Carbohydrates Ebooks Catalog

Keto Resource

Many people always desire to lose weight within a short period. Dieting is easy the first few days, but without a plan, one is subjected to peer pressure and can easily fall back on their program. Gaining weight is very easy for most people, but losing it is another task that needs patience as it does not happen overnight. The Keto 28 day challenge works towards helping individuals achieve their dreams by losing weight on shorter duration of time as compared to other diet plans. It focuses on making its users lose weight and become lighter. The reason why most people gain more weight even when they are on a new diet is the lack of a plan. Lacking a diet plan makes one to make bad choices when choosing the type of food to eat and the quantities that they take. It's time to take the 28 day Keto challenge to get back in shape and have that good and light body that you have always desired. The plan also makes an individual sleep better, wake up more rested, improve hair growth, and have more energy as compared to the earlier days without Keto. Continue reading...

Keto Resource Summary


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High Carb Fat Loss

Rusty Moore, a fitness advisor and a fitness writer, created this high Carb Fat Loss program. Over the years, Rusty Moore has advised several men and women especially those that need to add definition while staying slim and fit. He has been researching and writing on matters fitness for about 10 years teaching the definition without excess size training methods. He has some Visual impact fitness courses that he uses to impact the society on matters fitness and health. This program works perfectly for vegan and non-veggie lovers. The book contains two regimen one with meat and the other one without. Regardless of the category you fall, you will get an arrangement that works for you in the book. High Carb Fat Loss has all the tricks and tips to help you get in shape and at the same time look youthful. The product also increases insulin activity which can reduce dangers of diabetes. Additionally, the program will enhance your digestion which can make you eat better. Once you finalize the payments, you will get the full product which is available in PDF formats. It's a perfect match for almost everybody in the market that wants an eating routine arrangement to make them lean but at the same time don't want to go on a keto eating routine. Continue reading...

High Carb Fat Loss Summary

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Author: Rusty Moore
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Sorbose Ring

Carbohydrates are by far the most abundant class of renewables. The big three among the carbohydrates (Figure 2.6) are the glucose polymers (glucans), cellulose and starch, and the disaccharide sucrose. Chitin is also widespread, but its actual production from waste material of the seafood industry is small. Its monomer, glucosamine, is receiving much attention as a health supplement. FIGURE 2.6 Carbohydrates, the big three. The cellulose demand for paper amounts to some 200 x 106 t yr. Recycle streams contribute substantially to this demand. Regenerated cellulose includes fibers (rayon, mainly used in tires) and films (cellophane was once the leading clear packaging film). Classic cellulose solvents used in regeneration are carbon disulfide sodium hydroxide and an ammoniacal copper solution. More recent solvents are N-methyl-morpholine-N-oxide and phosphoric acid. The most recently developed cellulose solvents are ionic liquids. For example, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride...

Greenhouse Gases and the Greenhouse Effect

It is not only one of the most plentiful elements on Earth but also essential to living things. Green plants use the Sun's energy to turn carbon dioxide and water into simple sugars, called carbohydrates. Many animals eat those plants for nutrition, and ultimately, human beings eat both the plants and the animals that eat them.

Biological Carbon Cycle

The biological carbon cycle occurs when plants absorb carbon dioxide and sunlight to make glucose and other sugars (carbohydrates) to build cellular structures. Plants and animals use carbohydrates during respiration, the opposite of photosynthesis. Respiration converts this biological (metabolic) energy back to carbon dioxide. As a process pair, respiration and decomposition (respiration by bacteria and fungi) restore the biologically fixed carbon to the atmosphere. Yearly carbon levels taken up by photosynthesis and sent back to the atmosphere by respiration are 1,000 times higher than carbon levels transported through the geological cycle each year.

