Church Software

Ministry Letters

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Ministry Letters Summary

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Buying Power for Buying Power

If you're concerned that individual homeowners won't provide enough of a market for green power, you can relax. Hundreds of large organizations, public and private, have chosen green power for their facilities. These include federal agencies, military and aerospace installations, national laboratories, the United States Postal Service, manufacturers of all sizes, high-technology companies, financial institutions, defense contractors, department stores, hotels and resorts, major sports teams and leagues, airports, grocery stores, car makers, movie studios, churches, international political groups, states and cities across the country, schools and universities and electric power utilities.

Catholic perspective Walt Grazer

While some religious communities tend not to make public comments, the Catholic community tends to be more outspoken. Both within the Catholic community and operating through ecumenical and interfaith activities, the Church is frequently speaking out regarding the moral and ethical aspects of matters affecting society. To deal with climate change, the Catholic community is endeavoring to have the issue integrated into everyone's life and thinking through their local parish. We are encouraging mobilization for advocacy at the local level, doing so by creating a small grants program. With its broad international presence, the Catholic bishops are increasingly engaging on these issues with their colleagues across the global community and especially in Latin America. Among other activities, a joint policy framework has been developed, entitled 'Looking Forward Catholic Coalition on Climate Change', which is part of the Catholic effort in cooperation with the National Religious Partnership...

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As well as the seasonal hunt and hay gathering there were long hunting trips to Disko Bay 800 km north of the west settlement. These occurred each year in summer and the Norse hunted for polar bears and walruses. The hunts brought back tusks and hides vital for trade with Europe. Contact with Europe was irregular though and the voyage from Europe was long. This made famine relief from Europe out of the question. Also the boats were small and could not have carried much food (Grove, 1988). Therefore the Norse Greenlanders did not depend on this European trade. However, McGovern (1981) reported that European goods were obviously highly prized by the Greenlanders. Their economy was precarious, relying on communal labour and seasonal practices. They did not not use the inner-fjord resources to full potential. The tight schedule was best suited to highly predictable seasonal and year-to-year resource fluctuation. This pattern operated well for 150 years (see Fig. 4.6). The Norse Greenland...

Vertical Markets for Green Buildings

In this chapter, we address several selected vertical markets for green buildings i.e., markets that are already developed or that are expected to develop rapidly. These include commercial offices, K-12 education, higher education, public facilities, high-rise housing and healthcare (still a developing market). In this terminology, a vertical market refers to a particular type of use for a building - office, education, medical, etc., whereas a horizontal market applies to green technologies that could be used in a wide variety of building types, for example, solar energy systems can be used in offices, schools, churches, etc. Vertical markets for green buildings exist in every area of the country, so it makes sense to look at how these markets view green buildings at the present time and how marketers are trying to address the needs of particular building types.

The diagnostic is a map

Next, people take a map of the wrong scale. A general map of Europe is of little use if one is going hill-walking in the Alps. So, for example, it is assumed that just because a political party has a national policy on a certain issue, this is slavishly followed in the regions. Nothing is further from the truth. Political parties are broad churches one has only to look at the UK Conservative Party members' totally differing views on the UK's role within Europe to understand this. In addition, some of the bitterness of national politics dissipates at local level. There are numerous dialogues across the political divide in local politics. Anecdotally, we know of many politicians who have better relations with some of the opposition than their own party colleagues.

Global governance and local action An alliance of change agents

Change agents spread innovations by calling worldviews into question, challenging entrenched attitudes and behaviours and engendering motivation to engage in change among potential allies. Today, change agents can be found in many realms of society, in policymaking and in administrations. They include non-governmental organizations such as environmental and other grassroots groups, churches, foundations, academia, parties, the technical departments of local authority administrations, federal and regional state ministries and the directorates-general of the European Commission. Such change agents are also to be found in energy sector companies, autonomous energy cooperatives, pilot projects and application-oriented research as well as in the

The Role of the Nongovernmental Sector

The keystone of the EcoStad approach appears to be networking and bringing together interested people and organizations. The EcoStad network begins with a base of neighborhood eco-teams (discussed below), but has expanded to include churches, neighborhood groups, businesses, and others. It has started producing a newsletter and has also been sponsoring a series of ecological lunches (with ecologically produced food). The emphasis given in EcoStad's message is how individuals and neighborhoods can take concrete actions to promote sustainability the focus is on identifying relatively easy things that can be done to promote more sustainable lifestyles and community.

An NGOs perspective on the voluntary carbon markets Key to solving the problem

We need to use all the methods of persuasion known to humankind that result in voluntary action. Churches and synagogues and mosques and temples should become hotbeds of encouragement for reforestation and changed lifestyles. Schools and town offices and city halls should be sources of accurate information and visible leadership.

Greens in a confederal polity

Clive H.Church Thus far the history of the Swiss Green Party (GPS) has belied assessments of it as an unpromising deviation from the New Politics model of ecological politics (Church 1992a Poguntke 1989 189). However, this does not mean that it has been able to carve out an unchallenged position for itself in Swiss politics. Because the Swiss political system charges a much higher price for consolidation than it does for entry, the GPS has experienced difficulties in five key areas The fact that the party now faces questions about its future direction should not obscure its achievements. The rise of the GPS has been analysed in detail elsewhere (Laver and Schofield 1990 242 Church 1991 Ladner 1989 Walter 1990), but it is worth stressing a few facts here. The history of environmentalism in Switzerland long predates the emergence of specifically ecological parties. As a result there has been a good deal of environmental legislative activity, both locally and nationally. This has...

Interest And Selfinterest The Working Of The Profit Motive

The practice of paying and receiving interest on borrowed capital was condemned as usury by the Roman Catholic Church until 1830, and is still condemned by Islam today. But it is a crucial part of the modern capitalist economy. Suppose, for simplicity, that I operate a one-man industry. The basis for that industry will be a certain level of investment

Mormon perspective Joseph Cannon

The Mormon Church is a lay-leader church it does not yet have an official position on climate change. Those of my faith believe that the Scriptures call us to fulfill our obligations to fellow man and to the environment. In writing his recent book, entitled The Creation, E. O. Wilson indicated that his purpose was to involve religious people in environmental issues. Our interpretation of the scriptures is that we have a duty to take care of the Earth we do not believe there is a basis in the scriptures for taking the view that the end is coming so our stewardship responsibilities can be ignored. a social and a moral problem. This understanding is long lasting, and as a result, many in the Church are committed to the environment and their responsibilities of stewardship.

Spatial distribution and lifetime

In simulations using a global tropopheric chemistry model, Barth and Church (1999) found that sulfate from southeast China travels eastward and encircles the Earth during summer and autumn. They also qualitatively analyzed the black carbon aerosol from southeast China and determined that it has a lifetime similar to sulfates when the emitted black carbon is assumed hydrophilic. When the emitted black carbon is hydrophobic the lifetime is 3.5 days longer than sulfate. The difference between the sulfur and carbon aerosols is attributed to the aqueous production pathway of sulfate and its availability to rain out. Long-range transport of aerosols can thus affect the atmospheric burdens in distant regions.

Future global mean sealevel

Although the precise links between global mean temperature and sea-level during the late Holocene are still open to a good deal of uncertainty, none of the evidence available seriously counters the view that warmer temperatures in the future will be associated with higher sea-levels. All the factors considered in the discussion of recent sea-level changes in Section 12.4 are considered in the IPCC estimates in addition to possible changes in ground-water storage (Church and Gregory, 2001). The projected rise by 2100 is estimated to be between 0.09

Community for Sustainability Some Initial Findings on the Influence of Communitybased Organisations on Individuals

Community-based organisations are believed to be able to mobilise citizens to take on more sustainable behaviours. Organisations such as schools, places of worship, clubs and others in the voluntary sector are thought to play a part in persuading individuals to reduce their impacts on the environment and on other people. This paper presents a case study of a church group's attempt to influence individuals to live more sustainably. The case is part of a broader research project on this topic. Data gathered sheds light on the conditions that are favourable for such interventions, the types of individuals that are involved, the decision-making processes of individuals in taking on targeted behaviours and the outcomes of projects for the individuals involved. One of the themes emerging from the research is the tendency of these projects to work towards multiple goals across the various dimensions of sustainability (e.g. health, local environment, global environment, employment and social...

