Contents Of Carbon Cycle

1 Long-Term Trend of the Partial Pressure of CO2 in Surface Waters and Sea—Air CO2 Flux in the Equatorial Pacific

Hisayuki Y. Inoue, Richard A. Feely, Masao Ishii, Takeshi Kawano,

Akihiko Murata and Rik Wanninkhof 1

1. Introduction 2

2. Observations 4

3. Results and Discussion 6

3.1. Long-Term Trend of pCO2w in the HNLC Region 6

3.2. Long-Term Trend of pCO2w in the Western Pacific Warm Pool . 11

3.3. Air-Sea CO2 Flux in the Equatorial Pacific 15

Acknowledgements 19

Appendix 21

2 Global Change and Oceanic Primary Productivity: Effects of Ocean-Atmosphere-Biological Feedbacks

Arthur J. Miller, Albert J. Gabric, John R. Moisan, Fei Chai, Douglas J.

Neilson, David W. Pierce and Emanuele Di Lorenzo 27

1. Introduction 28

2. Ocean Biotic Feedbacks with Centennial Climate Change 28

3. Ocean-Atmosphere-Ecosystem Feedback Processes 30

4. Absorption of Radiation by Phytoplankton in the Upper Ocean 31

5. Production of Atmospheric DMS by Oceanic Phytoplankton 37

6. Deposition of Aeolian Dust on the Ocean by the Atmosphere 41

7. Changes in Oceanic Community Composition by Climate Changes . . 44

8. Primary Productivity Response to Climate Change in the North Pacific 48

9. Conclusion 53

Acknowledgements 54

3 Simulated In Situ Measurements of Primary Production in Japanese Waters

Katsumi Yokouchi, Atsushi Tsuda, Akira Kuwata, Hiromi Kasai, Tadafumi Ichikawa, Yuichi Hirota, Kumiko Adachi, Ichio Asanuma and

