Natural Childbirth Options

Bump To Birth

The experience that a woman has during childbirth shapes how the rest of her child-raising experience goes, in many ways. A good birth can have a huge effect on how good you feel about your child, whereas a bad birth can often lead to feelings of sadness or PDST-type symptoms due to the pain and struggle of the birth experience. However, you don't need to worry about that now, because the information in this book gives you ALL of the experience and expert advice that you need in order to have a really amazing birth, that really marked that day as the truly special day that it is. This book teaches you how to use natural, holistic remedies to heal yourself during pregnancy in order to make sure that you feel your best during the whole birth experience. You can also learn everything you need to know about natural birth Everything you need to know to have a great pregnancy and birth is in this guide! More here...

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Walking the Path of Destruction

He returned to Middletown in 1811 and for 10 years took up the business of saddle and harness making and operated a store. In 1814, he married Abigail Wilcox. The couple had three sons, but the third newborn died in 1819, and soon afterward Abigail died from the effects of childbirth. In 1820, Redfield married his first wife's cousin, Lucy Wilcox. But a year later, childbirth claimed another son and another wife. Lucy died on September 14, 1821, soon after the great gale. It was in connection with this personal tragedy that Redfield and his eldest son, a small child, were traveling through the countryside of western Connecticut and Massachusetts, between Middletown and Lucy's family home.

Clinical features and transmission If the

Mother has gonorrhoea or non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) caused by C. trachomatis (see Sections 14.5 and 14.6), the infant's eyes can become contaminated with infectious discharges as it passes through the birth canal. This leads to conjunctivitis and in gonococcal infection, an important cause of blindness, especially in developing countries.

Where Have All the Student Agitators Gone

When America advanced in civil rights, when it freed itself from the Vietnam War, and when it gave birth to an environmental ethic in the 1970s, it always had one dynamic group on the streets and in the vanguard our college students. We have always been able to depend on the passion of youth to change society. Now that the world is threatened by global warming, where are the students

Manifestations associated with perinatal complications

Neurological problems are often not a result of birth injuries, but may be a consequence of prematurity or asphyxia 13, 51 . Constable and colleagues 51 found that the neural connectivity of individuals born prematurely was significantly different from controls when the groups were assessed at the age of 12. Their findings suggest that the decrease in white matter tract organization is related to the significantly poorer cognitive performance of the preterm group. Similarly, significant variabilities in availability of oxygen during the birth process have been associated with increased risk for cognitive impairment. Interference with regulatory and processing capacities within the brain, particularly those skills coordinated

Changes in the Arctic

The melting ice is also bad news for the seals, even if it does reduce their chances of being claimed by a polar bear. All Arctic seals that depend on the ice for resting, breeding, and giving birth including the bearded, ribbon, and ringed seals are being put at risk by the ice melt.

Demographic Transition Fertility and mortality

Be modest in the past few centuries even though women were, on average, giving birth to six or more children during their reproductive span. As death rates declined, East Asia's population growth accelerated to close to 2 per year around 1950s. Japan was the first country in this region that started demographic transition and reached a below replacement fertility (2.1 births per woman through her reproductive period) by the early 1960s. It was followed by a dramatic fertility decline in Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, South Korea, and China. With the fertility level in China below the replacement level in the early 1990s, all countries in East Asia, except Mongolia, where the total fertility rate is 2.3 births per woman, have completed demographic transition. To an extent, lower birth and death rates are by-products of development. Higher incomes contribute to infant mortality decline by raising nutritional standards and to lower birth rates by raising the market value of women's time and,...

Measurement of Freedom

In any country is the rate of infant mortality as discussed in chapter 6. Infant mortality, besides being a measure of the death of infants at birth, also reflects the general level of a population's health. Infant mortality is always low in nations where people have good access to medical care, and it is always quite high in nations where health care is deficient or where there is a large burden of disease. The reason that infant mortality is such a good indicator of the general state of a nation's health is that it takes into account the health of the women giving birth, access to good health care for new-borns, and the availability of postnatal and prenatal care. Figure 7-1 shows the result of plotting infant mortality and freedom survey scores for 172 countries. Each point represents a different country. The straight line shows the statistical regression, which is highly significant (for professionals, the correlation coefficient R2 0.34, p 0.000).

Neuropsychological correlates of hearing loss

The advent of modern imaging techniques has contributed to an explosion of research into cognitive functioning in deaf individuals. Event-related potential (ERP), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and cognitive behavioral studies have consistently demonstrated different organization of brain function in deaf individuals 22 . Deafness from birth results in less myelination and fewer fibers projecting to and from the auditory cortex 8 . Even with conductive hearing loss, which should cause only mild Studies of unilateral cochlear implantation at different ages provide insights into the functioning of the primary auditory cortex. In congenitally or early deafened individuals, non-auditory processing (i.e. perceiving and understanding sign language) involves the area of the cortex believed selective for human voice. The first 2 years of life may be the sensitive period for establishing a preference for processing human voice or visual communication 25 . In deaf children, when...