Appendix Ecosystem Definition and Properties

Fig. 2.21 The light reactions use photons to strip protons from water and store energy in NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) and ATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate nu-cleotide). Both these molecules are used to reduce CO2 and combine carbon with hydrogen and phosphate in the Calvin Cycle or dark reactions 3CO2 + 9ATP + 6NADPH glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate +9ADP + 8PI + 6NADP+. Here ADP is adenosine diphosphate, PI is inorganic phosphate, and NADP+ is the oxidized form of NADPH. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate may be converted to other carbohydrates such as metabolites (fructose-6-phosphate and glucose-1-phosphate), energy stores (sucrose or starch), or cell-wall constituents (cellulose and hemicelluloses). By respiring plants consume O2 and convert their energy stores back to CO2 and water Fig. 2.21 The light reactions use photons to strip protons from water and store energy in NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) and ATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate nu-cleotide)....

Lord What Fools These Mortals Be Petroleum Pollutes More Than

Ozone damage to pine trees in the national forests of the San Bernardino Mountains of Southern California has been well understood since at least 1950.46 Plants use carbohydrates for growth, for maintenance, and for their immune systems. Ozone reduces a plant's ability to produce carbohydrates and triggers its consumption of the carbohydrates it has stored to repair damage caused by that same ozone in the first place. Over a period of years, carbohydrate levels are gradually depleted to the point at which little is available for dealing with exceptional stresses such as drought and insect infestations.This ozone damage then accelerates needle drop in pine trees, triggering a kind of premature aging and causing trees to shed larger amounts of needles than normal.

Ethanol As A Key Chemical

Some further conversions of ethanol are shown in Figure 2.2. We have already mentioned preparation of today's number one organic chemical, ethene. The decrease of mass in the conversion of carbohydrates via ethanol to ethene is large (65 ), and the annual production of ethene exceeds 100 x 106 t, so the total world sugar production (145 x 106 t) would not be nearly enough to cover that amount. In India, where cheap sugar streams are available, over 400,000 t of ethanol were used in 1997 20 to make alco-chemicals with acetic acid as the main product. In China and India, aqueous ethanol is directly applied in aromatic ethylation (ethylbenzene, 1,4-diethylbenzene, and 4-ethyltoluene).

Food Energy Nutrients

VERYTHING LIVING DEPENDS on energy, which is-re-plenished through some food source. Without energy, we would literally run down until our bodies failed. Plants take their energy directly from the sun, via the miracle of photosynthesis. Plant cells use chlorophyll to turn the sun's energy into carbohydrates, which store that energy in molecular bonds that can then be used to do biological work. Animals, in turn, must feed on plants or on other animals that have, themselves, fed on plants. And decomposers like bacteria and fungi feed on the detritus and dead bodies of animals and plants. In a way, you could say that this whole wonderfully complex biosphere with its intricate web of relationships is simply a circulatory system for solar energy. Millions of years ago, around the time of the dinosaurs, during a period of global warming, the sun's energy gave rise to great algal mats in the oceans. These were huge colonies of single-celled plant life dedicated to self-replication and the...

Effluents from welloperated works

As we saw earlier when we considered the chemistry of sewage treatment, a modern sewage works will oxidize carbohydrates to carbon dioxide, some of which forms carbonates and bicarbonates. The proteins are broken down to amino acids, ammonium salts and sulphates, whilst sulphur and phosphorus compounds are converted to sulphates and phosphates. The ammonium salts that are formed are often further oxidized by bacteria to nitrates. To summarize, the oxidation products of sewage treatment occur as follows

Looking at the future of biomass

The Industrial Revolution was characterized by a consistent movement away from biomass carbohydrates toward fossil fuel (hydrocarbon) energy sources. The current trend toward biomass represents an unprecedented reversal of this process. Perhaps it's not true, as the statistics in Chapter 3 so compellingly suggest, that humankind is inalterably destined to use more and more fossil fuels.