Hiroshi Ishida 65

1. Introduction 66

2. Materials and Methods 67

2.1. Dataset of Primary Production Around Japan 67

2.2. Definition of Waters 67

2.3. 13C-Spiked Incubations and Calculations for Primary Production 68

2.4. Observation of Environmental Factors 74

2.5. Comparison between in-situ and Simulated in-situ

Incubations 76

3. Results and Discussion 76

3.1. Seasonal Variations in Euphotic Zone and Upper Mixed Layer. 76

3.2. Seasonal Variations in Phytoplankton Biomass and Primary Production 77

3.3. Vertical Distribution and Depth-Integration of Phytoplankton Biomass and Primary Production 79

3.4. Relationship Between Primary Production and Environmental Factors 79

3.5. Improving Algorithms for Primary Production Estimation . . . . 83 Acknowledgements 86

4 Depth and Time Resolved Primary Productivity Model Examined for Optical Properties of Water

Ichio Asanuma 89

1. Introduction 89

2. Depth and Time Resolved Primary Productivity Model 91

2.1. Carbon Fixation Rate 91

2.2. Photosynthetically Available Radiation Along the Water Column 94

2.3. Vertical Distribution of Chlorophyll a Along the Water Column 95

2.4. Photosynthetically Available Radiation 97

2.5. Examination of Primary Productivity Model from the Point of Optical Property 99

2.6. A New Model for Vertical Distribution of PAR 100

3. Summary 104

Acknowledgements 105

5 Settling Particles in The Central North Pacific

Hodaka Kawahata 107

1. Introduction 108

2. Material and Analytical Methods 110

3. Results 111

4. Discussion 122

4.1. General Features of the Settling Particle Flux in The Central North Pacific 122

4.2. Comparison of Annual Mean Particle Fluxes between Pacific and Atlantic Mid-Latitude Sites 123

4.3. Origin of Lithogenics in the Mid-Latitude Central Pacific 126

4.4. Relationship between Lithogenics and Primary Production in the Mid-Latitude Central Pacific 127

5. Summary and Conclusions 130

Acknowledgements 130

6 Understanding Biogeochemical Processes in the Pacific Ocean on the Basis of Labile Components of Settling Particles

Lallan P. Gupta and Hodaka Kawahata 135

1. Introduction 136

2. Study Area 138

3. Methodology 139

4. Results and Discussion 142

4.1. Variations in Total Mass and AA Fluxes 142

4.2. Variations in Biogeochemical Parameters 145

4.3. Comparison with Other Trap Sites 147

4.4. ENSO and Zonal Variations in Observed Parameters 148

4.5. Biogeochemical Indicators and the Plankton

Community 151

5. Conclusions 151

Acknowledgements 152

7 Monsoonal Impacts on the Biological Pump in The Northern Indian Ocean as Discerned from Sediment Trap Experiments

Tim Rixen and Venupopalan Ittekkot 157

1. Introduction 158

2. Study Area 159

3. Methods 160

3.1. Sediment Trap 160

3.2. Chemical Analysis 162

4. Results and Discussion 162

5. Factors Terminating Peak Fluxes during the Late NE and

SW Monsoon 164

5.1. Seasonal Changes of POC/PIC Ratios 166

5.2. Comparisons with Other Results from The Northern

Indian Ocean 166

6. Conclusion 170

Acknowledgements 170

8 Variability of the Indonesian Throughflow: A Review and Model-to-Data Comparison

Andreas Schiller, Susan E. Wijffels, and Janet Sprintall 175

1. Introduction 176

2. Velocity and Property Structure of the

Throughflow 178

2.1. Observed Transports through Major Straits of the

Indonesian Throughflow 178

2.2. Intraseasonal-to-Interannual Characteristics of the

ITF Transport and Property Fluxes 181

2.3. Storage and Modification of the ITF Waters within the

Internal Indonesian Seas 183

3. Model-to-Data Comparisons: Method 185

3.1. Model Configuration 185

3.2. Data Analysis 186

4. Results 187

4.1. Temperature Structure in the ITF 187

4.2. Spectral Content of Temperature Variability 191

4.3. Wave Guides in the ITF and Their Relation to Remote

Wind Forcing 195

5. Discussion and Conclusion 201

Acknowledgements 203

9 Coral Records of the 1990s in the Tropical Northwest Pacific:

ENSO, Mass Coral Bleaching, and Global Warming

Atsushi Suzuki, Michael K. Gagan, Hironobu Kan,

Ahser Edward, Fernando P. Siringan, Minoru Yoneda and

Hodaka Kawahata 211

1. Introduction 212

2. Study Sites: Tropical Northwestern Pacific 214

3. Materials and Methods 217

3.1. Micronesia 217

3.2. Bicol, The Philippines 219

3.3. Ishigaki Island, The Ryukyus 219

3.4. Pandora Reef, GBR 220

3.5. Isotopic Measurements 220

3.6. Instrumental Records 221

4. Results and Discussion 221

4.1. Coral d18O Record of SST at Ishigaki Island 221

4.2. ENSO Signals in the Coral d18O Record from Micronesia 225

4.3. Skeletal d18O Records of Coral Bleaching 229

4.4. Recent Decrease in Coral d18O : An Indication of

Global Warming? 231

5. Summary 233

Acknowledgements 234

10 Recent Advances in Coral Biomineralization with Implications for Paleo-Climatology: A Brief Overview

Tsuyoshi Watanabe Anne Juillet-Leclerc, Jean-Pierre Cuif, Claire

Rollion-Bard, Yannicke Dauphin and S. Stephanie Reynaud 239

1. Introduction 240

2. Development and Problems Associated with Coral Paleo-Temperature Proxies 241

3. Biological Sources of Discrepancies in Modern Calibrations 243

3.1. Geochemical Heterogeneity at the Millimeter-Length Scale . . . 244

3.2. Geochemical Heterogeneities at the Ultra-Structural Level . . . 247

4. Conclusions 249

Acknowledgements 250

11 Potential Feedback Mechanism Between Phytoplankton and Upper Ocean Circulation with Oceanic Radiative Transfer Processes Influenced by Phytoplankton — Numerical Ocean General Circulation Models and an Analytical Solution