Infancy and preschool years

Common services during the infancy and preschool years include speech, occupational, physical, and developmental therapies concentrating on helping children move through important early developmental milestones (reviewed below). Within this infancy and preschool timeframe, one common transition point is from Birth to Three services to Early Childhood services, which takes place around the child's third birthday. The most pronounced difference at this point is that support services for the child are likely to shift from taking place in the family's home to taking place in a school environment, as the school system takes over case management. In this transition, goals of socialization are also typically added to the cognitive, language, and motor goals previously identified for the child.

We only see what our brains allow us to see

'How science works' could be summarised by the words 'purposeful observation'. Observation is a product of the interaction of sensory data with the concepts and ideas which are already stored in our memories. These mental concepts influence what we look for, and thus what we perceive. Those who are blind from birth and have their sight restored take weeks or months to learn what the light inputs to their eyes mean. Those setting foot in a land whose language they do not understand receive the same sounds as the natives but make no sense of them. Only later do they begin to make sense of what they hear.

The Demographic Transition

In 1945, Princeton demographer Frank Notestein outlined a three-stage demographic model to illustrate the dynamics of population growth as societies modernized. (See Figure 2-2.) He pointed out that in pre-modern societies, births and deaths are both high and essentially in balance with little or no population growth. In stage two, as living standards rise and health care conditions improve, death rates begin to decline. With birth rates remaining high Birth Rate while death rates are declining, population growth accelerates, typically reaching 3 percent a year. Although this may not sound like much, 3 percent a year results in a twenty-fold increase per century. As living standards continue to improve, and particularly as women are educated, the birth rate also begins to decline. Eventually the birth rate drops to the level of the death rate. This is stage three, where population is again stable.20 Of the 180 countries in the world today, some 36, with a combined population of 700...

What Can Be Deduced From The Goodness Of The Fits

This result, tentative though it may be, has important implications for the future. Among them is that it contradicts the assertions by many politicians and pundits in Europe that a declining birth-rate needs to be reversed. On the contrary, it is getting harder to keep everybody who wants a job productively employed. The declining birth-rate in Europe and Japan may be more positive than negative.

Impacts on agriculture crops and animal husbandry

Changes in snow distribution can also influence animal husbandry. During extreme snow events, livestock can get lost, stressed, or fail to give birth successfully87. The melting of spring snow creates muddy ground conditions that, if prolonged, can lead to animal weight loss. In subsistence communities such as those across the Arctic, access to traditional hunting or herding of caribou and reindeer is strongly impacted by snow distribution88 (Figure 4.12).

Gender and Environmentalism

The view that women have a special relationship with the environment is called ecofeminism, a movement that emerged in the 1970s as the women's movement and ecology movements developed simultaneously in industrialized countries (Diamond & Orenstein, 1990 Spretnak, 1990). Ecofeminists argue that patriarchy oppresses both women and nature, as it promotes a worldview valuing dominance, hierarchy, dualistic thinking, and power-based relationships. Some ecofeminists go further and posit that women's reproductive systems, their menstrual cycles, and their capacity to give birth organically place them closer to the physical world, the lunar cycles, and the rhythms of nature. Others would simply claim that women's roles as family caretakers means they have to be more concerned about, and in touch with, the natural environment because the health of their families depend on it. Ecofeminists recognize differences of race, class, and culture, but focus on the common experience of women in the...

How Not to Look Ahead

Population forecasts provide pertinent examples of these failed anticipations. A comparison of the revision for 2004 (United Nations 2005) with the 1990-2025 global population forecast (United Nations 1991) shows a difference of about 600 million people, a reduction about 10 greater than today's entire population of Latin America. Thus even forecasts that deal with given biophysical realities (most of the females that will give birth during the next 20 years are already alive) and that are issued only a dozen years apart can differ by continent-sized margins.

Successful reproductive strategies

Fewer young pups are surviving their first foraging trips to sea than the number of adults dying each year. Disease, human disturbance and increased numbers of predators have been ruled out as causing this high mortality of the young. The problem seems to be one of food supply. A combination of information gathered on the foraging behaviour, physiology and diet of female seals shows that the fatter a female is when she comes ashore to give birth the better the chance her pup has of surviving its first crucial year. When they do not get enough to eat females carry less fat, have lighter pups, produce less and poorer quality milk, and many fewer young pups will survive. It was thought that competition from commercial fishing might be preventing female seals from getting enough to eat. However, the estimated consumption of fish each year by the Macquarie Island seal population alone is one thousand times greater than the total commercial catch to the south of Australia and...

Social dominance hierarchies

All this can change dramatically, however. From time to time widespread rains turn this hot dry land into a sea of green growth. Then all rabbits - even those lowest in the hierarchy - breed continuously and prolifically. Warrens are renovated and enlarged and new ones are established, but still there are more and more females breeding, and no room left for all of them to nest in a warren. This, however, does not stop the breeding. Young females of low status that are kicked out of the warrens dig quite shallow burrows away from the warrens in which to give birth. As we saw before, these are easily dug up by foxes, and few of their young survive. Yet, in spite of this, so long as the green grass lasts, very many more young survive and mature and the number of rabbits continues to increase.

The world is made of more than carbon

Mainstream environmental groups fixate on reducing carbon emissions above all environmental and social issues, predictably paving the way for the onslaught of false solutions we find ourselves up against. This shallow line of thinking is what has given birth to the nuclear renaissance, offsetting, agrofuels, geo-engineering and other destructive technologies. Most major environmental groups have at their best remained silent on these issues, and at worst have been their chief advocates.