Presbyterians move toward climate neutrality Pam McVety

At its General Assembly during the summer of 2006, the Presbyterian Church USA passed a resolution asking its 2.4 million members to each do their part to combat climate change impacts by going carbon neutral (see www.climate.org Carbon neutrality requires that energy use that releases CO2 into the atmosphere be reduced and that carbon offsets be purchased to compensate for those CO2 (or other greenhouse gas) emissions that could not be eliminated.

Sustainable Consumption and the New Economics

Despite the direction the mainstream policy framework for sustainable consumption has taken, the challenge laid down at Rio has not fallen on deaf ears. To recall, that objective was not only to promote greater efficiency in resource use, but also to realign development goals according to wider social and environmental priorities rather than narrow economic criteria, and to consider the possibilities of lifestyles founded upon values other than consumerism. This alternative approach to environmental governance and sustainable consumption is supported by a broad body of thought known collectively as the 'New Economics', which is elaborated in this chapter. It is founded on new conceptions of wealth and work, new uses of money, and an integral ethical stance when it comes to consumption issues, it embodies what Jackson (2004b) terms an ecological critique of the utilitarian approach to understanding consumer motivation. Consuming more, simply put, does not necessarily make us happy,...

Climate change and coastlines

Climate change is adding to coastal stresses in many ways. The rise in sea level during the 20th century is estimated to have been near 0.2 m (about 8 inches) (Douglas, 1991, 1997 Peltier, 2001 Church and White, 2006). Projections are that, as a result of thermal expansion and glacier and ice sheet melting, human-induced changes in the climate could result in an additional rise in global sea level of as much as 0.5 m (about 20 inches) and possibly much more by 2100 (IPCC, 2007). Satellite altimeter data for the past 15 years indicate that there has been a 50 per cent increase in the rate of sea level rise over this time (Church and White, 2006) as compared to the historic rate estimated from older tide gauge data. This rate of sea level rise will accelerate the loss of coastal wetlands and erosion if it is maintained.

Dark and Terrible Genius

The lane up the hill to Okewood Chapel is lined with bluebells and wild daffodils. An overpowering scent of garlic comes from the hedgerow. The little thirteenth-century church is set in a small clearing in the middle of woodland on the gentle Surrey downs south of London. It is a place of worship without a village, as it was in 1789 when the young Reverend Thomas Robert Malthus became its vicar. Withdrawal was widely advised in ancient times. Jewish writers describe it as threshing inside and winnowing outside. The Peruvian Moche culture favored anal intercourse. Carvings on the temples of Angkor Wat in Cambodia show abortions. Riddle says such methods were widely used by women until the late Middle Ages to manage child-bearing. After the Black Death in the 1340s, which left farm labor in short supply, the Church clamped down on contraception, and many old methods were lost or reduced to the status of witches' potions and old wives' tales. The witch hunts of this era were often tied...

The Country Comes To Town

Mrs Webb's service is intended to form the basis of a conservation service which anyone can adapt to suit their own particular needs. When it was held in her own church during the summer, she decided to use a recording of whale songs in place of an anthem. The urban commons are part of the 'unofficial countryside', the striking phrase coined by Richard Mabey in 1973 to describe sewage-works, gravel pits, old quarries places where nature, like Moseley Bog, ought not to be but keeps on turning up. The city, it was found, was surprisingly rich in such unofficial countryside cemeteries, hospital grounds, old churchyards and railway embankments, but above all the wasteland left by the exodus

Ecological And European Cleavages In Swiss Politics

At one stage, with Green forces playing a major part in the rise of the Auto Partei (AP) with its visceral opposition to 'red ecological dictatorship', it looked as though the environment could become a major cleavage. However, the Swiss electoral system, which allows voters to mix party lists in a variety of ways, also makes such clear divisions hard to achieve. Examination of election results confirms this in the late 1980s there was no simple pattern of gains in cantonal eiections, let alone GPS gains from the Social Democrats (Church 1992c) often the GPS won seats in elections where the AP also won, and the same happened with the SPS. As well as reflecting rising, and often violent, hostility to immigration and asylum-seeking in a period of increasing unemployment (Church 1993), the far right has also taken a significant part in prosecuting the divisive European issue. The GPS has been hostile to Europeanization, thereby aligning itself with figures like Christoph Blocher, the...

Preempting the s Hangover

Rodgers argues that environmentalism should be a science in which the collection of data and analysis of it dominates decision making. At this time, especially in government and university circles, I see environmentalism literally as a secular religion in which a set of beliefs that are not required to be supported by fact are used to tout the intellectual and moral superiority of a cult. . . . The ultimate state of enlightenment of members of the Church of the Holy Environment is to internalize that humans are evil and bad and that they only pollute and destroy things that are good, namely the environment. 3

Green companies do better

A sea of change in public attitudes may be setting in. A Campus Climate Neutral Network is springing up on many US campuses and students have been willing to impose modest additional levies on themselves to lower their campus' greenhouse emissions. In June, the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church USA passed a resolution asking each of its 2.3 million members to bear 'a bold witness' by leading a carbon neutral lifestyle (Climate Institute, 2006).

What Is Wealth Anyhow

The road from feudalism to liberal democracy (using the words loosely) consists largely of an evolutionary shift in the hierarchy of 'rights' in law. The abolition of slavery in Europe and America during the 19th century was merely the final acknowledgment of a sea-change, which coincided roughly with the Protestant Reformation. The emergence of scientific modes of thought and humanist philosophy between the 16th and 18th centuries in Europe set 'human rights' - for example, 'life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness' - above property rights and hierarchical obligations to the King, or to one's feudal or caste superior. The remnants of the feudal hierarchical system have not totally disappeared. They remain, of course, in the military 'chain of command', the university and the Catholic Church. The 'values' debate between fundamentalist religions and secular society is about competing hierarchies of rights, especially as regards the roles of men and women in marriage and the conflict...

President Clinton Formally Addressed Environmental Justice

After the signing of the Executive Order, several other events occurred to impact the environmental justice movement. In 1994, a report was issued by the United Church of Christ titled Toxic Waste and Race Revisited 3 . This report strengthened the association between race and the location of waste facilities. In 1995 the first Interagency Public Meeting on Environmental Justice was held at Clark Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia. The purpose of the meeting was to provide an opportunity for the public to share concerns and recommend changes in the federal agencies' environmental justice strategies. In 1997 the OEJ released the EnvironmentalJustice Implementation Plan. This plan outlined specifically how the agency would implement the rules identified in Executive Order 12898.

Repetition of the conflict by a large population

Of course, each person did not have full information about other people's behavior or attitudes rather, snippets of information were gathered from gossip in the neighborhood, market, or church, from attendance at local assemblies, from watching television or listening to the radio. Nobody gathered information systematically instead, it was received at random. According to the information obtained people took the best decisions they could, although sometimes they made mistakes. Also, rules were loose it was possible for a member of the group to free ride in a subtle way, leading to fluctuations in the real size of the CUT. The pattern of events in Tepoztlan is known it would be interesting to consider a model that achieved similar longrun patterns to those that occurred there. Are the dynamics of Young and of Kandori et al. a useful model for that purpose

The Left Radicalism And Environmentalism

The marginality of the Green Party during the Anti-Poll Tax campaign illustrates the extent to which radical leftist groups have remained within the orbit of the traditional, mainstream party of the left and have not been attracted to the Greens. Unlike the West German Social Democratic Party (SPD), which formally rejected Marxism in 1959 and subsequently expelled its student organization for excessive radicalism, the Labour Party has remained a 'broad church' encompassing Marxists and social democrats alike. The reasons for this are, in part, structural an electoral system which is so closed to minority parties encourages radical groups to work within the Labour Party rather than put up candidates in their own names.

