Further Reading

Berzon, Alexandra. "Tuvalu Is Drowning." Salon. March 31, 2006. Available online. URL: http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2006/03/31/ tuvalu/index.html. Accessed May 28, 2007.

Bowen, Mark. Thin Ice: Unlocking the Secrets of Climate in the World's Highest Mountains. New York: Henry Holt, 2005.

Criswell, David R. "Lunar Solar Power System for Energy Prosperity within the 21st Century." World Energy Council (2005). Available online. URL: http://www.worldenergy.org/wec-geis/publications/default/tech_papers/ 17th_congress/4_1_33.asp#Heading6. Accessed May 28, 2007.

Dean, Cornelia. "Next Victim of Warming: The Beaches." The New York Times, June 20, 2006.

Diamond, Jared. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. New York: Viking Penguin, 2004.

Emanuel, Kerry. Divine, Wind: The History and Science of Hurricanes. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). "Climate Change." Available online. URL: http://epa.gov/climatechange/index.html. Accessed May 28, 2007.

_"Energy Star." Available online. URL: http://www.energystar.gov/.

Accessed May 28, 2007.

_"Green vehicle guide." Available online. URL: http://www.epa.gov/

autoemissions/. Accessed May 28, 2007.

Flannery, Tim. The Weather Makers: How Man Is Changing the Climate and What It Means for Life, on Earth. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2006.

Gore, Al. An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It. New York: Rodale, 2006.

Hansen, James. "The Threat to the Planet." The New York Review of Books 53 (July 13, 2006). Available online. http://www.nybooks.com/articles/ 19131. Accessed May 28, 2007.

Hansen, James, et al. "Global Warming in the 21st Century: An Alternative Scenario." Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY (2000). Available online. URL: http://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/features/ altscenario/. Accessed May 28, 2007.

Holland, Earle. "First Compilations of Tropical Ice Cores Shows Two Abrupt Global Climate Shifts—One 5,000 Years Ago and One Currently Underway." Ohio State Research News (2006). Available online. URL: http://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/lonniepnas.htm. Accessed May 28, 2007.

Linden, Eugene. The Winds of Change: Climate, Weather, and the Destruction of Civilizations. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). "Earth Observatory: Atmosphere." Available online. URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa. gov/Topics/atmosphere.html. Accessed May 28, 2007.

Pearce, Fred, and John Gribbin. Global Warming. Essential Science Series. New York: Dorling Kindersley Publishing, 2002.

Revkin, Andrew. The North Pole, Was Here: Puzzles and Perils at the Top of the. World. Boston: Kingfisher (Houghton Mifflin), 2006.

Sweeney, Kevin. "Climate of Hope." Salon. April 4, 2006. Available online. URL: http://www.salon.com/opinion/feature/2006/04/04/hope/index .html. Accessed May 28, 2007.

Wilkinson, Clive. Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2004. Australian Institute of Marine Science (2004). Available online (downloadable). URL: http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/coral-bleaching/scr2004/. Accessed May 28, 2007.

Web Sites

Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change

http://www.stabilisati0n2005.c0m

A symposium and report by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), United Kingdom.

Carbonfund.org

http://www.carbonfund.org

A nonprofit organization that offers individuals, businesses, and organizations the chance to reduce their climate impact by promoting low-cost carbon reductions and supporting renewable energy, energy efficiency, and reforestation projects.

Chicago Climate Exchange

http://www.chicagoclimatex.com

North America's only, and the world's first, greenhouse gas emission registry, reduction and trading system for all six greenhouse gases.

Educational Global Climate Modeling (EdGCM)

http://edgcm.columbia.edu

Educational information about constructing and using global climate models.

Greenhouse Gas Online

http://www.ghgonline.org

Greenhouse gas science from a greenhouse gas scientist; relates greenhouse gas concentrations to global temperature increases.

Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research

http://www.metoffice.com/research/hadleycentre/index.html

The foremost climate research center in the United Kingdom.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

http://www.ipcc.ch

Access to reports, speeches, graphics, and other materials from the IPCC.