Achievements and challenges to production increases Main production achievements

The strategies by which these increases were made varied by crop. Initially, root and tuber crops, and rice production, were prioritized by the state in order to quickly supply basic carbohydrates. Root and tuber production increased by around 80 per cent from 1995 to the end of the decade. Several factors influenced this rise root and tuber yields had fallen by only 10 per cent during the crisis years, these crops were prioritized early on by the state (potato in particular), and the volume requirements of Acopio (the state food collection and distribution agency) made these crops attractive to the farmers in order to easily fulfil production plans. The increase in rice production was largely due to the development and growth of 'popular' or people's rice production, which took a distinctly organic approach (Funes, 2002). The growth of people's rice production is described in Box 6.2.

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And algae take up carbon dioxide and water and convert these into carbohydrates and oxygen using the energy from sunlight. Most of the oxygen is then released into the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide taken up by marine organisms is transferred into the deep ocean when the organic matter decays and sinks to the ocean floor. This is often in the form of calcium carbonate (CaC03) sediments, effectively the skeletal remains of the marine organism. Vast amounts of carbon dioxide are trapped in marine sediments in this way. This movement of carbon down into the deep ocean is often referred to as the biological pump because biological processes control the transfer. Oxygen is taken up by organisms during respiration and carbon dioxide and water vapour are released back into the atmosphere. The carbohydrate is also converted back to carbon dioxide and water vapour during respiration. A certain amount of atmospheric oxygen is also taken up during the decay of organic matter and again results in...

The Precautionary Principle

The weak versions of the Precautionary Principle are unobjectionable and important. We do not walk in moderately dangerous areas at night we exercise we buy smoke detectors we buckle our seatbelts we might even avoid fatty foods (or carbohydrates). Every day, individuals and nations take steps to avoid hazards that are far from certain. We buy insurance, and much precautionary behavior is akin to the purchase of insurance. Sensible governments regulate risks that, in individual cases or even in the aggregate, have a well under 100 percent chance of coming to fruition. An individual might ignore a mortality risk of 1 500,000 in a given year, because that risk is pretty small, but if 100 million citizens face that risk, the expected number of deaths is 200, and the nation should take the problem seriously. For many risks, including those posed by pesticides and toxins, we do in fact regulate risks of 1 100,000, 1 200,000, even 1 500,000 or less.

Fig Conceptual model of SOM dynamics used in this paper after ref

Field decomposition studies involve both observation of loss of native plant litter and differences in decomposition of a common litter substrate at different sites. Isotope labeling studies usually follow specific compounds or compound classes (such as amino acids or carbohydrates), but also may follow the fate of below-ground C allocation, as in pulse-labeling studies. Although some incubations have been followed over periods of more than 10 years (26, 50), most are designed for shorter time periods. These studies are used to provide multiple rate constants for decomposition models like those of Jenkinson and Raynor (15).

Current Nonfood Industrial Uses Of Sugars

Organic Pt02 Catalyst

The current utilization of carbohydrates as a feedstock for the chemical industry be it for bulk, commodity, intermediate, fine, or high-value-added speciality chemicals is modest when considering their ready availability at low cost and the huge as yet unexploited potential. The examples currently realized on an industrial scale are outlined briefly. Considering the large-scale, low-cost availability of the basic biomass-sugars listed in Table 2.1, their present nonfood use by the chemical industry is modest, that is, the huge feedstock potential of carbohydrates in general, and of low-molecular-weight sugars in particular, is largely untapped. In view of the necessity of the chemical industry to somehow effect the changeover from fossil raw materials to biofeedstocks that is, primarily, to carbohydrates as these are more accessible from agricultural crops and waste materials than any other natural pro-ducts their further development as industrial products is one of the major...