The Demographic Bonus

In contrast to these countries whose future is fading, countries that have quickly reduced birth rates are benefiting from what economic demographers have labeled a demographic bonus. When a country shifts quickly to smaller families, the number of young dependents those who need nurturing and educating declines sharply relative to the number of working adults. In this situation, household savings climb, investment rises, worker productivity increases, and economic growth accelerates. Since European countries did not experience the rapid population growth of today's developing countries, and therefore no rapid fall in fertility, they never experienced a demographic bonus.28 South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore followed shortly thereafter. These four so-called tiger economies, which enjoyed such spectacular economic growth during the late twentieth century, each benefited from a rapid fall in birth rates and the demographic bonus that followed.30 On a much larger scale,...

Consumption Affects Emissions

The parallels with population growth are striking. Countries that developed industrial economies sooner also saw improvements in quality of life, including health care. Death rates fell sharply then, within a few decades, birth rates fell also. The driving force was technology, which means these countries are now the best positioned to reduce carbon emissions.

World population and food supplies

In all communities, inadequate diet is closely connected with poverty. In such conditions infant mortality rates are usually high, partly the result of malnutrition. High infant mortality encourages high birth rates in compensation, and in some communities family planning is unlikely to reduce birth rates appreciably until there is a reasonable expectation that children will survive. Consequently, effective measures of population control require the raising of standards of nutrition, hygiene and health in the poorest populations. The problems of feeding the increasing world population, stabilizing its size and achieving a satisfactory balance between food supply and demand are therefore closely interrelated. It is not solely a matter of expanding food production but also of ensuring a more equitable distribution of wealth and a proper apportionment of food to bring all diets to adequate levels.

The evidence for and forecasts of climate change

The A family of scenarios differs according to the degree of globalization. The assumption is that more globalization will lead to rapid economic growth and a convergence of incomes worldwide. This economic growth will in turn reduce birth rates and produce more efficient technologies. An alternative scenario in the family posits less globalization and remaining income differences. This outcome would witness areas where birth rates remain high. The Markets scenario (A1) assumptions include a population level less than half that of the Regions scenario (A2), at seven billion in the year 2100. This population level results from very high levels of economic growth and per capita income that in turn reduce birth rates. There is uncertainty about hydrocarbon use but high optimism in improved land-use patterns, no doubt due to the lower population level. Despite the optimism in the model inputs, the outputs are not very different, suggesting the model is somewhat inelastic. Temperatures...

Climate Change and the Future of Cities

In the long run, urban growth may help reduce the likelihood of climate change. Urbanization reduces national population growth by providing greater economic opportunities for women outside the household and eliminating the need for children to do farm work. Both trends tend to depress birth rates, which can ultimately reduce a nation's ecological footprint. In the short to medium term, however, urbanization is likely to exacerbate global warming. Researchers have found that more urbanized nations produce more greenhouse gas emissions as a result of higher living standards and higher demand for transportation, energy, water, and other resources and services.7 And although there is some evidence that emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, follow the EKC, the turning point lies very far to the right around 20,000 in per capita income.8 Most of the world's economies lie to the left of this point. Consequently, as these economies grow, greenhouse gas production will...

Demographic Assumptions

As a result of declining birth rates and increasing longevity, the populations of a growing number of countries especially in the OECD are ageing rapidly. Several European and Pacific countries, notably Germany, Italy, Japan and Korea, face significant population declines and a jump in average age. Population ageing is less advanced in developing countries, but the majority of them are nonetheless expected to enter a period of rapid population ageing. All of the increase in world population will occur in urban areas rural populations will decline. As a result, access to modern energy services is likely to improve, as it is generally less costly to supply urban communities. Building infrastructure to meet growing urban populations will still be a major challenge.

Population Growth Social Factors And Fuel Impacts

Among the most worrisome developments of recent years are the rampantly high birth rates of Muslim states that will in the long run and not so long run represent a population bomb potentially much more devastating than any car bomb, suicide bomber or even plane bomb such as used against the World Trade Center in September 2001. Many Third World Muslim states radicalize their youth instead of educating them in useful skills and establishing job opportunities for them. Saudi Arabia, together with Yemen, etc., maintains fertility rates of 6.3 to 7.3 per woman. Moslem countries in which government supports or at least tolerates radical organizations have a population of about 300 million and are among those with the highest birth or fertility rates. High birth rates and resulting rapid population growth, particularly of people under 30, causes problems amplified by high unemployment and lack of opportunities in most developing countries. This problem is magnified in Third World Muslim...

The snowloving deer of the Arctic

Reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus) have been called chionophiles, snow loving. In fact, Arctic island subspecies of Rangifer are associated with a snow environment for up to ten months out of the year. Rangifer are the most dominant large mammal species in Arctic environments. The species has specialized adaptations in order to thrive in a cold environment. Their diet is energy rich winter lichen, which they obtain mostly by digging (cratering) under the snow70,71. Large hooves aid in thecrateringand allow Rangiferto bettertravel through snow7274. Rangifer are the only member of the deer family in which both males and females grow antlers. Pregnant females retain their antlers until after spring-time calving, allowing them to dominate the social hierarchy in late winter. This dominance allows them to displace lower ranked animals from feeding craters, saving valuable energy75. The large migratory herds of Rangifer migrate north into regions of rapidly melting snow in spring...