It's Getting Hot in Here: Dispatches from the Youth Climate Movement

http://www.itsgettinghotinhere.org

Information for young people on the movement to speak out about climate change.

Kyoto Now!

http://www.rso.cornell.edu/kyotonow/index.html

A college student-led group that seeks to make American Universities commit to reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Pew Center on Global Climate Change

http://www.pewclimate.org

Climate analysis by business leaders, policy makers, scientists, and other experts based on sound science; includes the primer Climate Change 101.

RealClimate

http://www.realclimate.org

Written by working climate scientists for the public and for journalists to provide content and context for climate change stories.

iflSS Index v^M

acidification, 21, 30, 116, 127

adaptation, 92, 139, 165-168 aerosols, 7-9, 28, 35-36, 69, 160

agriculture, 102-103,

117-118, 138 air pollution, 25, 69 Akkadian Empire, 54 albedo, 11, 13, 18-19, 47, 76 algae, climate change and, 92-93

alpine glaciers, defined, 10 altitude, climate and, 18-19 Amazon basin, 104-105 amphibians, 127 ancient climate, overview of,

49-50 Andes Mountains, 81 Andrew (hurricane), 88 Antarctica, ice shelves of,

77-78 aquifers, 11 arctic regions, 78-79,

115-116 asteroid impacts, 25, 29 Atlantic meridional overturning, 16, 17, 126 Atlantic Multidecadal

Oscillation (AMO), 31, 88 atmospheric composition, 3-9

atomic weight, 42 atoms, 42

Bala, Govindasamy, 112 bark beetles, 104, 105 barrier gates, 168 basalt eruptions, 28—30 Bering land bridge, 52 Beryllium-10, ice cores and, 41 Berzon, Alexandra, 130 biodiesel, 154 biodiversity, 128 biofuels, 154

birds, climate change and,

99-100 Blair, Tony, 118, 139, 144 Bronze Age, 54 Browne, John, 139 Bryden, Harry, 125-126 Bubonic plague, 61 business-as-usual model, 111-112, 128, 133

calcium carbonate, 21, 47,

96-97, 116, 127 Caldeira, Kenneth, 120 calving, defined, 10 cap-and-trade programs, 140,

141, 142-143 Capitol Steel Mill, 150 carbon cycle, overview of, 19-22

carbon sequestration, 19-22,

51, 159-160

carbon taxes, 147-148 Carteret Islands, 129-130 catalysts, 157 Catarina (hurricane), 90 cellulosic ethanol, 154-155 Chicago Climate Exchange

(CXX), 142-143 Chichen Itza, 58 China, 70-72, 130, 142, 144, 150

chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 7,

34, 149 cholera, 105, 120 Christy, John, 38 chytrid fungus, 127 circulation cells, 13-15, 70 clean coal, 158 climate change. See also greenhouse gases causes of recent, 66-69 climate and weather oscillations and, 30-32 global dimming and, 35-38

land use changes and, 35 mass extinctions and, 29 Milankovitch cycles and,

25-28 plate tectonics and, 28-30

solar variation and, 24-25 temperature, greenhouse gas levels and, 69-70 climate refugees, tipping point and, 129-132

Colorado River, 80 commitment models, 110 condensation, water cycle and, 10

continental glaciers, 10,

40-41, 55 contrails, 37

controlling factors, 12-19 coral bleaching, 96-97, 116

coral reefs, 96-97, 116 cores, 40-42, 52, 54, 56-57,

68-69 Coriolis effect, 13, 15 Cretaceous Period, 29 Crump, Martha, 127 cryosphere, 10, 76-79 currents, 15-17, 31, 51, 125

dead zones, 95 Deccan Traps, 29 deforestation, climate change and, 34, 35 dengue fever, 120 density, ocean currents and, 16