Seeds of change the New Economics in practice

Express these ecological citizenship values in their daily lives (Church and Elster, 2002 Seyfang and Smith, 2007). Consequently, much practical New Economics work on sustainable consumption involves innovation and experimentation on a small scale, in the hope that successful practices will grow and expand, so influencing wider mainstream systems of provision. Chapter 4 (co-authored with Adrian Smith) sets out a major theoretical framework for the book, a conceptual lens through which the later empirical work is viewed. New ideas about innovation and transitions in socio-technical systems are applied to grassroots community-based experiments for sustainable development, bridging two previously unrelated areas of theory and policy, by seeing them as innovative green niches. We distinguish between market-based (usually technological) innovations, and community-based (usually social) innovations, and begin to explore the implications of viewing the grassroots as a neglected site of...

Incubation period days

The management of a cholera epidemic requires speed and good organization. Essentially treatment is taken to the people by setting up treatment centres at strategic places in the vicinity of the epidemic. These can be dispensaries, schools, church halls or even tents, supplied with staff and fluids. Cholera patients do not need to be treated in hospital.

Why Conservation Wont Work

The notion of using moral exhortations to urge people to conserve is very nice, but as a practical strategy for reducing global oil consumption, let alone outmaneuvering OPEC, it is a joke. Whenever this idea is suggested, I am reminded of the Whip Inflation Now (WIN) campaign launched by the Ford administration during the mid-1970s to counter retail price hikes. (Whip Inflation Now Rah, rah, rah ) Alternatively, one might think of it as being comparable to an attempt to alleviate world hunger through having church leaders call upon their congregants to eat less. A more serious approach is required.

Energy Supply And Policy Issues

Wahhabi clerics in Saudi Arabia maintain not only a stranglehold on people's freedom but influence the government of Saudi Arabia. The government is dependent on Wahhabi support and the clerics in return assure the kingdom's hierarchy's survival. Women live under strict control and have few rights, and youth are often taught fanaticism and hatred as a sign of religious fervor and devout adherence to Islam. The corruption of the peaceful and tolerant Moslem faith by people who use ignorance and faith to foster their own political and economic interests is undermining any opportunity for the economic advancement of the population, including moves towards democracy, and social liberalization particularly in Saudi Arabia. Fanaticism has become a political dogma and not a sign of religious fervor in Arabia where church and state are one. Saudi Arabia provides much of the religious, political, and economic support for terrorism notwithstanding the adamant denial of the Saudi regime.

Geography for Public Policy

University lecture hall or schoolroom, but often involved the lecture theatres of the national geographical societies and the meeting places of church groups, provincial societies and working-class clubs. The role of disseminating geographical knowledge is now more likely to be performed by magazines, television and websites (how many other disciplines can claim their own TV channel, National Geographic ). Although such media are usually scorned by professional geographers for being shallow and popularizing, they also communicate scientific ideas about environmental issues in an accessible way to the general public. Henderson-Sellers (1998) argues that the ethical communication of science, is 'very difficult'. Using the science of climate change as an example, she shows how poor reporting in the media creates uncertainty and ignorance. Here she finds a 'valuable role for geographers' to engage in more effective dissemination of scientific findings and their related implications. An...

The Proof of the Pudding

Hypotheses lie at the heart of the deductive route to explanation. Of course, they need to be devised in the first place, a point often forgotten. Where do hypotheses come from Sometimes, they are literally invented or dreamt up, sometimes insanely. In other cases, they emerge from empirical, inductive work in this sense, the inductive route can be thought of as preceding the deductive route. Thus, the particular case (e.g. rainfall in the North Pennine hills) can form the basis for a theory-led approach further work involves more data collection to test the ideas generated earlier. We must also consider the way in which theoretical ideas are formulated. While the ideal is to use the formal logic of mathematics, very often we are unable to achieve this level of sophistication. Statements may be qualitative rather than quantitative, and commonly we use visual analogy (we might call them iconic models) to shape our ideas. While analogy can never be fully satisfactory, it can be...

Is there a relationship between impacts and other massextinction horizons

To begin with, let us take the Ries Crater of Bavaria, which has a diameter of about 30 km and was formed about 15 million years ago, in the Miocene epoch. Close to the middle of this crater, the rim of which forms a line of hills, is the pretty little town of Nordlingen, which has an excellent museum in its centre devoted to explaining the crater. The characteristic rock produced by the impact is composed of large fragments of what geologists call a breccia, but this particular example is known as suevite. It is exposed on the crater margins in a few quarries but can be most conveniently seen as the building stone of the principal church. According to the Raup curve about 10 per cent of species should have been made extinct for a crater of this size, but no species extinctions are recognizable from the region for either mammals or plants, the two fossil groups that have been studied in the Miocene strata. In other words, while the local area must no doubt have been like a moon...

Are the EMOS still radical

A similar more critical shift can be identified in some British EMOs. Under Charles Secrett FOE has been more explicit in its focus on the structural causes of environmental degradation and its link with western affluence. FOE and other EMOs such as Wildlife Trusts, WWF, Transport 2000 and Pesticide Action Network have participated in a coalition with church, development and peace groups called The Real World Coalition. In two reports (Jacobs 1996 Christie and Warburton 2001) this coalition has argued that the central political issues are 'pushed to the margins of public debate and political manifestos'. These include 'environmental degradation gross inequalities between the developing and the developed countries endemic poverty and conflicts in the developing world growing inequality in the UK, and the persistence of major gaps in social and economic opportunity between different groups according to race, gender, age and disability widespread disaffection towards the political system...

Notes For Chapter

I attended in 1995 sponsored by the Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I of the Greek Orthodox Church and Prince Philip in his capacity as President of the World Wildlife Fund. An extremely eclectic group of scientists, politicians, environmentalists and theologians attended from a wide range of religious backgrounds and beliefs. John, the Metropolitan of Pergamon, who was chairman of the symposium's scientific committee, kept emphasising that we should consider pollution of the environment, or lack of care for the environment, as a sin - not only against nature but a sin against God. His message struck a strong chord with the symposium. The principle goes on to explain that this new category of sin should include activities that lead to 'species extinction, reduction in genetic diversity, pollution of the water, land and air, habitat destruction and disruption of sustainable life styles'. The symposium's report is edited by Sarah Hobson

Box What Is a Community

Community typically refers to a wide range of groupings of people a church, a city, a political party or other affiliation. But more fundamentally, a community suggests a group of geographically rooted people engaged in relationships with each other (though many of the examples of community discussed in this chapter have relevance to broader definitions of community as well). Through these relationships, members in a community have shared responsibilities as the Latin roots of the word suggest com (with) munis (duties).

How did science become a part of the National Curriculum

By the start of the nineteenth century in England there were schools for the wealthy and universities at Oxford and Cambridge but little teaching of science. In Scotland there were universities at St Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh. Developments in science itself since the Renaissance had taken place mainly through amateur efforts of the leisured classes. Cambridge only began awarding science degrees in the 1850s. The Victorian era saw the foundation of new universities in London, Durham and Manchester, and in Wales and Ireland. Elementary schools for the working classes were set up by the churches, with the government providing grant aid. It was then that two clergymen, Richard Dawes and John Henslow, inspired by scientific philosophy at Cambridge, started the teaching of science in their respective parish schools. In two rather different ways they laid the foundations for the appearance of science in our schools today.

