power Generating Process (A-IGCC/A-IGFC)

Formed Coke Process (FCP)

Pulverized Coal Injection for Blast Furnaces (PCI)

Direct Iron Ore Smelting Reduction Process (DIOS)

Super Coke Oven for Productivity and Environment Enhancement toward the 21st Century (SCOPE21)

Coke Dry Quenching Technology (CDQ)

Fluidized-bed Advanced Cement Kiln System (FAKS)

New Scrap Recycling Process (NSR)

Co-generation Systems Co-production Systems

Hyper Coal Process

Hydrogen Production by Reaction Integrated Novel Gasification Process (HyPr-RING)

CO2 Recovery and Sequestration Technology

CO2 Conversion Technology

Oxy-fuel Combustion

(Oxygen-firing of Conventional PCF System)

SOx Reduction Technology

NOx Reduction Technology

Simultaneous De-SOx and De-NOx Technology

Particulate Treatment Technology and Trace Element Removal Technology

Gas Cleaning Technology

Coal Ash Generation Process and Application Fields

Effective Use of Ash in Cement/ Concrete

Effective Use of Ash in Civil Engineering/Construction and Other Applications

Technology to Recover Valuable Resources from Coal Ash

Clean Coal Technology Systems Clean Coal Technologies in Japan

Coal cycle

Mining Crushing Preparation

Reforming

Conversion

Co mbust

Pollutant reduction

Coal preparation

Deashing, reforming and processing

Flue gas treatment

Ash utilization

Target

Conventional coal preparation techniques Technology for low emission (jig, flotation, heavy media separation) coal utilization

Preparation process control technology

Bio-briquetting

Upgrading brown coal (UBC) Carbonization briquetting Hyper-coal

Coal cartridge system (CCS) Coal liquid mixture (CWM, COM) Desulfurized CWM

Handling

Bituminous coal liquefaction technology (NEDOL) Brown coal liquefaction technology (BCL) Upgrading of coal-derived liquids

Liquefaction

Integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation technology (IGCC)

Hydrogen-from-coal process (HYCOL)

Multi-purpose coal gasification technology development (EAGLE)

Gasification

Multi-purpose coal conversion (CPX)

Efficient Co-production with coal flash partial hydropyrolysis technology (ECOPRO)

Pyrolysis

Topping combustion

Pressurized fluidized- Fluidized-bed boiler O2/CO2 bed combustion (PFBC) combustion

Fluidized-bed boiler

Fluidized-bed advanced cement kiln system (FAKS)

Direct iron ore smelting reduction process (DIOS)

High-efficiency combustion

Advanced flue gas Dry desulfurization

Wet desulfurization

treatment denitration

Denitration

Hot gas cleaning technology

Dust removal

Alkaline, etc. removal technology

Coal ash utilization technologies

Target

Conventional coal preparation techniques Technology for low emission (jig, flotation, heavy media separation) coal utilization

Preparation process control technology

Bio-briquetting

Upgrading brown coal (UBC) Carbonization briquetting Hyper-coal

Coal Preparation Process

Degree of technological maturity

Proven reserves and R/P (ratio of reserves to production) of major energy resources

Coal

Oil

Natural gas

Uranium

World reserves

9.091 trillion tons

1,188.6 billion barrels

180 trillion m3

459 million tons

Local reserves

North America Latin America

Europe Former Soviet Union Middle East

Africa Asia Pacific

27.8% 2.3% 7.1% 24.5% 0.0% 5.6% 32.7%

3.9% 9.7% 1.6% 10.0% 61.7% 9.4% 3.5%

3.9% 4.2% 2.9% 32.4% 40.6% 7.8% 7.9%

17.1% 3.6% 2.8% 28.7% 0.2% 20.5% 27.2%

Annual production rate

5.54 billion tons

29.3 billion barrels (80.3 million B/D)

2.7 trillion m3

0.036 million tons

R/P

164 years

40.5 years

66.7 years

85 years

Oil, natural gas, and coal data source: BP Statistics 2005 Uranium: OECD/NEA, IAEA URANIUM 2003