desertification, 102 dimming, 35-38, 65, 69,

112-113, 160 diseases, 61, 104-105,

119-120 doubling model, 111 drought climate change and, 80, 84-85, 102-103, 104-105 feedback mechanisms and, 47

future of global warming and, 115 global dimming and, 36 records of, 54-55, 57-58 Dust Bowl, 64, 132

eccentricity, 26, 27 economy, transformation of, 151

electromagnetic waves, 5 electrons, energy and, 5 ellipses, 26, 27 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), 30-32, 55, 57, 82, 93-94 Emanuel, Kerry, 88-89, 119

emissions, 69, 140-141,

159-160, 164-165 encephalitis, 120 energy, 5-6, 147-148,

151-159 energy balance, 11, 12 Energy Star program, 163 Enhanced Geothermal Systems

(EGS), 152-153 environmental refugees,

129-130 erosion, 83, 117 ethanol, 154-155 Europe, tipping point and,

125-126 European Project for Ice

Coring in Antarctica (EPICA), 41 evapotranspiration, 11 evolution, climate change and, 92

extinctions, 28-29, 115-116,

126-129, 138 extreme weather, 83-90,

118-119

feedback mechanisms, 46-47,

76, 79, 103-104 firn, defined, 10 fission, 153

Flannery, Tim, 128, 133 flood basalt eruptions, 28-30 floods, climate change and, 85-86

food webs, 29, 93, 94, 95 foraminifera, 43-44, 50-51 forests, 22, 103-106, 159 fossil fuels, 21, 33, 47 freshwater organisms, 92-93 fuel cells, 155-158 fuel economy improvements,

148, 163 fungus, chytrid, 127 fusion, 153-154

Galveston, Texas, hurricane, 90

gasification, 158-159, 160 geothermal energy, 152-153 glaciers future of global warming and, 116-117 mass extinctions and, 30 Pleistocene Ice Ages and, 51

retreat of, 78, 81 tipping point and, 122-123 water cycle and, 10 Global Amphibian Assessment, 127

global carbon cycle, 19-22 global dimming, 35-38, 65, 69,

112-113, 160 global models, local models vs., 112 global warming, greenhouse gases and, 23 Gore, Al, 125 greenhouse effect, diagram of, 7

greenhouse gases carbon cycle and, 19-22 climate change and,

33-34 concentrations of, 8 emissions of by country, 70-72

feedback mechanisms and, 47

global warming and, 23

historical variations in, 50 Kyoto Protocol and,

140-142 overview of, 4-7 temperature and, 69-70 tropical regions and, 57 Greenland ice sheet, 55, 78,

79, 122-123 Gross National Product (GNP), greenhouse gas emissions and, 72 groundwater, water cycle and, 10-11

growing season, climate change and, 97 Gulf Stream, 125-126 gyres, defined, 15

habitat loss, climate change and, 100-101 Hansen, James E., 121,

heat budget, balancing of, 11 heat capacity, 17, 65 heat islands, 35 heat waves, 83-84, 118 HFCs, climate change and, 34

Himalaya Mountains, 81 hockey stick graph, 63 Huber, Matthew, 118-119 human civilization, 53-61,

119-120, 132-133 hurricanes, 31-32, 86-90,

118-119, 165-166 hybrid vehicles, 149 hydrocarbons, climate change and, 34 hydrogen fuel cell technology,

155-158 hydrologic cycle, 9-11, 80-81, 115

hydropower, 151

56-57, 68-69 ice sheets, 10, 122-125 ice shelves, defined, 10 India, 72, 130

individuals, role of, 161-164 Indonesia, 130 industrialization, global dimming and, 65 Industrial Revolution, 66-67 inertia, thermal, 70, 116-117,