Socioeconomic Political Development

Muslim and particularly Arab-Muslim countries have proven highly intolerant to deviations from their cultural traditions and view any attempt at introduction of a secular, capitalist democracy an affront not only against their religion but also culture. This may pose a near insurmountable problem in the democratization of the Middle East. There is obviously shining example of secular democracy in one Muslim country, but Turkey boasts a very different history and culture from the Arab-Muslim countries. Most importantly, the founding father of modern Turkey accepted secularism and the need for the separation of faith or church and state in a modern democracy as well as the need to provide equal opportunities for all citizens independent of gender to marshal the full capabilities of the nation. Arab culture is very different. It has remained a largely tribal society ruled by people anointed throughout history by clerics. This is not only so in Arabia where Wahhabi clerics have long...

Streets Urban Design and the Civic Realm

Understanding one's location and having a clear bearing and orientation when a pedestrian are also important. European cities often have a natural edge here, with their physical layout organized around large and prominent public buildings and civic architecture. In walking around Leiden's center, for instance, the presence of buildings such as the Town Hall, or the St. Peter's Church with its tall steeples and tall looming form, are always felt.

Case Study Intensity of Tropical Cyclone Ofa February

As the eye of Ofa passed close to Niue, destructive hurricane-force winds lashed the island for several hours. Gigantic sea waves resulting from storm surge swept over the northern and western coastal areas of the island and were reported to have reached several metres high. Virtually all landings to the sea were washed away or badly damaged by huge sea waves. There was considerable damage to hospital buildings, the island's hotel, roads, houses, churches, community halls and other facilities for the public. Due to the damage to power lines, electricity was out for about 24 hours. Most of the island's private water supply tanks were contaminated by salt water and declared unsuitable for drinking. Luckily, there was no loss of life or serious injury. The total loss from the cyclone was estimated at around US 2.5 million.

Creation Care Biblical Stewardship Of The Earth

Early in 2006, despite opposition from some of their colleagues, 86 evangelical Christian leaders decided to support an initiative to combat global warming, saying, M illions of people could die in this century because of climate change, most of them our poorest global neighbors (Goodstein, 2006). Signers included presidents of 39 evangelical colleges, leaders of aid groups and churches, including the Salvation Army, and pastors of some mega-churches, including Rick Warren, author of the best seller The Purpose-Driven Life. Many of us have required considerable convincing before becoming persuaded that climate change is a real problem and that it ought to matter to us as Christians. But now we have seen and heard enough (Goodstein, 2006).

Conclusions And Perspectives

Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Available on-line at 2005. Church, M.L., Cooper, B.J., and Willson, P.J., Catalyst Formulations 1960 to Present, SAE 890815, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1989. McCabe, R.W. and Kisenyi, J.M., Advances in automotive catalyst technology, Chem. Ind. (London), 15, 605, 1995.

Social Responsibility Of Business Introduction

Business ethics and the social dimensions of business activity has a long history. Business practices based on moral principles and 'controlled greed' were advocated by pre-Christian Western thinkers such as Cicero in the first century BC and their non-Western equivalents such as the Indian statesman and philosopher Kautilya in the fourth century BC, while Islam and the medieval Christian church publicly condemned certain business practices, notably usury.

The Antitoxics Movement

The numerous local antitoxics groups merged together in a loose organization in the mid-1980s under the directorship of John O'Connor, to form the National Toxics Campaign. They worked closely with spokespersons, such as actress Meryl Streep of Mothers and Others, to reduce pesticides and toxics in the environment. Much of the focus of the antitoxics movement was on the differential health effects of hazardous wastes experienced by minority communities. A 1987 report by the United Church of Christ's Commission on Racial Justice, entitled, Toxic Wastes and Race in the United States, spearheaded a nationwide environmental justice movement. The report, released under the sponsorship of director Ben Chavis, argued that communities with the greatest number of commercial hazardous waste facilities had the highest composition of residences occupied by racial and ethnic minorities. Fifty-eight percent of the country's blacks and 53 percent of its Hispanics lived in communities where hazardous...

CSR Roadmap in Finnish Companies

Making it an inherent value carried through the various stages of the country's societal development. A strong reminder of this historical connotation of CSR is in the past, when companies were the centers of communities and villages providing services such as schools, churches, and support to the community development.

Power And City Planning

Corbusier Ideal City

Mathematical order and unity of the universe. In contrast, Baroque city planning with its use of interconnected axes was used by Pope Sixtus V to stamp his and the Church's authority on Rome. As a device to symbolize power, the axial arrangement of streets became the model for other

Clouded Vision of Mobility

For many centuries the tallest structures in any town or city were church steeples. In 1840 most city dwellers in Europe, the Americas and much of Asia lived in one- to four-story structures, in neighborhoods centered around a church or temple. Many more lived on farms, in clusters of homes a short walk from a village with its market and church. Wagon or cart roads Everything changed in the 1850s. Railway stations quickly grew to become the tallest structures in many cities, with their clock towers and massive train sheds dwarfing other buildings and all but the largest churches. Instead of a hundred people traveling on any given day there were a thousand,

Impact On Arabia And The Persian Gulf

This opportunity may now be lost as the role of petroleum or fossil fuel, particularly that produced in the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia, is going to decline before the middle of this century and with this the opportunity to again make Arabs leaders in civilization and culture. There are many reasons for this missed opportunity, which could still be salvaged by a determined effort but time is of the essence. Attempts at large-scale emigration, particularly to Europe, may provide some relief, particularly for young unemployed. But unless these immigrants adapt to their new surroundings, this will fail as well. The main problem appears to be that many Moslems do not recognize the advantages of separation of church and state or a free democratic system and modern egalitarian lifestyles with opportunities for all.

Ecological Twinnings and Looking beyond the Citys Borders

Some form of twinning activity (what in the United States tends to be called sister cities ), with strong ecological or sustainability dimensions.3 Freiburg, for instance, has a long history in this area. One of its recent twin-nings is with the city of L'viv in the Ukrainian Republic. Here, the city is providing technical assistance in the area of energy-efficient housing and in development of district heating. One recent initiative undertaken in Leicester is the Interfaith Gardening Work Camp. Spearheaded by the nonpro f i t e n v i romental charity Environ and the Elchanan Elks Association for Intercommunity Understanding, the program brought students to Leicester fro m all over the world to learn about and work in church gardens in the city. The students, in addition to painting, potting, and weeding, helped build a wetland at the city's eco-house (its environmental education center). The goals of the program were twofold passing on eco skills and giving people the chance to learn...

The varieties of activism

Thirdly, there is churchly piety, which is purposive, but also established, and is characteristic of groups such as Greenpeace or the Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF). Here, one participates in environmental politics by paying one's dues to a professional organization a green church Just as membership of the church became disconnected from any need for conspicuous displays of personal piety and commitment, Greenpeace accommodates itself to worldly existence by constructing a passive identity for its supporters entirely compatible with a non-heroic world of employment and family. And whereas the 'community of saints' in one ofthe small direct action groups such as the Dongas or Earth First is experienced by each of its members in the form of face-to-face affectual relationships, the community that is Greenpeace is thus experienced, like that of a church, more in the imagination, as a quiet confidence in its ongoing activity. (Szerszynski 1997 45)

Projections of st century sealevel rise

Source Based on Church and others 20017 information added from IPCC 200715 and Rahmstorf and others24 Source Based on Church and others 20017 information added from IPCC 200715 and Rahmstorf and others24 Figure 6C.7 Average Recurrence Interval for sea-level events of a given height at Sydney, Australia. For the second half of the 20th century (red line), the average recurrence interval for a sea-level height of a given value is less than half the value for the first half of the 20th century (blue line). Sources Based on Church and others 200642 Figure 6C.7 Average Recurrence Interval for sea-level events of a given height at Sydney, Australia. For the second half of the 20th century (red line), the average recurrence interval for a sea-level height of a given value is less than half the value for the first half of the 20th century (blue line). Sources Based on Church and others 200642

No meningitisx Relative humidity

Treatment may need to be organized on a massive scale when an epidemic occurs by using dispensers, school teachers or other educated people to care for isolated communities. Temporary treatment centres (schools, churches, warehouses, etc.) may need to be set up, rather than bring people into hospital. Benzyl penicillin or chloramphenicol should be used, but in many countries, resistance to these antibiotics will require the use of cephalosporins. If the organism is unknown, use chloram-phenicol. In epidemics, long-acting chlor-amphenicol in oil preparations, given as a single injection, avoids the problem of repeat injections. Dehydration is common and intravenous fluids may be required initially, followed by frequent drinks administered by an attending adult.

