Cat Spraying What You Can Do
Control and prevention is by personal hygiene especially hand-washing after touching cats. Cats should be banished at meal times and when food is being prepared. The habit of giving cats scraps of food during the course of a meal should be strongly discouraged. All meat should be properly cooked and milk pasteurized. Children's play areas, especially sandpits, should be protected from cats. Surveillance In high-incidence areas, pregnant women can be asked questions on contact with cats or eating undercooked meat during the antenatal visit.
Here's another bit of country weather lore. Animals develop thicker fur, put on more fat, or store away more food prior to a long or severe winter, than they do before a short or mild winter. If you see squirrels storing acorns in greater abundance than usual around Labor Day, or if you see your outside cats getting fat and fuzzy for Halloween, you should suspect, according to this theory, that the approaching winter will be cold or snowy, or both, and will linger into May but only if you live up North or in the mountains, of course. People in the Sun Belt (the southern U.S.) don't have to worry about this.
There are perhaps 8 million cats in Britain. Let's assume you look after one of them. The energy cost of Tiddles If she eats 50 g of meat per day (chicken, pork, and beef), then the last section's calculation says that the power required to make Tiddles' food is just shy of 2 kWh per day. A vegetarian cat would require less.
Transmission Domestic animals including poultry, pigs, cattle, sheep, cats and dogs are reservoirs of the organism and their consumption or human's close association with them is responsible for much of the transmission. Most infections are due to faecal contamination by animals or birds, especially of unpasteurized milk and unchlorinated water. Water can be contaminated by bird droppings in which the
Much has been accomplished in the science of climatology in recent years. Some aspects of the earth's climate are known with a high degree of confidence. As might be reasonably expected, there are areas where the jury is still out and further work remains to be done. Much of this centers around gaining a more precise understanding of past climate changes. In many ways, the scientists and modelers seem to be attempting the technical equivalent of herding cats. But we are far from clueless.
By and large they are not terribly good at catching enough prey. But where catchable food is abundant, cats quickly increase. For example, they were recorded as being as dense as 200 animals per square kilometre in the docklands of Portsmouth, in England, where human refuse provided a superabundance of food. On the other hand, on subantarctic Campbell Island, where most birds have been eliminated and there is no alternative prey, there are too few of them for meaningful densities to be gauged. In between these extremes a wide range of densities has been recorded. In a Californian waterfowl refuge they reached nearly eight per square kilometre. Again in the subantarctic, on Macquarie Island, there are as many as eight or nine per square kilometre, because there are plenty of easy-to-catch young feral rabbits and ground-nesting petrels to eat. When they were first introduced to the equally bleak Marion Island, in the Indian Ocean, where there are lots of these burrow-inhabiting...
The close relationship with dogs has already been discussed at length in Sections 3.15 and 4.10. In considering our ambivalence to animals this bond needs to be extended to the more general issue of the lengthy working arrangements we have with other animals. For example, the domestication of cats appears to date from the birth of agriculture and the storage of grain. They would have been valuable in protecting stores against rats and mice - a well-known archaeological marker of sedentism. The recent discovery that as early as 10 kya, domesticated cats were taken with settlers to Cyprus (Vigne et al., 2004) is a measure of how quickly this tactic emerged as part of agriculture. The mutually beneficial nature of this arrangement
Nipah is a zoonosis of pigs with the possible involvement of dogs and cats also, and transmission probably occurs from close contact with body fluids or tissues of the animal. However, the risk of transmission to humans is low, although all precautions, with the wearing of gowns and gloves, should be taken when handling animals. Hendra is a similarly transmitted disease of horses. Epidemics of Nipah occurred in Malaysia in 1998-1999 (265 cases, 105 deaths), Singapore in 1999 (11 cases, one death) and Bangladesh in 2001 (30 cases, 18 deaths).
The arrival of such animals as monkeys, sloths, elephantids, camelids, rats, and cats left a lasting impression on these systems. Many entered unoccupied niches, while others may have gone into direct competition with marsupial counterparts, or the indigenous array of flightless predatory birds. The net result was rather lop-sided with relatively few genera moving into North America, though Glyptodont, a re-radiation of sloth species, possum, armadillos, and porcupines were clear exceptions. While only the latter three have surviving representatives in North America, 50 of mammal genera in South America are derived from Laurasian immigrants (Terborgh, 1992).