122, 125 influences on climate, overview of, 12-19 infrared radiation, defined, 6 injection, carbon sequestration and, 160 insect pests, 119-120 insolation, defined, 25 insurance, 132-133, 166 interglacial periods, 52 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 75, 114, 131 iron fertilization, 159-160 isotopes, 41-43, 44

jet stream, 65 Justinian Plague, 55-56

Katrina (hurricane), 89, 90,

132, 165-166 Keeling curve, 66-68 Kilimanjaro glacier, 78 krill, 94

Kyoto Now!, 144 Kyoto Protocol, 140-142, 143-144

lake structure, global warming and, 80 land use changes, 35, 126

Larsen B ice shelf, 77—78 latitude, climate and, 12—13 life cycle events, climate change and, 99—100 limits, setting of, 139—140 Linden, Eugene, 54 Little Ice Age (LIA), 25, 55,

59-61, 126 London, 167, 168 Lubchenko, Jane, 95

malaria, 120

mangrove forests, 82, 129-130 Mann, Michael, 119 manure, 34, 149 marine organisms, 93-95 mass extinctions, overview of, 29-30

Maunder Minimum, 25, 61 Maya civilization, 57-58 measurements, climate study and, 39-40 Medieval Warm Period, 55,

57-58, 63 methane atmosphere and, 4, 7 carbon cycle and, 19, 22 climate change and, 34 feedback mechanisms and, 47

Industrial Revolution and, 68

Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and, 50-51

reduction of in agriculture, 149

temperatures and, 50 methane hydrates, 22 migration, 98-99, 128 Milankovitch cycles, 25-28,

53, 70 mirrors, orbiting, 161 Mississippi River, flooding of, 86

mitigation, 138—139

overview of effects of

Pimentel, David, 155

modeling, 45-48, 66-67,

climate change on,

plankton

109-112, 171

91-92

carbon sequestration and,

monsoons, global dimming

terrestrial, 96-102

21

and, 36

Orr, James C., 127

climate change and, 93,

Montverde Cloud Forest, 127

oscillations, climate, climate

94

Mosley, Ellen, 56

change and, 30-32

dead zones and, 95

oxygen, oceanic dead zones

defined, 19

N

and, 95

iron fertilization and,

natural causes of climate

oxygen isotopes, overview of,

159-160

change, 24-32

42-43

sediment record and, 43

natural gas, carbon cycle and,

ozone, 4, 9, 34

plants, climate change and,

22

98

negative feedback mechanisms,

P

plate tectonics, climate change

46, 47, 103-104

Pacific Decadal Oscillation

and, 28-30

Neogloboquadrina pachyderma,

(PDO), 31

Pleistocene Ice Ages, 28,

43-44

Paleocene-Eocene Thermal

51-53

neutrons, isotopes and, 42

Maximum (PETM), 50-51,

political action, 163-164

nitrous oxides (NOx), 4, 34

116

pollen, ice cores and, 41

Norris, Richard, 116

paleoclimatology, 40-41,

polyps, 96-97

North Atlantic gyre, 15

56-57

positive feedback mechanisms,

North Atlantic Oscillation

pandemics, 55-56

46-47, 76, 79, 133

(NAO), 32

Parmesan, Camille, 98,

poverty, adaptation and,

nuclear power plants,

99-100, 101

165-166

153-154

particulates, 7-9, 28, 35-36,

precession, 26, 27

nuclei, isotopes and, 42

69, 160

precipitation, 10, 43, 65,

Patzek, Tad, 155

115

O

penguins, 101-102

pressure zones, climate and,

obliquity, 26, 27

per capita greenhouse

14

oceans

emissions, 72

primary productivity, 19,

climate and, 15-17

permafrost, 10, 79

92-93, 97, 103-104

climate change and,

Permian Period, 29

producers, defined, 19

81-83

Peru Current, ENSO and, 31

protons, isotopes and, 42

feedback mechanisms and,

phenology, 92

proxies, climate study and,

47

photons, energy and, 5

40-45

fertilization of, 159-160

photosynthesis, carbon cycle

future of global warming

and, 19

Q

and, 116-117

photovoltaic cells, 151

Qori Kalis glacier, 57

water cycle and, 9-10

phrenology, 100

Quelccaya ice cap, 56

Younger Dryas and, 53

phytoplankton

offsetting of carbon emissions,

carbon cycle and, 19, 127

R

164-165

climate change and, 93,

radiation, 5-6, 11

oil shale, 156

94

Rapley, Chris, 123-124

organisms. See also human

dead zones and, 95

recent climate, 62-65

civilization

iron fertilization and,

reflection, energy balance and,

freshwater, 92-93

159-160

11

marine, 93-95

pikas, 98

refugees, 129-130

research, importance of, 160-161 reservoirs, 19-22, 80 respiration, carbon cycle and, 21