Information Processing Models

Cognitive psychologists use models to describe how we mentally represent, manipulate, and store information. Information-processing models emphasize the adaptive nature of the brain, enabling us to be cognitive misers we only take in as much information as is required to navigate in a particular situation. We create cognitive, or mental, maps of various situations or experiences, each map consisting of an organized collection of considerably more information than can be processed at one time. Maps allow us to anticipate, react, and consider possible upcoming events (S. Kaplan & R. Kaplan, 1981). Public reactions to environmental issues are impacted by such maps. For example, in the mid-1990s, Mitsubishi planned to build a desalination plant in a pristine area of Mexican coastal waters that serves as a birthing and nursery area for grey whales. After international environmental groups and celebrities publicized the development plans, more than one million letters of protests,...

The Antitoxics Movement

The antitoxics movement grew out of public attention to the pollution of Love Canal, a community near Niagara Falls, New York, in 1978. The main spokesperson was Lois Gibbs, whose son and daughter had both experienced major health problems as a result of living in an area formerly used as a waste site by Hooker Chemical Company. The company had sold the site to the city of Niagara Falls for one dollar, and a school was built on it in 1954. As the mothers of the school children in the late 1970s talked to each other, they found that many were having miscarriages, giving birth to babies with birth defects, and discovering that their children were dying or contracting cancer at higher rates than would normally be expected. Gibbs and others put pressure on the state of New York, and it eventually agreed to buy out the Love Canal homes. Gibbs went on to found a magazine called Everyone's Backyard, and to organize a major coalition, the Citizen's Clearinghouse for Hazardous Wastes....

Climate Change as a Social Dilemma

Admittedly, some commons are more easily managed than others. In their work on common-pool resource management, Ostrom et al (1994) make a distinction between stationary or spatially fixed resources and non-stationary resource units. While, for example, groundwater basins are stationary, many species of fish are not. They also make a division between available and unavailable storage, and whether stored units can be appropriated when needed. The combination of non-stationary and unavailable storage results in dilemmas where the costs of obtaining reliable information about the resource are high. Hence, such dilemmas are most difficult to balance. An attempt to solve a resource dilemma by Canadian fishermen was based on their catches staying on par with the birth rate of the fish in order to reach an optimal harvest level (Allen and McGlade, 1987). At the outset, catch rates decreased and the pool of fish was stabilized. Those were the days.

Characterization of Contemporary Global Environmental Changes

The exponential increase in all these measurable phenomena is tied to the increase in the human population, and to our consumption habits. Indeed, one must think of these two factors in tandem. One Euro-American citizen consumes 25 times the resources that one average citizen from India, Guatemala, or other less developed countries does (Redclift 1996 Wernick 1997). While birth rates have steadily declined to replacement level or even below in developed countries, these populations continue to impact the earth's resources far more than the larger populations in developing countries. Both developed countries and developing countries have a huge impact on the environment, the former through consumption, and the latter through population increases. Some developing countries have now succeeded in reducing rates of growth (e.g. Brazil is now at, or below, replacement).

Population Technology and Central Place Theories

Concern over a direct effect of population growth on land cover is at least implicitly based on an understanding of how population growth rates change over time. Demographers describe the typical changes in vital rates of birth, death, and growth experienced by a population over the course of development as demographic transition theory (see Kirk 1996 for a description and history of the theory of the demographic transition). For the majority of the long course of human history, populations were in the first stage of the demographic transition, experiencing high death and birth rates (see Figure 2.1 for a diagram illustrating the stages of demographic transition theory). These rates balanced each other and population growth was minimal. As communities, countries, and regions developed modern public health programs, and to a lesser extent modern medicine, death rates began to fall. During the second stage of the demographic transition, death rates fall rapidly while birth rates remain...

Reproductive adaptations

Courageously protecting them against marauders. Female pipefish lay their eggs in a pouch on the male's belly. Here they remain until they hatch as miniature adults. Amphipods and isopods, often very numerous on the shore, also retain their eggs within a brood-pouch from which fully formed young emerge. In Littorina saxatilis, L. rudis and L. neglecta the eggs remain in the mantle cavity until they hatch as minute winkles. The tiny bivalve Lasaea rubra, often abundant in rock crevices and empty barnacle shells, incubates its eggs and young within the gills until they are sufficiently developed to crawl out and maintain themselves near the parent. The viviparous blenny, Zoarces viviparus, gives birth to well-developed young about 4 cm in length.

Population and Environment Theories

In contrast, and at a whole different scale of analysis, we find considerable value in the use of the theory of the household life cycle. The anthropologist Goody (1958) described households as the locus of social reproduction, and described the cycle followed by households over time. Households pass from an expansion stage (where birth rates are high and the family is growing) through a dispersion stage (where children are leaving the household) to a decay stage (when the original household head dies and is replaced by a son or daughter). The economist Chayanov ( 1925 1966), writing much earlier, had described the household-farm economy of Russian peasants. According to Chayanov, the extent of agricultural cultivation by individual households depends on the demographic characteristics of the household. Available household labor is a limiting factor, but the consumption needs of the household are what ultimately determine the behavior of the household. Combining the theoretical ideas...

