Introduction

By exchanging CO2 with the atmosphere, ocean plays an important role in determining the atmospheric CO2 level that has been increasing due to human activities (IPCC, 2001). The CO2 flux between the sea and the overlying air (F) can be estimated by the product of the gas transfer velocity expressed as a function of wind speed (k Wanninkhof, 1992 Wanninkhof and McGillis, 1999), the solubility of CO2 (s Weiss, 1974), and the difference in partial pressure (or fugacity) of CO2 between the sea...

Conclusion

We have summarized many aspects of our current understanding of how climate change due to increasing greenhouse gases will affect oceanic biology and how the physical-biological feedbacks may influence the evolving physical climate system. The primary effects of ocean biology on physical climate were its influence on the carbon cycle, the influence of oceanic phytoplankton on upper-ocean absorption, and the influence of DMS production by phytoplankton on atmospheric aerosols. The primary...

Ocean Biotic Feedbacks with Centennial Climate Change

Carbon Reservoirs

Our ability to predict the impacts of global warming is limited by a number of key uncertainties, significant among which is the role of biotic feedbacks IPCC, 2001 . The response of biota in the surface ocean is particularly pertinent and still not well understood. However, the potential for multiple feedbacks between climate, ocean circulation and mixing, and photosyn-thetic primary production has been manifestly evident for some time Falkowski et al., 2000 Gildor and Follows, 2002 . Indeed,...

Appendix

In order to evaluate the sea air CO2 flux in the equatorial Pacific, we divided the equatorial Pacific into regions Fig. A.1 on the basis of the current system and carbonate chemistry in the equatorial Pacific. In the eastern equatorial Pacific, we evaluated the pCO2w-SST relationships in the NECC and SEC by examining the latitudinal distribution of pCO2w. The pCO2w in the SEC is remarkably larger than pCO ir and the pCO2w in the NECC nearly equal to pCO ir. If we could not obtain a good...

Production of Atmospheric DMS by Oceanic Phytoplankton

Dms Production Phytoplankton

Dimethylsulfide DMS is the most abundant form of volatile sulfur S in the ocean and is the main source of biogenic reduced S to the global atmosphere Andreae and Crutzen, 1997 . The sea-to-air flux of S due to DMS is currently estimated to be in the range 15-33 Tg S yr-1, constituting about 40 of the total atmospheric sulfate burden Chin and Jacob, 1996 . At the hemispheric scale Gondwe et al., 2003 estimate that seawater DMS contributes 43 of the mean annual column burden of non-sea-salt...

Dataset of Primary Production Around Japan

The GCMAPS project constructed a dataset of primary production by 13C-spiked incubations in a wide range of Pacific Ocean environments, ranging from equatorial to subarctic waters. Data collected included sampling location, date, daily photosynthetically available radiation PAR , euphotic zone depth from the surface to a depth where light levels equal 1 of surface light , and temperature, relative irradiance, and chlorophyll a at each sampling depth within the euphotic zone. This study used 176...

Absorption of Radiation by Phytoplankton in the Upper Ocean

Surface Wind Fields

The effect of the absorption of solar energy by phytoplankton on upper-ocean thermal properties has been the subject of research for the past 20 years. While absorption of solar energy is dominated by absorption from seawater itself in many open ocean regions, the variability in the absorption and distribution of solar energy into the upper layers of the open ocean is controlled primarily by phytoplankton pigment concentrations Platt, 1969 Smith and Baker, 1978 . Lewis et al. 1983 were the...