Oil, natural gas, and coal data source: BP Statistics 2005 Uranium: OECD/NEA, IAEA URANIUM 2003

World reserves of coal, oil, and natural gas resources

(Unit: 100 million tons oil equivalent) (Source: bp 2005) 2,010

1,099

432 99

576 1,000 Russia 0 655

Euro

576 1,000 Russia 0 655

Euro

352 127

149 Middle East

Africa 342

0 0^ South Africa

352 127

149 Middle East

7 8 India

Africa 342

0 0^ South Africa

Asia and Oceania

ÂI ictraliQ

North America ,619 1,616

China

Latin America

CCT in the Marketplace

Clean Coal Technologies in Japan

Technological difficulty

Domestic coal conversion and reforming technology Domestic coal utilization technology

P-CPC

Technological and economical difficultés remain

EAGLE

HYCOL 1 Hyper-coal

EAGLE

HYCOL 1 Hyper-coal

Hyper Coal

Melting and fiber-forming FGC melting and mixing treatment Fluidized-bed solidification material Artificial aggregate

Cost reduction technology development

Hyper coal power generation

IGFC

SCOPE21

DIOS

Formed-coke I

NSR CPX

FAKS

Melting and fiber-forming FGC melting and mixing treatment Fluidized-bed solidification material Artificial aggregate

Cost reduction technology development

Overseas demonstration (International cooperative demonstration)

Conventional technology development region

Overseas coal conversion and reforming technology Overseas coal utilization technology

Technological difficulty

Coal Production and Consumption by Country in 2004 (Total coal production worldwide: 5.508 trillion tons; Total coal consumption worldwide: 5.535 trillion tons) and Japanese Coal Imports (Japan's total coal imports: 184 million tons)

1,956

Source: IEA Coal Information 2005

5,508 5,535

25 61 161 145

250

211

I

\ Former USSR

66 55

Germany

402 432

China Japan

Kohleimporte Deutschland

South Africa

Australia

Source: IEA Coal Information 2005

Japan Clean Coal

I (production) (consumption)

Coal demand trend in Japan

(Unit: million tons)

World

174.28

Bothers 4.65

ceramics 6.18

Chemicals 0.91

South Africa

Australia

90.79 9394

11145 a bS

Pulp/paper

Electric power 82.19

Iron making 80.35

(Source: Coal Note 2003)

Part 1 CCT Classifications

CCT in Japanese Industries

Power generation field

Cleanest Coal Plants Japan

Location of coal-fired power plants

Figures in parentheses indicate power generation capacity (MW) at the end of FY2005.

Nanao Ota (1,200) Toyama Shinko Kyodo (500)

Ussr Under German Control

Sunagawa (250) Naie (350) Tomatou Atsuma (1,735)

Kin (440) Ishikawa (312) Gushikawa (312)

Nanao Ota (1,200) Toyama Shinko Kyodo (500)

Tsuruga (1,200) Maizuru (under construction) Takasago (500) Mizushima (281) Osaki (259) Takehara (1,300) Misumi (1,000) Shin-onoda (1,000) Shimonoseki (175) Tobata Kyodo (156) Kanda (360) Minato (156) Matsuura (2,700) Matsushima (1,000)

Reihoku (1,400)

Sunagawa (250) Naie (350) Tomatou Atsuma (1,735)

Sendai (350) Shinchi (2,000) Haramachi (2,000) Hirono (under construction) Nakoso (1,450) Hitachi Naka (1,000)

Kin (440) Ishikawa (312) Gushikawa (312)

Iron making field

Jcoal Japan

16G

m

o

14G

o

120

I

1GG

o

80

t-

Jl in

60

s_

o

40

m

o O

20

0

ion

Crude steel product

-m

Coi

l c

:>ns

Limp

tio

n

1990' 91 ' 92 '93 ' 94 ' 95 '96 ' 97 ' 98 '99 ' 00 ' 01 ' 02 ' 03 Coal consumption in iron making sector and crude steel production

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