Impact On Arabia And The Persian Gulf

Unless these concepts are renounced as they were in Turkey by Attaturk more than 80 years ago the confrontation will continue. The imminent decline of economic power of the Gulf States will lead to an increased pressure on countries, particularly in Europe, to accommodate growing numbers of immigrants, not just to provide economic refuge but to establish a growing Islamic presence. With the high birth rate of Moslems in Europe, it is just a matter of time before Moslems gain political power in countries like France, Belgium, and Germany, which may affect the future policies of these countries.

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Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Baby Care Raising baby green the earth-friendly guide to pregnancy, childbirth, and baby care Alan Greene et al. . 1st ed. p. cm. Fulfill your green birth plan to bring your baby into the world in the right place with the right people and with the type of delivery you feel is best.

The classic Arctic ice seal in a changing climate

Seal Ice Snow

Ringed seals also require sufficient snow cover on top of the ice to construct lairs for resting, giving birth and caring for their young (Figure 5.16). The pups are born weighing only 4 kg and both ice and snow must be stable enough in the spring season to successfully complete the six week lactation period73. Premature break-up of the land-fast ice can result in the pups being separated from their mothers, leading to high rates of pup mortality74,75. Spring rains, or high temperatures in spring, can cause the roofs of lairs to collapse, leaving ringed seals subject to increased predation and risks from exposure76. Years in which insufficient snowfall takes place prior to breeding results in a similar phenomenon77.

Incubation period days

Control and prevention of measles is by vaccination. As measles is such an infectious disease, it can be reckoned that every child will develop it. Some 10 will either have such a mild infection or be partially protected by maternal antibodies as to appear not to have been infected. A further 10-20 will not have measles until the following year due to the epidemic effect therefore, the expected number of cases of measles can be calculated from the birth rate minus 25 . If the birth rate in a developing country is 50,000, then 75 of this means that 37.5 cases of measles per 1000 can be expected each year, which represents 37,500 cases in an administrative unit of a million people. Calculations like these can be used to estimate the number of children to be vaccinated and hence the vaccine requirements.

ChoiceNo Choice at the Individual Level

In kinesiology, the word choice plays an essential role. According to Stokes and Whiteside, every human being has from birth the feeling that we have no choice and without choice, we have no power.1 The feeling of no choice is an emotional condition in which individuals may find themselves. Such a feeling may manifest itself when a person experiences emotional problems. As expressed by Stokes and Whiteside, when we buy in to no choice, we check out on our individuality, our self-worth, and the reality of spirit.2

Herbivores are fussy eaters

The same selective feeding on the growing tissues of plants is seen with insects that suck the sap of plants. If you look at roses in your garden you will see that the aphids that are attacking them - another host-specific species -are all crowded just behind the tips of the soft growing stems and developing flower buds. And if you look carefully you will see that they are giving birth, almost continuously, producing young at a great rate. Once a stem stops growing, however, or a flower is about to expand, they quickly desert it, because from then on only water is being imported. When all growth on a rose plant ceases, most aphids die and the few that find enough food to survive cannot breed.

An Ornithologist Speaks

Delight among imperial administrators at the growing health of their subjects was tempered by growing concern at their rising numbers. In 1939 a British Royal Commission said falling death rates meant that a commensurate reduction in the birth rate was the most pressing need of the West Indian colonies. In 1944 the governor of Kenya described the astonishing rate of increase in its population as the single cause to which the difficulties of the African people can be ascribed. And the French demographer Alfred Sauvy warned that rising numbers were driving independence movements in the French colonies. By the 1950s, population theory had come a long way. Crude eugenics was put to one side. Knibbs's idea of demographic growth stretching for centuries into the future, until some inevitable Malthusian bust, had been replaced by the idea of the demographic transition. This was the brainchild of Princeton demographer Frank Notestein. In the West, he said, countries had seen their death rates...

Risks Of Blind Extrapolation Ii

More importantly, the population in the US, Europe and Japan is aging. The ratio of workers to retirees is declining rapidly, even faster in Japan and Europe than the US (which has more young immigrants, mainly from Mexico). Result fewer workers to support more non-workers in coming years. Early retirement, longer life and declining birth-rates have exacerbated this situation. An aging society, like an aging individual worker, depends increasingly on wealth accumulated from past investments by others to pay for current consumption. When a society, or an individual, is young - has few assets - it (or he she) must save and invest out of current income in order to enjoy greater income in the future. For a society, long-term investments range from education and research to infrastructure to factories and enterprises.

Environmental Health in the Postindustrial World

In 1962 Rachel Carson published Silent Spring, alerting the world to the unintended consequences of chemical pesticide use. Her concern was the rampant use, and often overuse, of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides in the post-World War II world. Not confined to agricultural fields, these products leached into ground water, rivers, lakes, and the food supply. Her book brought to the political arena the concept that synthetic chemicals could be responsible for cancer and other diseases. Her warnings proved prescient. The chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as the insecticide DDT (dichloro-diphenyltrichloroethane) 1, and its metabolite DDE (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene) were discovered to not only persist in the environment but to concentrate at greater than ambient levels as they moved up the food chain. Many of these compounds, DDT and DDE included, have the ability to interfere with normal hormone levels in the body, leading to the disruption of endocrine systems. DDT was found...