It was not just huge prey animals that went extinct eleven thousand years ago, for some small animals were lost as well. However, most of the extinctions were of animals that weighed more than one hundred pounds. As many as thirty-four genera of such mammals went terminally extinct in North America, along with three genera of small mammals.16 In South America fifty-one genera went extinct as well, only eleven of which were shared with North America. Included among the victims were mammoths, mastodons, saber-toothed cats, horses (of the native American type), large rodents, and a bewildering array of odd-looking creatures.
Wind energy is not without its environmental concerns, however. In some locations, turbines have killed significant numbers of birds and bats, although with slower rotating blades and better siting, those impacts are being dramatically reduced, and at its worst, wind energy is a smaller threat to wildlife than are house cats or motor vehicles. In spite of the real concern over proper siting, consensus has been reached that wind power is indeed green. The Audubon Society has stated that it strongly supports wind power as a clean alternative energy source. President John Flicker summed up the issue with stark frankness When you look at a wind turbine, you can find the bird carcasses and count them. With a coal-fired power plant, you can't count the carcasses, but it's going to kill a lot more birds. 18
Dogs and cats live in many habitats (mostly around humans), but even in the wild, they are widely distributed. However, most species are restricted to certain areas because their ecological requirements are only found in a limited location. They might be able to do well in another region, but not if they have to travel huge distances (like across an ocean) to enjoy a better climate and food supply.
The most important source of infection from which humans suffer is from other humans, but the animals on which people depend for their livelihood and companionship are responsible for many others. Paramount amongst these is the dog, which is involved directly in a number of diseases, or is a reservoir for many others (Table 17.1). Less important, except to people who have close association with them are cats, cattle and other domestic animals. The principal synanthropic vector is the rat, already
Penetrate between the scales and encyst in the flesh. The parasite also attacks dogs, cats, rats and pigs, which form reservoirs of infection (Fig. 9.3). There are a number of less common trematodes that have the same life cycle as O. sinensis (Fig. 9.3). O. viverrini is found in Thailand and Laos where raw fish paste is a favourite food additive. O. felineus occurs in Central and Eastern Europe, similarly causing disease of the liver. As suggested by its name, it is mainly a disease of cats, but humans can become infected. Heterophyes heterophyes and Metagonimus yokogawai, found in Asia and the Far East, do not attack the liver, but remain in the intestines. The eggs of all of these flukes are very similar (Fig. 9.1).
Today, researchers study the fossil record left behind by mammoths, mastodon, musk oxen, large-horn bison, camels, giant beaver, giant wolves, giant bears, big-horn sheep, giant ground sloths, short-faced bears, and saber-toothed cats. They also study the glacial deposits and landforms of the area as well as the distinct shoreline left by the lake, as seen in the photo.
Sensitization to common indoor allergens is strongly associated with asthma, and one of the most common are pets, some 100 million of which are found in about 70 of US households, and include cats, dogs, hamsters, gerbils, birds, and a diversity of other companions such as snakes, turtles, and iguanas. The National Institutes of Health estimates that 1 in 10 people (i.e., 10 of the population) in the United States is allergic to their pets, and those with asthma are especially vulnerable, with some 30 allergic to animal dander the skin flakes on an animal's skin or fur (especially cats) actually dandruff. For years the steady mantra of physicians cautioning parents that lowering children's risk of developing allergies later in life, required a pet-free home. Current research, however, impugns that advice. In fact, pets may be protective. Researchers from the Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia (Augusta), conducted a prospective...
A similar transformation occurred with corn. Wild corn and the varieties cultivated by Native Americans tended to be smaller and less sweet than the corn on the cob we are used to today. In fact, all wild foods, including grains and cereals, are not very good sources of food for humans. Wild grain plants don't serve very well for making flour as compared to modern wheat or rye. Wine made from wild grapes is not very good. From the time that agriculture was invented, human beings have engaged in the continuous modification and improvement of food plants using an age-old technique called selective breeding. This ancient and critical art is not limited to the modification of plants. People have selectively bred cattle over many generations. All domestic animals differ from their wild cousins due to selective breeding and modification by humans. This includes dogs, cats, chickens, camels, sheep, goats, water buffalos, etc. Over generations, breeding has continuously modified and...