Shoichiro Nakamoto, Makoto Kano, S. Prasanna Kumar, Josef M. Oberhuber, Kei Muneyama, Kyozo Ueyoshi,

Bulusu Subrahmanyam, Kisaburo Nakata, C. Aaron Lai and Robert

Frouin 255

1. Introduction 256

2. Ocean General Circulation Model with Photosynthesis Effects 259

3. Feedback Mechanism between Phytoplankton and the

Oceanic Environment 263

4. Discussion and Conclusion 268

Acknowledgements 270

12 Precession and ENSO-Like Variability in the Equatorial Indo-Pacific Ocean

Luc Beaufort 273

1. Introduction 274

2. Methods 275

2.1. Coccoliths as Paleoproductivity Markers 275

2.2. Wind Stress and Primary Production 275

2.3. Thermocline and PP 277

3. Material 277

4. Primary Production Variability along the Equatorial Indo-Pacific ... 278

4.1. The Gulf of Aden and the Summer Monsoon 278

4.2. Central Indian Ocean and the Indian Dipole 279

4.3. The Sulu Sea and the East Asian Winter Monsoon 280

4.4. The Eastern and Central Equatorial Pacific 282

4.5. The Western Pacific Warm Pool 283

4.6. Phase of PP and Precession 283

4.7. Assessment of the Equatorial Indo-Pacific Primary

Production 283

5. Discussion 287

5.1. ENSO-Like Variability 287

5.2. Precession and ENSO-Like 288

5.3. Advance of 3,000 Years 289

Acknowledgements 290

13 Methods of Estimating Plant Productivity and CO2 Flux in Agro-Ecosystems — Liking Measurements, Process Models, and Remotely Sensed Information

Yoshio Inoue and Albert Olioso 295

1. Introduction 296

2. Remote Sensing of Ecophysiological Parameters as

Related to Plant Productivity and Carbon Cycle 297

2.1. Biomass, Leaf Area Index, and Fraction of

Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation 298

2.2. Photosynthesis, Transpiration, and Physiological

Stress Response 299

2.3. Water, Chlorophyll, and Nitrogen Contents 300

3. Methodology of Synergizing Remotely Sensed Information and Biophysical and Ecophysiological Process Models 301

4. A Simple Method for Estimating NPP Using Remotely

Sensed Information as Input 305

4.1. Theoretical Background 305

4.2. Estimating NPP at an Ecosystem Scale based on fAPAR from Remotely Sensed Information - A Case Study 307

5. Measurement of Ecosystem CO2 Flux as Related to Remotely

Sensed Information - A Case Study 311

5.1. Acquisition of a Comprehensive Data Set 312

5.2. Dynamics of CO2 Flux Over Agricultural Field 314

5.3. Soil CO2 Efflux and Remotely Sensed Surface Temperature 315

6. Predicting Dynamic Change of Biomass and Ecosystem CO2 Flux based on Synergy of Remotely Sensed Data and

A SVAT Model 320

6.1. The SVAT Model 320

6.2. Performance of the Synergy 321

7. Conclusions 325

14 Absorption of Photosynthetically Active Radiation, Dry-matter Production, and Light-use Efficiency of Terrestrial Vegetation: A Global Model Simulation

Akihiko Ito and Takehisa Oikawa 335

1. Introduction 336

2. Methods 338

2.1. Canopy Absorption of PAR 338

2.2. Carbon Cycle 338

2.3. Light-use Efficiency 342

2.4. Data and Simulation 342

3. Results 344

3.1. Global Features 344

3.2. Grid-by-Grid Correlation 350

4. Discussion 354

4.1. Comparison with Other Studies 354

4.2. Higher Resolution Mapping 354

Acknowledgements 355

Appendix: How Incident PAR and PPFD is Estimated in this Study 355

15 Terrestrial Net Primary Production (NPP) Estimation Using NOAA Satellite Imagery: Inter-annual Changes between 1982 and 1999