Poverty and population growth

I do not want to add to the controversy over cause and effect with respect to the Third World's problems. Suffice it to say that I don't, in all logic, see how any society can improve its lot when population growth regularly exceeds economic growth. The factors which will reduce population growth are, by now, easily identified a standard of health care that makes family planning viable, increased female literacy, reduced infant mortality and access to clean water. Achieving them, of course, is more difficult - but perhaps two simple truths need to be writ large over the portals of every international gathering about the environment we will not slow the birth rate until we address poverty. And we will not protect the environment until we address the issue of poverty and population growth in the same breath.

The Geysers Of Enceladus

YOU FEEL iT before you see it an ominous rumble, reverberating deep in your chest and up from your feet. There is no sound here. And then the eruption comes two huge ice plumes explode through the surface of Enceladus, spewing ice crystals into space at more than 1,600 kilometers per hour. The silent violence is lit by our distant sun. With just V16 of our own moon's gravity, Enceladus, Saturn's sixth-largest moon, will not be an easy world to tread on hikers may need to strap on jetpacks and take care to avoid the valleys that give birth to the powerful geysers.

Cradle Of The Petroleum

A major factor in the growth of fundamentalism and unrest in many Middle Eastern countries is the high birth rate, which is not only fostered by religion but also by social and cultural restrictions in the role of women. As a result, more than half the populations of these countries are young people now, with women giving birth to more than six children on average. Similarly, as economic policies in these countries restrict many business activities as well as employment of women, many young women, including college graduates cannot find jobs. Unemployment in the Gulf countries is not only a socio-economic but also a security problem, as many young, particularly unemployed men, see no options but terrorism as a career. People and particularly unemployed young people are frustrated yet their anger is largely diverted towards the West and the non-believers or infidels by both the governments and their primary supporters the clergy who in turn receive generous support from the government....

Historical specificity

Recognizing the historical situatedness of the ideology helps us to understand the nature of the ideology itself. We are provided with a boundary beyond which (in the past) ecologism could not have existed, and therefore any movement or idea behind that boundary can bear only an informing relation to ecologism as I think we ought to understand it. Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring (1965 first published in 1962), then, can only inform ecologism rather than 'be' it due to the absence of an overriding political strategy for dealing with the problems it identifies. My suggestion is that, in 1962, ecologism (and therefore the possibility of being radically green) did not exist, and that Rachel Carson's book and the period in which it was written are best viewed as part of the preconditions for ecologism. Looking at it in this way we shall avoid the mistake made in many commentaries on and anthologies of socialism, say, which talk of the cleric John Ball (who spoke on behalf of English...

Singapore Sling

The feminist revolution is a long way from being completed. In much of the world, men still want to control their womenfolk. But ultimately, we may face a choice complete the revolution or sink into a mire of ultralow fertility. Why Because the evidence from dozens of countries that have passed through the replacement fertility barrier is that without a new attitude from men, the state, religious authorities, and employers, women are going to give up on childbirth altogether. Given a choice between having children and having a life, they will choose a life.

A shared ideology

As the source of ecological problems, and replace them with a feminist sensibility based on women's experience of being closer to nature, through childbirth, and the historically developed virtues through women's role as nurturers. Again, there is no necessary conflict between this and commitments to equality and democracy even though many other feminists criticise what they see as biological essentialism in many ecofeminist arguments. Both deep ecology and ecofemi-nism provide important sources of motivation for many green activists in a variety of radical and more mainstream groups. As Dryzek notes, their main impact is likely to be cultural. This is because the sensibilities they advocate do not provide answers to the kinds of political dilemmas that are most central for greens who seek to engage with social and political institutions. This suggests that the three core commitments remain the best litmus test for adherence to a green ideology.

Leading lights

Perhaps the most inspiring star is Robert Redford. Redford created Sundance Village, a haven for environmental art and conservation, on land he bought in the late 1960s in the heart of the Utah mountains. This initiative gave birth to the annual Sundance Film Festival, where An Inconvenient Truth had its world premiere, and the Sundance Channel, which broadcasts a three-hour, prime-time programming block titled The Green, devoted entirely to the environment. Actively fighting for conservation for decades, Redford has been described as a steadfast, well-informed voice on environmental issues.

Policy benefits

An integrated modelling system was assembled a few years ago to address the issue of a definition of dangerous climate change. The ICLIPS project, initiated and coordinated by the Potsdam Institute in 1995, gave birth to an international and interdisciplinary network of eminent experts on relevant climate-change aspects for an inverse analysis of climate management strategies using the Tolerable Windows Approach (Toth et al., 2002 Leimbach, 2000 Schneider and Toth, 2003). The basic idea was to identify define intolerable global (or regional) impacts of anthropogenic global warming and to calculate, via causal-backwards modelling, the admissible GHG emissions corridors for different macro-actors (like the Annex-I countries) over the next centuries. The ICLIPS community model calculates many crucial variables, such as ecosystem impacts, regional costs of mitigation measures and timing of emissions reductions. It acts in a semi-coproductive way already generating and sharing a common...