Heterocycles 2001 54 1 131-138

Carbohydrates as Organic Raw Materials, VCH, Weinheim New York (a) Vol. I, Lichtenthaler, F. W. (Ed.), 1991, 365 pp (b) Vol. II, Descotes, G. (Ed.), 1993, 278 pp. (c) Vol. III, van Bekkum, H. Roper, H. Voragen, A. G. J. (Eds.), 1996, 358 pp. (d) Vol. IV, Praznik, W. (Ed.), Wiener Univ. Verlag, Vienna, 1998, 292 pp. 9. Lichtenthaler, F. W. Mondel, S. Perspectives in the use of low molecular weight carbohydrates as organic raw materials, Pure Appl. Chem., 1997, 69, 1853-1866. 11. (a) Lichtenthaler, F. W. Unsaturated O- and N-heterocycles from carbohydrate feedstocks, Acc. Chem. Res., 2002, 35, 728-737 (b) Lichtenthaler, F. W. Carbohydrates as Organic Raw Materials, Ullmann's Encyclopedia Industrial Chem., 6th Ed., Vol. 6, 2002, pp. 262-273 Electronic Release, 7th Ed., chapt. 9, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2007 (c) Lichtenthaler, F. W. Peters, S. Comptes Rend. Chim., 2004, 7, 65-90. 15. (a) Gandini, A. Belgacem, M. N. Furans in polymer chemistry, Prog. Polym. Sci., 1997, 22, 1203-1379 (b)...

Biological indicators of the quality of the environment

Stone Fish Food Chain

For a biological assessment of the effect of pollution on aquatic life we must first look at an unpolluted environment. All life on earth depends ultimately on the energy from the sun. This energy is absorbed by plants and used, by the process of photosynthesis, to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates as shown by the familiar equation This process is known as primary productivity. The organisms that do this are known as autotrophs they are the primary producers of food in the world and the great majority of all other organisms depend upon them. They convert solar energy into chemical energy. This chemical energy is released when the organism that feeds on the autotrophs breaks down the carbohydrates and uses the energy stored in it for its life processes.

Hasan Mehdi Robert Tuba Lszl T Mika Andrea Bodor Kornel Torkos and Istvn T Horvth

The sustainability of human civilization primarily depends on whether the energy requirements of its increasing population can be satisfied in the future. While the establishment of the exact date of the depletion of fossil fuels seems difficult, skyrocketing oil and gas prices could come much earlier than 2050, as predicted by several studies.1 Efficient conversion of solar energy to electricity could open the way to the production of increasing amounts of hydrogen and finally to the development of a hydrogen economy.1 Of course, the increasing population will demand increasingly larger volumes of carbon-based consumer products. Carbon dioxide is the simplest renewable carbon source, and there are several studies on the hydrogenation of CO2.2 Since there is no effective direct CO2-based process known to produce large amounts of organic chemicals, nature can help to convert CO2 to biomass, which could serve as the renewable carbon resource. The hydrogenation of carbohydrates could be...

Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere

Figure Co2 Recycling For Methanol

Despite the low concentration of CO2 of only 0.037 in the atmosphere, Nature routinely recycles CO2 by photosynthesis in plants, trees, and algaes to produce carbohydrates, cellulose and lipids, and eventually new plant life, while simultaneously releasing oxygen and thereby sustaining life on Earth. Following Nature's example, mankind will be able to capture excess CO2 from air and to recycle it to generate hydrocarbons and their products. CO2 can be captured from the atmosphere using basic absorbents such as calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) or potassium hydroxide (KOH) which react with CO2 to form calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and potassium carbonate (K2CO3), respectively 228 . Due to its low CO2 content,

Biological Dating Methods

Rhizocarpon Geographicum Growth Curve

Lichens are made up of algal and fungal communities living together symbiotically. The algae provide carbohydrates via photosynthesis and the fungi provide a protective environment in which the algal cells can function. Morphologically, lichens range from those with small bush-like thalli (foliose lichens) to flat disc-like forms, which grow so close to a rock surface as to be inseparable from it. These crustose lichens commonly increase in size radially as they grow and this is the basis of lichenometry, the use of lichen size as an indicator of substrate age (Locke et al., 1979). Lichenometry has been most widely used in dating glacial deposits in tundra environments where lichens often form the major vegetation cover and other types of dating methods are inapplicable (Beschel, 1961 Benedict, 1967). The technique may also be used to date lake-level (and perhaps even sea-level) changes, glacial out-wash, and trim-lines, rockfalls, talus stabilization, and the former extent of...

