Role Of The Financial Services Sector

Climate change has become an important factor for the financial sector in its banking, insurance, and investment activities. Challenges for the sector will appear from the different directions that have been identified earlier in this chapter regulations that are designed to limit GHG emissions, physical changes that take place due to climate change impacts, legal challenges to be brought on by inadequate governance, reputational fallout for companies due to corporate positions on climate...

Adverse Weather The Role Of Weather Derivatives

Many businesses, especially those in the energy sector, are exposed to the risk of adverse, although not catastrophic, weather. Specifically, mild summers reduce the demand for air conditioning, while mild winters reduce the demand for space heating. Adverse weather likewise affects agriculture, hydroelectric and wind power generation, construction schedules, demand for certain clothing and beverage products, and outdoor entertainment. Most of these types of exposures are difficult to insure...

Mutual Funds

Although there has been growing support for global warming resolutions by other institutional investors, the majority of mutual fund managers appear to be hesitant to undertake such actions. In fact, the mutual fund industry raised strong objections to the 2004 SEC requirements that investment management companies disclose both their proxy votes and their voting policies (Brennan and Johnson 2004). They argued that such disclosures would politicize the proxy voting process and hinder funds from...

Physical Impacts On Unregulated Sectors Water Supply and Treatment

Dust Devil Whirlwind

It could be argued that the water supply and treatment industry is the human activity most immediately affected by climate change, given its direct dependence for its raw material on everyday experience of precipitation and temperature. In their response to the Third Carbon Disclosure Project, the directors of RWE, the utilities conglomerate, stated For our water business, adaptation to climate change is a major challenge. More uneven distribution (of water) together with a rise in temperatures...

Box The Concept And Use Of Biofuels

Bioethanol, which is chemically identical to other forms of ethanol, can be derived from sugar cane, grain, corn, and straw. More recently, biodiesel, which is derived mainly from vegetable oil, has also been developed. The use of these products, referred to collectively as biofuels, provide well-to-wheels7 GHG reductions on the order of 20 percent to 50 percent compared to petroleum fuels. The concept of running cars on freshly harvested plant material rather than the fossilized version is not...

Contents

List of Acronyms xvii CHAPTER 1 The Scientific Context of Climate Change 5 The Political Context of Climate Change 8 Role of the Financial Services Sector 21 The Energy Chain and the Value Chain 28 National and Local Self-Sufficiency 33 Impacts of Different Users and Uses on Climate Change 34 Users Business, Households, and Government 34 Uses Manufacturing, Transportation, Heating, Water, Sources of Energy Fossil Fuels 36 Sources of Energy Nuclear Energy 39 Sources of Energy Hydroelectric Power...

Box Hsbc The Worlds First Carbon Neutral Bank

As well as examining the indirect impacts of carbon risk through their lending and investment portfolios, HSBC has also addressed its direct impacts on climate change, and became the first major bank to announce it was carbon neutral. In 2004, HSBC made a commitment to be the world's first major bank to achieve carbon neutrality, with a Carbon Management Task Force announcing a target of 5 percent reduction over three years. The HSBC Carbon Management Plan consists of three phases 1 to manage...

The Changing Climate

Although the issues surrounding climate change are perceived as being fairly new, a brief reflection on the history of research in the area reveals studies in the nineteenth century that involved the concept of global warming. Early works by the French mathematician and physicist Joseph Fourier 1768-1830 explored the field of terrestrial and radiant heat, and concluded that the atmosphere could, indeed, trap heat. Fourier suggested that the atmosphere warms the earth's surface not only by...

Box Cargill Invests In Biodiesel Production In Europe

Cargill, a U.S.-based global food and agriculture company recently announced its acquisition of a 25 percent stake in Greenergy Biofuels Ltd. in the United Kingdom. Tesco owns 25 percent of Greenergy Fuels, which owns the other 75 percent of Greenergy Biofuels. Tesco is the leading biofuel retailer in the United Kingdom, offering biofuel blends at more than 40 percent of the petrol stations attached to its supermarkets. Greenergy Biofuels is building a 100,000-ton 114 million-liter capacity...

Sijm J.p.m. S.j.a. Bakker Y. Chen H.w. Harmsen And W. Liese 2005 Co2 Price Dynamics The Implications Of Eu Emission

Americans and Climate Change Closing the Gap between Science and Action. Yale School of Forestry amp Environmental Studies, available at ABI. 2005. Financial Risks on Climate Change. Association of British Insurers, Summary Report and Technical Annexes, www.abi.org.uk climatechange. ABN Amro. 2005. Response to Carbon Disclosure Project, www.cdproject.net. ACF. 2006. False Profits. Australian Conservation Foundation, available at www.acf.org.au. ACIA. 2004. Impacts of a Warming...

Cement

Building material manufacturers are feeling the pressure to adapt their processes and product characteristics to meet new and more stringent environmental demands. Within the broad spectrum of construction industries, cement production is estimated to contribute 5 percent of global man-made CO2 emissions see Figure 3.1 . Cement, and the concrete made from it, provides the basis for most infrastructures. Its use is growing rapidly in the developing world, and, indeed, after water, concrete is...

William Tharp Invited Authors Comment The Carbon Project Financingcontinuum

Venture capitalists and term financiers have different perspectives on carbon risk and valuation of projects. Venture capital has the capacity to take carbon risk management into account, and consider their involvement in a project to be one of value creator. Traditional long-term project financiers, however, consider their capacity as that of value recognition. As such, longer-term financiers analyze the intrinsic value of a project, but are highly unlikely to take any lending risk in which...

Examples of Weather Derivative Contracts

Temperature-based swap The swap undertaken by two Japanese companies that faced opposite weather risks serves as a classic illustration of a temperature-based derivative product. Tokyo Electricity Power Tepco experiences increased demand for electricity during unusually warm summers, swapped a portion of this weather risk with Tokyo Gas Togas , which experiences a decrease in demand for gas-fired water and central heating under the same conditions. In 2001, the two companies entered into a...

The Broader Policy Context

The threat of climate change is not the only reason that modern society should embrace a low-carbon future. For several decades, oil geologists have been predicting a peak in oil and gas production as newly discovered supplies have been falling behind the growing demand. Production from the continental United States has been declining since the 1960s North Sea oil is now following suit. As outlined in Chapter 3, new supplies are being developed in less dependable places such as the former...

Tidal Energy and Wave Energy

Like wind power and solar power, tidal energy is intermittent. However, it is extremely predictable, and it could deliver electricity on a scale and at a competitive price that equals large HEP, fossil fuels, and nuclear power. Furthermore, there is a successful model the 240MW Rance barrage, which was built near St. Malo in the 1960s. In addition, three smaller projects are operating in Canada, Russia, and China. In the United Kingdom, studies have been made of the tidal potential of several...