Fighting environmental racism

Why were black people so totally absent from the governing bodies of the Sierra Club and other main environmental organizations, collectively known as the 'big ten' The 'people of colour' environmental justice movement, fed up with 'white' environmentalism, pronounced itself initially against slogans such as 'Save the Rainforest', insisting on urban issues, and ignoring the fact that many rainforests are civilized jungles. Only some mainstream organizations, such as Greenpeace and the Earth Island Institute (founded by David Brower in San Francisco), responded quickly and favourably to the challenge of the environmental justice movement. In 1987, the United Church of Christ Commission for Racial Justice published a study of the racial and socioeconomic characteristics of communities with hazardous waste sites. Subsequent studies confirmed that African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans and Latinos were more likely than other groups to find themselves near hazardous waste...

How Does Society Use Energy

Before describing the various ways in which energy can be harnessed, it is important to understand how energy resources are used in society. There are four primary end uses of energy industrial, residential, commercial, and transportation applications. In the industrial sector, energy is used to make metal and paper, for petroleum refining, agriculture, the chemical industry, and the manufacturing industry. This sector comprises approximately 33 percent of the energy used in a developed society. The residential sector uses energy in homes for heating and cooling, lighting, electrical appliances, and water heating. This sector comprises 22 percent of the energy used by society. The commercial sector uses energy for much of the same applications as the residential sector. Heating, cooling, and lighting are the main uses of energy in restaurants, retail and office buildings, schools, hospitals, and churches. Commercial energy uses comprise 18 percent of energy consumed in society....

The Idea of Wilderness

The idea of wilderness appeared in the sermons of many of the ministers of New England churches during the 1640s and 1650s. Hartford, Connecticut minister Thomas Hooker (1586-1647) preached that Puritans must come into and go through a vast and roaring wilderness before they could possess that good land which abounded with all prosperity and flowed with milk and honey. 7 Peter Bulkeley preached in 1646 that God had dealt with the Puritans as he had dealt with his people Israel for we are brought out of a fat land into the wilderness. 8 Rhode Island founder Roger Williams (1603-83) likewise spoke of a wild and howling land as a reminder that his people had fallen from grace and that their souls were spiritual wildernesses.9 Thus purification of the wilderness in the soul of the Pu

A transnational movement

The free-trade agenda is opposed by a wide variety of groups, including church-based campaigners, development activists, the Marxist left, many trade unions, and anarchists, as well as the EDA groups and other greens Some within this coalition want to see reforms to transnational institutions, others to do away with them. Some have very little concern for ecological rationality, and some are primarily single-issue campaigners, such as those involved in Jubilee 2000, Drop the Debt campaigns or groups such as ATTAC25 (Aguitton 2001 28-9).

Environmental Justice Received National Recognition

Following the report by the United Church of Christ, three other major events in the environmental justice movement took place in 1990. First, Bullard published his book, Dumping in Dixie 13 , considered by many as the first textbook on environmental justice. In his book, Bullard chastised the federal government for the urban apartheid which exists in the U.S. Bullard blamed all levels of government for institutional racism and discriminatory land-use policies and practices due to their influence on the creation and perpetuation of racially separate and unequal residential areas for blacks and whites. He also asserted that the push for environmental justice was an extension of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. Two other important arguments of Bullard's book revealed that environmental discrimination is easier to document empirically

Chronological History of the Environmental Justice Movement in the United States

In 1987, the United Church of Christ followed the Warren County protests with a study in which patterns associated with commercial hazardous waste facilities and uncontrolled toxic waste sites were examined 9-12 . The study found that when examining the demographic characteristics of communities with commercial hazardous waste facilities

Pathways Forward for the New Climate Movement

Able energy, as well as by the Pennsylvania Council of Churches and local environmental groups. As was the case with Death by Degrees reports, this newer report has engaged a statewide network of medical and public health experts and health officials, medical schools, hospitals, and universities. Its approach combines the passion and vision of the Hippocratic oath and the stewardship concerns of the faith community (see chapter 8) into an overarching vision of human health and wholeness. In addition, of course, it offers hope and action to protect our children and the future. Within such a frame, the health effects of Pennsylvania's aging coal-fired utilities, the production of mercury, the need for fish and health advisories and for policy advice on global climate change legislation, as well as business and individual choices and investments in solar, wind, and energy efficiency, cohere in a single, powerful approach. In such a context, anglers, academics, the American Baptist...

It got cold and they died

The Norwegian Viking's renegade ways were quickly displaced by an uncompromising social structure built on European ideas of respectability and wealth. While Erik held to the ancient Norse pantheon, his wife, his son, and his fellow colonists quickly converted to the new Christian faith. They sent a live polar bear to the King of Norway to induce him to send a bishop. They endowed the bishop with a large, prosperous farm and built a cathedral, churches, and a nunnery, although by the beginning of the fourteenth century, the bishops had found it more convenient to govern the colony from Rome. with the elements, the native Inuit were winning theirs, flourishing in a more mobile and adaptive culture of Arctic hunting. Their toggled harpoons, which open on a hinge after piercing the flesh, allowed the Inuit to successfully hunt seals through the ice during winter. Unlike the wooden Norse boats, the seal skin Inuit kayaks could be lifted and easily moved over the ice jamming the fjords....

Religious Environmentalism

In the late 1990s, I teamed up with my old friend and colleague, Professor Laurel Kearns, to reenergize our mutual interests in religiously based environmental activism. Kearns had long studied the environmental work of Quaker communities, as well as the mainline Protestant organization, the Eco-Justice Working Group (EWG) of the National Council of Churches. The EWG was a leader in national, religious environmental work and early on had aptly cast contemporary environmental problems as being also, always, social problems. Alongside nonreligious environmental justice movements and scholarship, the EWG acknowledged and sought to educate others about the disproportionate environmental burdens that had to be borne by poor and minority communities. The EWG was soon joined by three other groups the United Catholic Conference, the Evangelical Environmental Network, and, the Coalition on the Environment and Jewish Life (COEJL) all united under the institutional umbrella of the National...

Warren County North Carolina

In November 1981 the district courts ruled against landfill opponents. Shortly thereafter protests began these received widespread national attention. Local police and soldiers from the U.S. Army base at Fort Bragg (which was also contaminated with PCBs) were called in to quell the protests. In total, 523 people were arrested, including local congressman Walter Faun-troy and members of the United Church of Christ Commission for Racial Justice. Fauntroy and other protesters urged the General Accounting Office (USGAO) to examine the relationship between the location of landfills in the Southeast and the demographics of host communities. This led to the publication of the well-known 1983 USGAO study. Four years later, the United Church of Christ (UCC) Commission for Racial Justice published a national study examining the siting of hazardous facilities and waste sites. Both of these widely cited studies had a significant impact on mobilizing minority communities around environmental...

The Evolution of Public Participation

But in the 1960s, that consensus began to dissipate. The civil rights movement challenged the existing system of segregation, and when the public saw nightly images on television of African-Americans being brutalized by the police during nonviolent marches or demonstrations, and the aftermath of church bombings and other racially motivated violence, the social consensus began to change. Riots in Watts, a low-income area in Los Angeles, and the riots that spread throughout major cities following the assassination of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., caused many government officials to believe that the country was in serious trouble and the old ways needed to be reconsidered.

Global warming global pollution

Global pollution demands global solutions. These need to address human attitudes broadly, for instance those concerned with resource use, lifestyle, wealth and poverty. They must also involve human society at all levels of aggregation -international organisations, nations with their national and local governments, large and small industry and businesses, non-governmental organisations (e.g churches) and individuals.