Yoshio Awaya, Eiji Kodani and Dafang Zhuang 361

1. Introduction 362

2. Data and Methods 363

2.1. Materials 363

2.2. Intensity Correction 364

2.3. NPP Estimation 366

3. Results and Discussion 369

3.1. Intensity Correction 369

3.2. Light Use Efficiency Setting 372

3.3. NPP Estimation 373

4. Conclusion 377

Acknowledgements 378

16 Global Mapping of Net Primary Production

Haruhisa Shimoda, Yoshio Awaya and Ichio Asanuma 383

1. Introduction 383

2. Primary Production 384

3. Outlines of NPP Estimation 385

3.1. Methods 385

3.2. Estimation Over Land 385

3.3. Estimation in the Ocean 386

4. Results and Discussions 386

4.1. Satellite Data Used 386

4.2. Global NPP Map 386

4.3. Validations 392

5. Conclusion 392

17 Slash-and-Burn Agriculture in a Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don.) Plantation: Effects of Fire on Nutrients and Soil Emissions of Carbon Dioxide

Toshiyuki Ohtsuka, Wenhong Mo, Masaki Uchida, Hironori Sako and

Hiroshi Koizumi 395

1. Introduction 396

2. Materials and Methods 397

2.1. Study Sites 397

2.2. The Slash-and-Burn Sites 397

2.3. Nutrient Pools in Above- and Below-Ground Litters 398

2.4. Soil Nutrient Contents 399

2.5. Soil CO2 Efflux Measurements 399

2.6. Soil Microbial Biomass 400

3. Results 400

3.1. Pre-Burning Soil Condition, Organic Matter, and

Nutrient Pools 400

3.2. Effects of Burning and Nutrient Dynamics During the

Turnip Crop 401

3.3. Total Carbon and Nitrogen Contents in the Topsoil 403

3.4. Effects of Slash-and-Burn on Soil CO2 Efflux 404

3.5. Effects of Burning on Soil CO2 Efflux and Microbial Biomass. . 407

4. Discussion 410

4.1. Effects of Burning on the Availability of Nutrients of the Topsoil 410

4.2. Nitrogen Dynamics and Microbial Activities 411

4.3. Responses of Soil CO2 Efflux and Carbon Dynamics to Fire . . . 411 Acknowledgements 413

18 Leaf and Shoot Ecophysiological Properties and Their Role in Photosynthetic Carbon gain of Cool-Temperate Deciduous Forest Trees

Hiroyuki Muraoka and Hiroshi Koizumi 417

1. Introduction 418

2. Materials and Methods 420

2.1. Study Site and Plant Species 420

2.2. Evaluation of Forest Canopy Leaf Area Index 421

2.3. Measurements of Leaf Gas Exchange 422

2.4. Measurements of Shoot Architecture and Photosynthesis Simulation 422

3. Results and Discussion 425

3.1. Seasonal Changes of Forest Canopy Properties 425

3.2. Branch Architecture and Photosynthetic Carbon Gain at the Canopy Top 429

3.3. Light Environment and Branch Photosynthesis at

Inner Canopy 437

4. Conclusion 438

Acknowledgements 439

19 Seasonal Variations in CH4 Uptake and CO2 Emission by a Japanese Temperate Deciduous Forest Soil

Yusuke Oe and Shigeru Mariko 445

1. Introduction 446

2. Materials and Methods 447

2.1. Site Description 447

2.2. Measurement of CH4 and CO2 Fluxes 449

2.3. Litterfall Measurements 450

2.4. Soil Temperature and Water Content 450

2.5. Statistical Analysis 451

3. Results 451

3.1. Soil Temperature and Water Content 451

3.2. CH4 Uptake and CO2 Emission 451

3.3. Litterfall 453

4. Discussion 454

4.1. CH4 Uptake 455

4.2. CO2 Emission 457

4.3. CH4 Uptake vs. CO2 Emission 459

4.4. CH4 Uptake and CO2 Emission during the Snowpack

Season 459

Acknowledgements 460

Index 465

Colour Plate Section

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