Exergy As A Measure Of Material Quantity And Quality

There are some economically important processes that are essentially the reverse of combustion, in the sense that chemical exergy is concentrated (but not created) and embodied in a target substance. Photosynthesis is an example where exergy from solar radiation is captured and embodied in carbohydrates, which are combustible chemical substances. Carbo-thermic reduction of metal ores and ammonia synthesis are other examples. In the metals case, a metal oxide in contact with red-hot carbon is converted to a pure metal plus carbon dioxide. The exergy of the smelted metal is less than the exergy of the fuel used (for example, coke) because the combination of oxygen from the metal oxide with carbon from the coke is disguised combustion. In the ammonia case, natural gas plus air is converted to ammonia plus carbon dioxide by a series of catalytic processes at high temperatures and pressures, which also amount to disguised combustion.

Efficiency increases demand

Carbohydrates versus hydrocarbons Some people wistfully look back on the days when the economy was powered by carbohydrates, as opposed to hydrocarbons. One such group, the Institute for Local Self-Reliance, exhorts people to revert to the carbohydrate economy, or agriculture. They promote farming specifically a pre-mechanized agricultural society as the solution to the current energy woes. At first glance, you may think that that's not such a bad idea, but here are some facts Drilling for oil takes very little land area compared to growing carbohydrate energy sources about 1,000 times less land area, in fact, on a per unit of energy basis. If you're concerned with deforestation, carbohydrates are not the solution because forests are cleared and land is tilled to make way for productive agriculture. Plowing land for growing carbohydrates adds more carbon to the air than mining for coal or drilling for oil because farms require Economies in the parts of the world that rely on...

FTIR spectroscopic characterization of Escherichia coli

Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a widely utilized technique for chemical analysis (Johnston, 1991). In soil microbial biomass, IR spectroscopy appeared useful in establishing the spectral fingerprints of different cell constituents, such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acid (Filip, 1978a, b). Time-consuming and difficult isolation of individual cell structural units can be omitted using this technique, when intact cells (biomass) are under investigation. Also, small amounts of biomass (1-2 mg) are sufficient for the analysis, and the spectra can be easily stored in the data files of most instruments. Naumann et al. (1990, 1991) documented the usefulness of FT-IR spectroscopy in bacterial diagnostics, including that of numerous E. coli strains. This potentially pathogenic bacterium inhabits mammalian intestine, and thus, it is widely used as an indicator of faecal water pollution. In our investigations (Filip et al., in press), the cell mass of E. coli...

The Broad Spectrum Revolution

The range of edible wild plants in modern temperate Europe is extraordinary. It includes berries, bulbs, corms, fruits, fungi, grasses, herbs, leaves, nuts, pulses, rushes and tubers. Many of these are well known to us, such as acorns, beech mast and pine nuts, although the first two, while nutritious, are regarded as too boring for our modern diet, as well as requiring considerable effort to make edible. As for berries, fungi and fruit, the important knowledge was to identify those that were safe to eat something our ancestors must have accomplished. Others come as a surprise. The fact that the roots of bracken (Pteridium aquilinum), various bulrushes and couchgrass (Agropyron repens), and the bulbils of the lesser celardine (Ranunculus ficaria) are all nutritious sources of carbohydrates is unexpected. Other versatile sources of sustenance include the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), whose young leaves and long taproot are still prized by some rural communities, notably in France,...

Dissolved organic matter DOM

There is little precise information regarding the quantities and chemical nature of these compounds, but a growing list of substances identified in seawater includes various hydrocarbons, carbohydrates, urea, aminoacids, organic pigments, lipids, alcohols, and vitamins such as ascorbic acid and components of the vitamin B complex, e.g. thiamin and cobalamin.