Terrorists seeking ways to harm the United States, could deliberately introduce foreign animal diseases into the country. Accepting that idea, the USDA recently calculated that a foot-and-mouth outbreak could spread to 25 states in as little as 5 days. A simulation by the National Defense University in June 2002 predicted that a foot-and- mouth outbreak could spread to more than one-third of the nation's cattle herds 39 . When it does, vesicles appear in the mouth and on the upper lip, on the coronary band of the foot, and on the mammary glands and areas of fine skin. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a visual misery, and can ' t be missed. These vesicles burst, leaving painful, red erosions. Secondary bacterial infections of the open vesicles can also occur in the mouth and on lips. For a terrorist, the fact of virus elimination via all secretions and excretions offers added reward. Large quantities of virus are eliminated in saliva, which is responsible for both environmental and...
Organism The roundworms of dogs, Toxo-cara canis and less commonly cats, T. catis. Occurrence and distribution Worldwide, wherever dogs and cats are found living in Control and prevention Dogs should be prevented from promiscuous defecation of playgrounds, streets, parkland and vegetable gardens. Owners of pets should scoop-up faeces and dispose of them safely. Stray animals, especially unwanted puppies, should be destroyed. Dogs and cats should be dewormed at 6-month intervals starting when the animal is 3 weeks old. Young children should not play with pets and should be taught personal hygiene from a young age.
Up to this point in the book we have been considering winds averaged over five minutes or so. In reality, both the wind speed and direction may vary widely during those five minutes. The irregularities constitute turbulence, defined as 'the complex spectrum of fluctuating motion imposed on the average flow'. It is due to the eddies mentioned in Section 14.1. The fluctuations lead to bumpy aircraft flights, ripples across wheat crops and isolated patches of ruffled surface on a lake, called 'cats' paws'. More importantly, they are the means by which water vapour, sensible heat and friction are transferred from the ground to the free atmosphere. Also, turbulence is associated with gusts of high speed and lulls of low.
Occurrence and distribution Found in the tropical and temperate regions of the world in areas where dogs and cats are kept as pets or for hunting. Raccoons are progressively moving into urban areas where they pose a risk to children in particular. A localized form of visceral larva migrans occurring in Thailand and China results from Gnathostoma spinigerum, an intestinal parasite of cats and dogs. People are infected by the larval stage, through eating raw fish. The disease presents as a single migratory swelling, either superficially or in the deeper tissues, cerebral lesions being not uncommon. It causes intense itching and eosinophilia. If the larva comes near the surface of the body, its surgical removal can result in cure, otherwise albendazole, mebendazole and DEC have been reported to have some effect. Ensuring that fish are properly cooked is the easiest method of control.
Transmission Oocysts are passed in cat faeces and if accidentally swallowed by humans they become infected. Children are commonly infected when playing with pets, or sand and soil in which cats defecate. Adults are more commonly infected from swallowing pseudocysts in undercooked meat (generally mutton or pork). Congenital infection occurs when the mother becomes infected during the early course of her pregnancy. Oocysts can be inhaled or drunk in contaminated water, and toxoplasma tachy-zoites are passed in cow and goat milk.
The plant at Meda produced trichlorophenol (TCP) for use in producing hexachlorophene. Plant workers knew that the safety valve of the 10,000-liter (L) reactor vessel had not been provided with protective devices, but few gave it a second thought production had proceeded smoothly for years. Sometime between noon and 2 p.m . a runaway reaction began in the reactor although the plant was shut down for the weekend, the reactor had been charged with ingredients necessary for production of a new batch of TCP. An unusual amount of pressure developed within the reactor. Without the protective units, the rupture disk burst and hot gases, vapor, and particulates exploded into the air above the plant. Dense white clouds formed, and the prevailing winds carried the chemical mist to the southwest. Although the incident occurred in Meda, Seveso became the epicenter of the toxic rain. By Monday, children began to complain of red, burning skin lesions. Rabbits, cats, birds, poultry, and frogs were...
Transmission The egg on reaching water softens and a miracidium frees itself from the egg capsule and searches for a snail of the genus Semisulcospira. Passing through the sporocyst and redia stages, the cercaria encysts in the gills and muscles of freshwater crabs and crayfish. Humans are infected by eating uncooked, salted or pickled freshwater crab (Eriocheir and Pota-mon) or crayfish (Cambaroides), while an animal reservoir (mainly cats and dogs) helps to maintain the disease. The liberated metacercaria pass through the intestinal wall and penetrate the diaphragm to enter the lung. Adults develop in the lungs to produce eggs, which are liberated into the sputum. Occasionally they find their way to unusual sites, the brain being particularly serious (Fig. 9.4).