Grassroots Innovations for Sustainable Consumption

Carbon emissions to address climate change. Since 1992, over 400 local authorities in the UK produced Local Agenda 21 strategies, alongside growth of independent, community-based work on 'local sustainability' Shell Better Britain's network of groups, for instance, grew from 10,000 in 1992 to 26,000 in 2002 (Church and Elster, 2002). Rarely has the innovativeness of this activity been acknowledged. The term 'grassroots innovations' is used here to describe networks of activists and organisations generating novel bottom-up solutions for sustainable development and sustainable consumption solutions that respond to the local situation and the interests and values of the communities involved. In contrast to mainstream business greening, grassroots initiatives operate in civil society arenas and involve committed activists experimenting with social innovations as well as using greener technologies.

Environmental Justice

Environmental Justice Idiots

Ity in their neighborhood as a violation of civil rights. The key event was a related protest in Warren County, North Carolina, in 1982. Rev. Benjamin F. Chavis Jr., executive director of the United Church of Christ's Commission for Racial Justice (CRJ), is credited with coining the term environmental racism. He became interested in the connection between race and pollution when residents of predominantly African-American Warren County asked the CRJ for help in preventing the siting of a PCB dump in their community. The protest did not reverse plans for the disposal site, and it resulted in the arrest of more than 500 people, including Chavis. However, this event galvanized environmental justice advocates, and a full-scale movement formed as a result.

Growing awareness of climate change and polarisation of opinions

Annual public lecture to the memory of the seventeenth century physicist and astronomer. It was interesting that the theme of global warming had been chosen and also that the podium for my presentation was the pulpit of a big church. This was undoubtedly an interesting experience, although I really wanted to deliver a scientific assessment rather than preach to a congregation The proactive attitude created on these two occasions contrasted markedly with my experience in discussions with Dutch business people on a following day. They showed a striking reluctance to consider the issue of global climate change as a serious one, which of course was in no way a unique attitude, but nevertheless it was disappointing.

Introduction An Exploratory Study of the Social Dimension of Corporate Responsibility in Finland

In Finland, there are many indications that CSR is increasingly becoming an important source of values in both the private and public sectors. Many Finnish companies, particularly the big ones, are in the forefront of taking CSR initiatives. Government's support for CSR is also visible, while NGOs and other interest groups (e.g., the church, labor organizations, and consumer associations) are also busy campaigning for various CSR issues. The issue of globalization has also put Finland on the track of CSR developments because many Finnish companies operate in the global market today. As a member of the European Union (EU), Finland is inevitably influenced by the initiatives, plans, directives, and programs designed to uphold and promote CSR (e.g., the Green Paper 2001, Communication Concerning CSR 2003, Multi-stakeholder Forum, etc.).

The planet that could only be seen from France

The most important advance in nineteenth-century astronomy was the discovery of a new element in the solar system. Since 1781, when Laplace had hypothesized that this new element was a planet called Uranus, astronomers had observed deviations by the planet from its predicted orbit. In the early decades of the next century, a number of scientists suspected that these deviations might be due to another, hitherto undiscovered, planet. In 1845, a student at Cambridge, John Adams, calculated the orbit of this hypothetical planet and reported his findings to the Greenwich Observatory, which was nevertheless unable to detect it by telescope. In the meantime, the director of the Astronomical Observatory of Paris, Urban Jean Le Verrier, had independently reached the same conclusions and in 1846 announced the discovery of a new planet, to which the name of Neptune was given. The discovery was hailed as a triumph by the French scientific community, which used it as a watchword in its struggle...

Visualize an Ecologically Healthy World

Worldwide forest cover is increasing dams are being dismantled atmospheric C02 levels are decreasing for the first time in two hundred years and effluent water leaving factories is cleaner than the water coming into them. Industrialized countries have reduced resource use by 80 while improving the quality of life. Among these technological changes, there are important social changes. The frayed social nets of Western countries have been repaired. With the explosion of family-wage jobs, welfare demand has fallen. The progressive and active union movement has taken the lead to work with business, environmentalists, and government to create just transitions for workers as society phases out coal, nuclear energy, and oil. In communities and towns, churches, corporations, and labor groups promote a new living-wage social contract as the least expensive way to ensure the growth and preservation of valuable social capital. (Hawken, A. Lovins, & L. H. Lovins, 1999, pp. 1-2)

Environmental Movements

Racial and ethnic minorities also are disproportionately represented in ecological resistance movements. They are least likely to be integrated into national economic and political life, often live at the periphery of the power centers (which are urban), and usually lack instruments through which to communicate their needs. Also, participants represent a larger number of lower socio-economic groups, to which the political system customarily responds poorly if at all. This combination of elements does not lend itself to typical interest group mobilization and organization. It may, however, be assisted by external agencies, such as the role played by the Catholic Church in ecological resistance movements of Central and South America and in the Philippines. In 1974, the year that the military government officially began the process of democratization known as abertura (opening), the rubber tappers began to organize, with the assistance of the Catholic Church and the National...

Harnessing grassroots innovations for sustainable consumption lessons for policy and research

Policy and research into grassroots innovations must nurture mutually beneficial relationships with niche activists. The emerging agenda should consider how best to reward and encourage innovative behaviour at the grassroots - given that rent-seeking behaviour is not the primary motivation. Fundamentally, this is a question of how one traverses the interface between the social and market economies. A twin track approach is needed. On the one hand, research and policy that contributes to the creation of diverse grassroots innovations and engenders a variety of sustainable practices is needed. On the other, research and policy is needed that learns from this wealth of alternative means of provision and embeds that social learning into the mainstream. Policy measures must put the incumbent socio-technical regime under tension and prompt wider searches for (grassroots) sus-tainability innovations, for instance by adopting new measures of wellbeing and progress which challenge the doctrine...

Types of millennialism

Amillennialists believe that the millennial event has already occurred, or is occurring, in the form of some movement or institution, even though there are still bad things happening in the world (Hoekema, 2007 Riddlebarger, 2003). For Christian amillennialists the Millennium is actually the ongoing establishment of righteousness on Earth through the agency of the Church, struggling to turn back Satan and the Tribulations. Augustinian amillennialism was made the official doctrine of the early Christian Church, and premillennialism was declared heresy. The subsequent millenarian rebellions against church and civil authority, inspired by the Book of Revelations, reinforced the Catholic Church's insistence that the Millennium would not be an abrupt, revolutionary event, but the gradual creation of the Kingdom of Heaven in each believer's heart in a church-ruled world. In abstract, when the 'Church Age' ends Christ will return to judge humanity and take the saved to heaven for eternity,...

Further Reading Books

Burgess, D., Doswell, C. and Davies-Jones, R.P. (eds) (1993) The Tornado Its Structure, Dynamics, Prediction, and Hazards. Geophys. Monogr. 79, Amer, Geophys. Union, Washington, DC, 637pp. Comprehensive accounts of vortex theory and modelling, observations of tornadic thunderstorms and tornadoes, tornado climatology, forecasting, hazards and damage surveys. Karoly, D. I. and Vincent, D. G. (1998) Meteorology ofthe Southern Hemisphere. Met. Monogr. 27(49), American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 410pp. Comprehensive modern account of the circulation, meteorology of the landmasses and Pacific Ocean, mesoscale processes, climate variability and change and modelling.

Holy Smoke

Then there is holy smoke, and its perils. According to researchers at the University of Maastrict, The Netherlands, public health can be adversely affected by burning candles and incense in churches, and to test their idea, they sampled the air in a Dutch church. Before the church service began, levels of PM10 were 3-5 times higher than normal roadside levels. After 9 hours of continuous candle-burning, and several puffs of incense, PM10 levels increased 13-20 times roadside levels. At its peak, the PM10 level in the church's chapel was over a mg m3 of air more than 20 times the European Union's recommended 24-hour limit for outdoor air. In addition, they found that in both the basilica and the chapel, PAH levels were higher than outdoor levels, and increased by a factor of 4 and 10 after burning incense and candles, respectively 30 . Professor de Kok, the lead author of this study, informs us that it cannot be excluded that regular exposure to candle or incense- derived particulate...