What Is Saudi Arabia

Upset with the trends of his time, Ibn Taymiyyah argued that the Islamic world had become corrupted with such Christian customs as music, dancing, wine drinking, ornamentation of religious shrines, veneration of saints, socialization between the genders, and the excessive emancipation of women. Furthermore, he said that while the virtuous desert Muslims of old had correctly understood their duty to wage jihad as meaning an armed struggle against the infidels, their soft, modern, urbanized successors had falsely allegorized this obligation into mere religious introspection. Muslims, said Ibn Taymiyyah, had to return to the pure Islam of Muhammad and the early caliphs. These writings took root in various places across the Islamic world, giving birth to a number of Salafist movements.3

Welfare professions

The Arm does have its roots in feminism. Midwifery is a vocation and we genuinely care about what we are doing. I don't think that you can get into women's issues without being vocal and committed. Being a mid-wife is about empowering women to have the kind of labour they want, it's about giving birth back to women.

Asian Values

(N)ot only do all men at the outset come into being because of nature's law of life, but from birth till the end of life they are kept in existence by the support of heaven and earth. Man surpasses all other created things in his indebtedness to the limitless bounty of nature. It will be seen therefore that man's duty is not only to do his best to serve his parents . . . but also to serve nature throughout his life in order to repay his immense debt.15

Conclusion

There is, however, a chance to transform ourselves into a more sustainable and equitable civilization. So long as the rate of energy production decline is not too high, we could make a successful transition and allow population to shrink back down below the carrying capacity of the planet in a natural fashion, through declines in the birth rate and life expectancy, with a minimum of pain and suffering. But we will all be required to work in order to make this transition happen. We need to redesign our society, aiming for decentralization and localization. We need to reconnect ourselves to the land around us, through home and community gardens, through local small farms and farmers markets, and through permaculture parks and protected wilderness. And we must work hard to organize our communities and awaken our friends and neighbors to this necessity.

Creators of Culture

Each society gives birth to a culture that includes everything that has contributed to survival in the recent or remote past - tools such as money, practices such as work, goals such as cooperation, constructions such as organizations. And climate and cash rock the cradle of culture. This should not be taken literally, of course. Climate and cash are inanimate things only we can bring them to life. Or, to paraphrase Winston Churchill's pointed piece of wisdom, We shape our environment and, through it, we shape our culture.'' This is an immense project. It takes a long time, multiple trials and errors, and much competition and coordination to build and rebuild culture in response to climate and cash. Hence, a crucial part of this culture-building process is that we pass on what we have learned from generation to generation in a nongenetic way (for a thorough overview of how this works, see Whiten et al., 2003).

Russian Roulette

Its people may be freer today than under communism, but they are living less long than they used to. Especially the men. High death rates, combined with low birth rates, are cutting the population of the world's seventh largest country by more than half a million a year. Vladimir Putin, in his presidential address to the Russian federal assembly in 2006, called Russia's demographic crisis the most acute problem facing our country today. Across eastern Europe declining fertility is almost universal, and there is a deep cynicism about state calls for baby making, born of past experiences under communism. Romanians will take a long time to recover from the grotesque population policies of their old communist dictator, Nicolae Ceausescu. He fought the growing reluctance of his citizens to have babies by banning abortion, severely restricting contraception, and declaring the fetus is the socialist property of the entire society. Giving birth is a...

Time Period

In terms of percent change in population growth, the Chinese population had been growing at a rate of 2.6 percent per year in the period of 1965-1970. In the most recent five-year period (2000-2005), the growth rate for China slowed to 0.65 percent. In South America, the population growth rate has steadily declined from 1950, when it was 2.75 percent, to the most recent period's 1.45 percent. Population growth even in the world's poorest countries has been slowing for decades, from a high of about 2.5 percent per year to a current rate of 1.8 percent. Not all of this decline in population growth is a good thing. For Africa especially, some of this is due to premature deaths from warfare and AIDS. However in most of the world, the slowdown in population growth is not due to an increasing death rate, but to a decreasing birth rate, a phenomenon generally associated with a higher standard of living, better education, and lower rates of infant mortality.

Jason S Calder

Niger was all but given a death sentence in the 1970s when drought-propelled desertification, rapid population growth, and unsustainable farming practices threatened ecological collapse and mass human suffering. Women on average each gave birth to more than seven children, and the population was expected to double in the next two decades. Families who had worked their land for generations could see the tell-tale signs it was taking longer and longer to get to trees and fresh water, and the Sahara desert was getting closer and closer.1

Susan Griffin

Attending the University of California, Berkeley, during the student unrest of the 1960s, Griffin became involved in the Free Speech movement, the Civil Rights movement and protest against the Vietnam War. She transferred to what is now San Francisco State University, where she graduated cum laude in English in 1965, received her M.A. in 1973 and worked for the radical magazine Ramparts as an editorial assistant, becoming troubled by the sexist attitudes of the staff. During the late 1960s and 1970s, Griffin married, became a feminist, gave birth to a daughter, divorced and became a lesbian. Simultaneously, she taught writing and developed her own writing career with several volumes of poetry, short stories and an award-winning play, Voices (1975), which were published by feminist presses and reflected her experience as a woman in society. Early exposure to the diverse worlds of gentile and Jew, conservatism and radicalism, heterosexuality and homosexuality, marriage, motherhood and...