Montaigne's apparently undisciplined gathering of the more amazing feats of animals recounted in books, interspersed with the occasional personal observation, has analogies with the encyclopedism and collecting mania of his contemporaries (and exactly the same appeal as exotic 'wildlife series' on television). There are, however, features of Montaigne's discourse that betray a rather different preoccupation. In emphasizing the role of animals in human culture and in subjecting their remains to the wondering gaze of the possessor of a curiosity cabinet, encyclopedias and collections tended to promote an anthropomorphic view of the animal world just as effectively as the moral and Christological lenses through which their medieval predecessors had read the Book of Nature. Montaigne's purpose is not to show how man can know nature and therefore feel easy with it, but to discomfort man, to show that his claim to be superior to animals is undermined by counter-examples at every turn. He...
Transmission The adult worm is found in the intestines of humans, dogs, cats, foxes and bears, and a number of other mammalian hosts. Eggs are passed in the faeces, which on contact with water liberate a cor-acidium, which is ingested by a copepod (Cyclops and Diaptomus). The coracidium develops in the copepod to a larval form, a procercoid, which when eaten by a freshwater fish finds its way into the muscles and develops into a plerocercoid. When the raw or improperly cooked fish is eaten, the liberated plerocercoid attaches itself to the intestinal wall and develops into an adult tapeworm (Fig. 9.5).
These pesticides are natural substances extracted from flowers and other parts of plants. They have strong, distinctive odors that repel pests or attract them to a trap or poisonous substance. Some also keep cats and dogs away from your plants. These plant-derived products include rose, cinnamon, and clove oils. They're nontoxic to humans (some are even considered foods), but sometimes they're mixed with toxic stuff, as in bug traps, so be sure to read the label carefully.
Hybridity involves refiguring the deep shallow distinction that drives much deep ecological thinking. It involves seeing how the deep shallow metaphor cuts across the human nature boundary. Plumwood's view is that 'Some non-human concerns can be decidedly shallow , for example those that automatically privilege human pets like cats or dogs over other animals, or which treat pets as the paradigm of animality' (Plumwood, 2006, p. 63). By the same token, some human concerns may be seen as 'deep'. Another key theorist of hybridity (although he doesn't use the word) is Bruno Latour. In stark contrast to much of the thinking which we have analysed in this chapter, Latour wants the ecology movement to 'let go of nature' (Latour, 2004, p. 11) rather than base its politics on it. This seems profoundly counter-intuitive from a green point of view. Hybridity, though, is not only aimed at the liberation of nature, but of humans and nature together. Latour says that there is 'nothing more...
The methyl-mercury poisoning in Minamata Bay first became apparent in 1953, with sick children and dancing cats, cats so frenzied they would dance and die. Initially it was thought that this was a contagious disease, and the victims were spurned by other villagers. It became obvious in the late 1950s that the release of methyl mercury from the Chisso chemical plant in Minamata Bay had caused high levels of mercury in fish, which resulted in the health problems of the local community, especially fishermen. Michiko Ishimure was a shy housewife from Minamata who was concerned about the plight of the villagers, who became ill from ingesting high levels of mercury.
Do windmills kill huge numbers of birds Wind farms recently got adverse publicity from Norway, where the wind turbines on Smola, a set of islands off the north-west coast, killed 9 white-tailed eagles in 10 months. I share the concern of BirdLife International for the welfare of rare birds. But I think, as always, it's important to do the numbers. It's been estimated that 30 000 birds per year are killed by wind turbines in Denmark, where windmills generate 9 of the electricity. Horror Ban windmills We also learn, moreover, that traffic kills one million birds per year in Denmark. Thirty-times-greater horror Thirty-times-greater incentive to ban cars And in Britain, 55 million birds per year are killed by cats (figure 10.6). Going on emotions alone, I would like to live in a country with virtually no cars, virtually no windmills, and with plenty of cats and birds (with the cats that prey on birds perhaps being preyed upon by Norwegian white-tailed eagles, to even things up). But what...
DESCRIPTION AND COMMENTS These two teeth represent the only record of Miracinonyx from Porcupine Cave. Irvingtonian cheetahs have been identified from Port Kennedy Cave, Pennsylvania (type locality) Cumberland Cave and Cavetown, Maryland Hamilton Cave, West Virginia Inglis 1A, Florida Conard Fissure, Arkansas and Santa Clara County, California (Van Valkenburgh et al., 1990). The genus Miracinonyx includes two species of large, small-headed, slender-limbed cats, the Irvingtonian M. inexpectatus and the late Rancholabrean M. trumani.
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