Revkin, Andrew, 138 rice production, 34, 103, 149

rivers, global warming and, 80-81 Rolling Stones, 164 Russia, greenhouse gas emissions and, 70-72

Saffir-Simpson Hurricane

Scale, 86, 87 Sahel region, 36, 80, 103 salinity, 125-126 satellites, climate study and, 40

scattering, energy balance and, 11

Schellnhuber, H.J., 126 sea levels, 81-82, 122-125 seasons, Milankovitch cycles and, 26 sea surface temperatures,

43-46, 50, 88-89 sedimentary rocks, as climate proxies, 40, 44 sediments, 21, 40, 42-44, 51 September 11 terrorist attacks, 37

sequestration, 19-22, 51,

159-160 Shea, Dennis, 90 Siberian Traps, 29 Simms, Andrew, 131-132 six-cell model of global air circulation, 14 slash-and-burn agriculture, 33-34

snow cover, rising temperatures and, 65

soils, carbon sequestration and, 160

solar cells, 151, 161

solar variation, climate change and, 24-25 Sopoaga, Enele, 130 South Pacific gyre, ENSO and, 31

specific heat, climate and,

16-17 Sriver, Ryan, 118-119 storm surge, 82 strategy development,

148-150 stratosphere, defined, 9 sulfur hexachloride, 34 sulfur oxide emissions, 141

35-36 sunspots, 25 Swiss Re, 133 switchgrass, 155 syngas, 158-159

tar sands, 156 taxes, 147-148, 163-164 tax incentives, 163-164 tectonics, 28-30 temperature climate change and, 85 climate consequences by,

114-115 coral reefs and, 96-97 electromagnetic wavelength and, 5 future of global warming and, 115 greenhouse gas levels and, 69-70

hottest years on record and, 64

terrestrial organisms,

96-102 thermal expansion, 81-82,

116-117 thermal inertia, 70, 116-117, 122, 125

thermohaline circulation,

13-15, 70 Thompson, Lonnie, 54-55, 56-57

threshold effects, modeling and, 46-48, 113 Tikal, 58 tipping point climate refugees and,

129-132 European ice age and,

125-126 extinctions and,

126-129

human civilization and,

132-133 ice sheet loss, sea level rise and, 122-125 overview of, 121-122 toads, 126-127 transportation, improvements to, 148-149 Travis, David, 37 tree rings as climate proxies,

40, 45 Trenberth, Kevin, 90 troposphere, 9, 34 Turkey, 54 Tuvalu, 130-131

ultraviolet (UV) radiation, defined, 6 uncertainties, modeling and, 110

Union of Concerned Scientists, 146

United States, 70-72, 131,

141-144 urban heat island effect, 35

Vikings, 58-59

visible light, defined, 5-6

volcanic eruptions, 21-22, 25,

28, 29 Vostok ice core, 52

Warren, Rachel, 139 water, oxygen isotopes and, 42-43

water vapor, 3 wavelengths, defined, 5 waves, energy and, 5-6

weather, 83-90, 118-119 West Antarctic Ice Sheet,

123-124 West Nile virus, 120 wildfires, 47, 105-106 Wilkinson, Clive, 97 wind belts, 14 wind energy, 152, 158 wobbles, 26, 27

yellow fever, 120 Younger Dryas, 53, 55, 125, 126

zooplankton, 19, 93, 94

zooxanthellae, 96-97

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