James Lovelock

It is an idea that has absorbed James Lovelock for more than thirty years, the idea that is encapsulated in the name 'Gaia'. The name itself was suggested by the novelist William Golding, a friend and at one time a neighbour, in the course of one of the long walks the two men used to take together in the Wiltshire countryside. In Greek mythology Gaia, or Ge, was the Earth. She sprang from Chaos and gave birth to Uranos, the

New Energy Horizon

The world population which exploded in the last two centuries, thanks largely to medical advances, healthier and readily available food and better living conditions, grew from 1 billion in 1800 to over 6.20 billion by 2000 and about 6.40 by 2007. We are now experiencing a declining growth in global birth rate from an average of over 2 in 1965 to less than 1.2 in 2002. In fact, birth rates are expected to fall below 1 by 2015. This will affect the increase in demand for energy as the high energy consuming countries are among those with the smallest or even negative population growth. In other words, population growth, a major factor in the rise of energy demand in the past, will no longer be an issue and may in fact become a negative factor in energy or oil consumption if the world population starts to decline in 20 years, as projected by many, contrary to the dire Club of Rome predictions.

Six Dollars a Snip

The end of the famine did not affect Gandhi's resolve. She cannot have been pleased to read Paul Ehrlich's 1968 prognosis that India was so far behind in the population-food game that there is no hope that any food aid will see them through to self-sufficiency. But undaunted, the government in 1968 set a goal to reduce the Indian birth rate by 45 percent within a decade. Sterilization was industrialized. Two years later, But when the 1971 census returns came in, they revealed that despite this frenzy of activity, the country's population had risen by 109 million since 1961 more than the entire population of all but four other countries. And the sterilization program was faltering. Most of the people willing to be sterilized had already had it done. In 1974-75 just 1.4 million operations were carried out. And many of those had more to do with meeting targets than cutting the birth rate. Attracted by the cash, senile eighty-year-old men were being sterilized in Madras. Over half the men...

Hydrogen Isotopes

Hydrogen 1 (hydrogenium, vhrnp the water, yevveiv to give birth) is the first element in the periodic table of the elements having the atomic number 1 and the electron configuration 1s1. Hydrogen was prepared many years before it was recognized as a distinct substance by Cavendish in 1766 and it was named by Lavoisier. Hydrogen is the most abundant of all elements in the universe and it is thought that the heavier elements were, and still are, built from hydrogen and helium. It has been estimated that hydrogen makes up more than 90 of all the atoms or 75 of the mass of the universe. It is found in the sun and most stars, and plays an important part in the proton-proton reaction and calin_rbon-nitrogen cycle, which accounts for the energy of the sun and stars. It is thought that hydrogen is a major component of the planet Jupiter and that at some depth in the planet's interior the pressure is so great that solid molecular hydrogen is converted into solid metallic hydrogen.

Liberalism

This second objection points to the need to limit population growth. Such a policy may itself have distinctly non-liberal implications (see Wissenburg, 1998b), but Hayward refers to evidence which suggests that affluence is an effective contraceptive, and he also suggests (along with many others, e.g. B. Barry, 1999) that women's emancipation is the key to reduced birth rates. What should be noted, though, is that the 'affluence' solution both falls foul of the limits to growth thesis and is also the cause of the type of environmental problem associated with wealthy societies. Likewise, the 'emancipation' solution comes from feminism not from liberalism, so we are perhaps entitled to conclude that liberalism - on its own - lacks the intellectual resources for dealing with the problems associated with piggy-backing environmental objectives on human rights.

Foodfish production

On an average, growing invertebrate predators seem to consume four times as much food per day and unit weight as bottom-dwelling fishes, which seems reasonable when we realize that the life cycle, or at least the time from birth to maturity, is much shorter in the invertebrate predators than in most of the fishes. A species of invertebrate predator will often produce three or more generations (i.e. build up three or more units of meat) while a flounder is producing only one generation (i.e. build up one unit).

Precaution

Thus the policymaker must consider the circumstances of a given situation and decide which scientific approach is based on the most credible evidence and most reliable scientific methodology. The final decision will inevitably give birth to a legal norm.40

Preamble

Demographic challenges such as education and unemployment which East Asian countries addressed so well and with great success in advancing their economies were largely ignored in the Arab world and particularly by the rich oil and gas producing Gulf countries. At the same time, high birth rates added 2-4 annually to the population.

State of Play

Seemingly undaunted by these challenges, today's climate negotiators are building on the mixed outcomes of the Kyoto Protocol to craft a strategy for moving forward. Despite the absence of the United States, parties to the protocol continue to strengthen its provisions and have committed to improving and expanding the carbon trading, Clean Development Mechanism, and other emissions-reducing tools to which it gave birth. The CDM and its governing board, for example, already are moving to shift toward ongoing programs of emissions reductions in a diversity of developing countries.

So Many People

While population growth drives much of the effort to increase economic growth, at some point economic growth tends to slow population expansion. According to the theory of demographic transition, as nations develop, they reach a point where birth rates begin to fall. Certainly this has been the case in the developed countries in Western Europe, as well as in North America and Japan. Higher-income countries generally have lower population growth rates. If population declines, one would expect per capita income to rise followed by more investment in health, education, and environmental quality. This appears to have been the case in South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Singapore with Malaysia and Indonesia close behind.2 If birth rates continue to decline, higher economic growth rates will be less important.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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