Endnotes

'Greens' and Churches Join Hands in Environmental Mission Sometimes-Uneasy Alliance a Decade in Making, Fights Alaska Drilling, Global Warming, Politics and Policy section, Wall Street Journal, March 26, 2002. 6. P. W. DeVous, The Unholy Alliance Radical Environmentalism and the Churches, Acton Institute for the Study of Religion and Liberty, April 2002. Available at www.acton.org. 2. From speech delivered at the centennial celebration of the Church or St. John the Divine in New York City, 1993.

Sealevel Change

Church (lead author, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, and Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia) Robert Nicholls (School of Civil Engineering and the Environment and Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Southampton, UK) John E. Hay (Institute for Global Change Adaptation Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Japan) and Vivien Gornitz (NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and Columbia University, New York, NY, USA)

Courting Change

Will there be a property rights version of overturning Roe v. Wade in the years to come Anything is possible in a newly constituted Supreme Court. John Roberts, the new chief justice, took a dim view as an appeals court judge of endangered-species protection of a toad that stood in the way of a California developer. A fresh battle over property rights would be just as tumultuous as those concerning abortion, privacy, gay rights, affirmative action, or the separation of church and state. As with many of those issues, the key divide would be over whether to take the Constitution literally or think of it as an interpreted, more flexible document. Privately, smart growth activists say that the doctrine of individual property rights is a classic case of a protection that has become outdated that modern times warrant a rethinking of its sacrosanct status. The founding fathers could not have imagined the nation being so stressed out by development and trying to accommodate nearly 400 million...

Erik Assadourian

To the west is Vermont Avenue, one of the most congested traffic corridors in Los Angeles, tiled with a mosaic of fast-food chains, nail salons, and dollar stores, all nested in a half-dozen strip malls. To the east lie three auto repair shops, housing, and a giant concrete church that dominates the street. To the north, there are two more auto body shops, three overcrowded schools, and a couple of car dealerships. And to the south, just beyond the Bresee Community and Youth Center, are two giant supermarkets with equally gigantic parking lots, tailored to be one-stop shopping for people commuting along the Vermont Avenue corridor.1

Results and Analysis

The most important finding on outcomes was that different types of participants experienced different types of change, with long-term engaged participants using the CEG in a different way to unengaged participants. For long-term engaged participants the CEG activities were reinforcing, leading to intensification of behaviours or attitudes. For recently engaged participants there was more room for increases in knowledge and action when a particular issue (fair trade) was opened up to one member through church activities. For unengaged participants the CEG provides a first point of call for basic information on sustainable living, for instance one participant used the church as her main source of information on ethical and environmental issues If I didn't come to church I probably wouldn't feel as strongly about things, or even know about them .5 Information provided by the CEG is tailored to local and personal needs, with the local focus particularly helpful for long-term engaged...

Discussion

One of the themes emerging from the literature is the tendency of these projects to work towards multiple goals alongside environmental or sustainability ones (e.g. health, local environment, global environment, employment and social capital).910 There is also a suggestion in the literature that sustainability projects in the community could represent an exchange of benefits for the individual, who reduces his her impacts on the environment in exchange for improved social capital.11 C Church & J Elster, Thinking locally, acting nationally lessons for national policy from work on local sustainability, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, York, 2002.1213 Unlike the other cases in this research project thus far (primary school and community garden projects), the group at Holy Trinity do not explicitly set out to achieve goals other than promoting sustainable consumption within the congregation (and in the town). While the work of the CEG has stimulated pro-environmental and ethical change for...

The boreal region

Streamflow regime is the average seasonal rhythm of discharge. The most common seasonal pattern of streamflow is the nival regime, so termed by Church (1974) to signify the dominance of snowmelt in producing runoff. An example is provided in Fig. 1 which shows the long-term daily mean and the standard deviation of daily flow for Upper Liard River (60.05 N 128.90 W, area 33,400 km2) in Canada. The annual peak flow occurs in the snowmelt season. After the snow is depleted, the spring high flow recedes rapidly. Summer low flow is occasionally interrupted by hydrograph rises due to rainfall or summer snowfall, but the summer peaks are generally lower than those in the spring (Kane et al., 1992). There are modifications to the nival regime due to the presence of glaciers, lakes or extensive wetlands in the basins (Woo, 2000) but the common consideration is the dominance of snowmelt contribution in terms of total river flow.

Conservation

Figure 2.6 The Lace Hall, Church conversion, Nottingham Figure 2.6 The Lace Hall, Church conversion, Nottingham Figure 2.7 Church conversion to shops, Stamford Numerous examples of the re-use of, refurbishment and extension of structures can be cited from the past. In the pre-industrial city a building, however renowned, was remodelled for its new purpose without the sentiment we now attach to this process. An examination of many English parish churches, for example, reveals a mixture of many styles developed over many centuries. Old walls, details and materials were re-used, while extensions in the then latest style were woven into the existing fabric without regard to the destruction of the architectural integrity of the original building. The result is often a fine building that is much loved and admired by succeeding generations. The most common feature of the medieval city, the dwelling, was recycled in a number of ways. Parts of a timber-frame structure from an earlier building...

When Flowers Bloom

In 1965, Mary Manning, a schoolteacher from Norwich, England, noticed that daffodils in her backyard were blooming well before Easter. Her mother, this teacher then realized, used to think it a rare blessing if these harbingers of spring blossomed in time to decorate the church for the Easter service. Ever since that year, Manning has been recording the first blossoming dates of aconites, crocuses, snowdrops and many other flowers in her garden, as well as the presence of migratory birds. She says she hasn't failed to observe

Property Players

Scott Bullock of the Institute for Justice is a typical hard-charging attorney in the property rights camp, a jazz aficionado with a sense for the jugular and a flair for the apocalyptic. Arguing against eminent domain for economic development in the New London case, he all but convinced the justices, for a moment, that a Target could at any time tower over their backyards. Every home, church, and corner store would produce more tax revenue if it was turned into a shopping mall, he said.

Intrinsic challenges

Experience suggests initiatives spend 90 of their time simply surviving, and only 10 developing the activity (Church, 2005 Wake-man, 2005). This has implications for niche survival. First, they fail to develop robustness and resilience to shocks like funding cuts, key people leaving, turnover of volunteers, burn-out of activists, shifts in government policy. Secondly, short-lived initiatives frequently leave no formally documented institutional learning. The skills and learning are tacitly held within people, rather than being consolidated in readily accessible forms.

Height

For the whole world, there has been a major and steady increase in average height over the centuries, as any visitor to a medieval church or other very old structure will learn. People have become much taller. In 1820, the height of people all over the world (with the exception of southern and Southeast Asia) was fairly similar, at about 165 centimeters. Since then the height of people in the industrial Western nations has increased at a greater rate than in other regions, so that by 1985 the average height in the developed world was about 177 centimeters, but in Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, and Africa it was about 170 centimeters. All regions, however, have shown steady growth through the present with the exception of Africa, which reached a plateau in the 1960s and has not increased since then. The leveling off of average heights in Africa could indicate that the low life spans and high infant mortality rates are not due only to war and AIDS (which would not...

Diffusion benefits

In niche terms, grassroots initiatives exhibit first- and second-order learning. They build environmental support and capacity. Practices develop that provide services with reduced environmental impact whilst, at the same time, encouraging participants to further reflect upon how their need for services is framed and developed in other areas. Church and Elster (2002) identify a wide set of indirect environmental and social impacts from grassroots innovations, for example environmental awareness-raising, education and promotion, changing the attitudes of local policymakers, engaging people in sustainability issues in their daily lives, and developing new ways of working towards sustainable development. As a result of niche practices, which are often participative, individuals and communities can benefit in terms of greater empowerment and confidence, skills and capacity for further community-based action.

Diffusion challenges

Finally, there is a wider, institutional challenge. Change at higher levels - within incumbent regimes and overarching socio-economic processes - opens opportunities for niche diffusion. Sustainability pressures can spur regime actors into appropriating greener activities from niches. Church (2005) argues that local action must connect with higher level policies, capabilities and infrastructures. Grassroots innovators have to be sufficiently nimble to take advantage of windows of opportunity, like new funding programmes attached to shifting policy agendas, and cast themselves positively in the new light. But grassroots innovators find it extremely challenging to influence when and what form those opportunities take. A key challenge is to boost grassroots influence - local intelligence informing policy developments that further encourages diverse grassroots innovation (Roberts, 2005). Indeed, our central argument has been for a reconsideration of grassroots initiatives entwining the...

Polar Regions

Changes in temperature and precipitation in the polar regions are contributing factors to regional ecological and economic concerns. Annual average temperatures at the North and South Poles have increased at twice the rate as the rest of the world. In the Antarctic, temperatures have increased by 2.5 degrees since 1940, causing huge ice shelves, twice the size of Luxembourg, to detach in the 1990s. In 2002, the entire Larsen B ice shelf broke away dramatically from Western Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) and disintegrated into icebergs. As a result of this collapse, ''rivers of ice'' are accelerating from the WAIS toward the Southern Ocean (Thomas et al. 2004). There is worry that small sections of the WAIS on the Antarctic Peninsula could slip into the ocean, raising the sea levels from several inches to several feet over the next decades. There is further concern that the loss of these marginal ice shelves will expose grounded ice sheets and the continent itself, which will cause further...

Literature Cited

Ray, J. M. Prospero and J. T. Merrill. 1980. Longrange atmospheric transport of soil dust from Asia to the tropical North Pacific Temporal variability. Science 209 1522-1524. Duce, R. A., P. S. Liss, J. T. Merrill, E. L. Atlas, P. Buat-Menard, B. B. Hicks, J. M. Miller, J. M. Prospero, R. Arimoto, T. M. Church, W. Ellis, J. N. Galloway, L. Hansen, T. D. Jickells, A. H. Knap, K. H. Reinhardt,

Naming the Clouds

Not only through the infant science of meteorology but beyond into the rich culture of nineteenth-century Europe. Goethe composed four poems about the clouds, dedicating them to Howard. Within a few years, for the first time, accurate and meticulously detailed representations of clouds began appearing in the skies of romantic era paintings of such masters as Caspar David Friedrich in Germany, and Joseph M. W. Turner and John Constable in England. Across the Atlantic, Howard's clouds inspired the skies of the nineteenth-century American landscape masters Thomas Cole, Frederick Church, and George Inness. The sky too belongs to the Landscape, Howard wrote. The ocean of air in which we live and move, in which the bolt of heaven is forged, and the fructifying rain condensed, can never be to the zealous Naturalist a subject of tame and unfeeling contemplation.

Intrinsic benefits

The principal intrinsic benefit relates to the social and environmental basis of the niche. But what can small-scale community action contribute to sustainable development A review of grassroots action for sustainability by Church and Elster (2002) identified a range of direct environmental benefits such as reduced car-use, increased recycling, and planting trees. When assessing impacts, they note 'small local projects may seem almost irrelevant at city-scale or above, but if wider policies lead to larger numbers of them, there is every reason to expect them, in aggregate form, to have proportionate impact' (Church and Elster 2002 25 , citing the Community Recycling Network comprising 350 local initiatives). They also identified significant socio-economic impacts with benefits for sustainable communities. These related to job creation, training and skills development, personal growth (e.g., self-esteem and confidence), a sense of community, social capital, improved access to services...

Figures

5.16 See Siedler, G., Church, J., Gould, J. (eds.) 2001. Ocean Circulation and Climate. London Academic Press. Original diagram from Woods, J. D. 1984. The upper ocean and air sea interaction in global climate. In Houghton, J. T. 1985. The Global Climate. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, pp. 141-87.

Benedict Spinoza

Spinoza was excommunicated from the Jewish church, on the grounds of heretical beliefs. The bookseller and freethinker Franz van den Enden played a pivotal role in his life and thought he brought Descartes' works to Spinoza's attention, taught him Greek and Latin, and his mystical views about God or Nature as an infinite substance probably had a decisive influence on the young philosopher's unusual perspective, substance monism, as early as the treatise On the Emendation of the Intellect. Spinoza moved to Rijnsburg near Leiden in 1660, where his close friends persuaded him to set down his careful, though uncompleted, exegesis of Descartes' metaphysics, Descartes' Principles of Philosophy, published in 1663. Spinoza lived a solitary, almost reclusive life, grinding lens and working slowly on the text of the Theological-Political Treatise, published anonymously in 1670. The Council of the Reformed Dutch Church condemned the book as 'a treatise of idolatry and superstition', while one...

Mahatma Gandhi

The Mahatma ('great soul') was born Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in Porbandar, now in the State of Gujarat, on 2 October 1869. As a child he had learned to appreciate the beauty of the coastal region washed by the Arabian seas and surrounded by temples, churches and mosques. Although by caste the Gandhis were merchants, his family held high office in the sovereign province's court and were devout Hindus. Very early on he came to the realization that morality is an inexorable part of the objective reality he preferred to call Truth rather than God, and that nature was a substance within this reality. Hence, as in traditional wisdom, nature was not there merely for human use or as an appendix to civilization but was a presence, much like one's nourishing nurse, to be respected. Gandhi's Hindu background taught him about the basic elements that constituted the physical and material world, namely, earth, water, fire, ether and space, which he saw ritually invoked in home worship (puja) as...

Summing Up

50 The groundbreaking empirical study was, United Church of Christ, Commission for Racial Justice, Toxic Wastes and Race in the United States. New York United Church of Christ, 1987. Important academic discussions include, K.S. Schrader-Frechette, Environmental Justice Creating Democracy, Reclaiming Democracy. Oxford and New York Oxford University Press, 2002 David N. Pellow, Garbage Wars the Struggle for Environmental Justice in Chicago. Cambridge, MA and London the MIT Press, 2002 and Adam S. Weinberg, The

Money And Meaning

The Church once auctioned off indulgences. It sold future shares in Heaven at the margin with a very favorable discount rate. Was it a good idea to establish a market in salvation Of course it was. How else can you determine how much an infinity of bliss, discounted by the probability that God does not exist, is worth 31 The Church membership, however, grew a little disillusioned when it saw that the favors of the Lord were auctioned for silver and gold. This disillusionment was one cause of the Reformation.

Direct Contact

Fomites, inanimate objects, offer yet another means of passage for certain organisms. Another name for this route is vehicle transmission, and common vehicles include water and food. Food poisoning at picnics and church suppers are often the result of common vehicle transmission in which hundreds of people can eat an egg, tuna, or chicken salad containing pathogenic bacteria or their toxins, and become ill with gastroenteritis in 4-8 hours. Fomites encompass bedding, drinking cups, food utensils, surgical instruments, catheters, and clothing, which have all been implicated in disease transmission. Campylobacteriosis, listeriosis, leptospirosis, and salmonellosis fit comfortably in this mode of transmission. Given the fact that fomites are an unsuitable growth medium for most microbes, contact with a fomite is usually a local phenomenon.

Pamela P McVety

Ms McVety has a master's degree in zoology from the University of South Florida and has worked for the State of Florida's Department of Environmental Protection for over 30 years. She began her career in dredge and fill permitting and worked for the first four Secretaries of the Department of Environmental Protection in policy development and coordination. She was the Director of the Division of Marine Resources and Executive Coordinator (Deputy Secretary) for Ecosystem Management and Water Policy. She finished her paid career in the Florida Park Service in July 2003 and currently does volunteer work for the Presbyterian Church