Microbes And Bacterial Infections

It is, of course, the wee beasties of the A list that constantly challenge us in the race to the food. They, as we, covet the fats, carbohydrates, proteins, and minerals that make food tasty and nutritious, and offer an ideal environment for growth. It would be hard to imagine that anyone has not experienced, from time to time, slimy meat, fish, or poultry and noxious odors, off-tastes, and texture and color changes in any number of foods.

The New Edisons From Dot Com Millionaires to Biofuel Pioneers

Ethanol Embodied Energy

Tons of metamorphic rock, which is what it takes to mint a gallon of oil or a ton of coal. Instead, they represent a benign marriage of chlorophyll molecules with the sun's own rays falling silently on our farmers' fields. That marriage produces carbohydrates, which can be refined by companies now being founded by software millionaires and farmer-owned cooperatives alike. Carbohydrates are like vegetable energy-storage packets. That's why we eat them. But new technologies allow us to break up the cells encapsulating the precious carbon and burn that carbon in the form of ethanol, biodiesel, butanol, and other exotic fuels. Some of those technologies involve distillation, some involve stripping certain components off the plant's molecules but at their heart they all depend on taking the carbon used to make cornstalks or wheat shoots, concentrating that stored energy, and burning it. And because they use the natural carbon cycle instead of pulling up fossils from deep beneath the earth,...

Cubas challenges the health imperative

A common perception encountered amongst both farm workers and urban householders was of continued food insecurity, and lack of access to self-provisioning and irregular incomes appeared to be contributory factors to this. In reality, most people had access to, and consumed sufficient, if not excessive, quantities of carbohydrates, sugars and fats. This insecurity was more understandable for those people not living on farms, for whom sources and supplies of food could be precarious - the daily distribution of the ration meant that households were unable to build up food reserves. The number of undernourished people in Cuba continued to increase slightly up to the end of the decade, although the growth rate was declining and was far lower than at the start of the decade. The lingering feeling of food insecurity of the population, coupled with the continued preference for a traditional diet heavy in carbohydrates, sugars and fats, meant that Western diseases were prevalent and obesity...

Coral Records Of Past Climate

Coral Isotop Growth

The term coral is generally applied to members of the order Scleractinia, which have hard calcareous skeletons supporting softer tissues (Wood, 1983 Veron, 1993). For paleoclimatic studies, the important subgroup is the reef-building, massive corals in which the coral polyp lives symbiotically with unicellular algae (zoo-xanthellae) these are known as hermatypic corals (as opposed to ahermatypic, which contain no algal symbionts and are not reef-builders). The algae produce carbohydrates by photosynthesis and thus are affected by water depth (most growing between 0-20 m) as well as water turbidity and cloudiness. Much of the organic carbon fixed by the algae diffuses from the algal cells, providing food for the coral polyps, which in turn provide a protective environment for the algae. Reef-building corals are limited mainly by temperature and most are found within the 20 C mean sea-surface temperature (SST) isotherm (generally between 30 N and 30 S). When temperatures fall to 18 C,...

What we can learn from carbon isotopes

Further information regarding the broad partitioning of added atmospheric carbon dioxide between the atmosphere, the oceans and the land biota as presented in Table 3.1 comes from comparing the trends in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration with the trends in very accurate measurements of the atmospheric oxygen nitrogen ratio (Figures 3.3 and 3.4). This possibility arises because the relation between the exchanges of carbon dioxide and oxygen with the atmosphere over land is different from that over the ocean. On land, living organisms through photosynthesis take in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and build up carbohydrates, returning the oxygen to the atmosphere. In the process of respiration they also take in oxygen from the atmosphere and convert it to carbon dioxide. In the ocean, by contrast, carbon dioxide taken from the atmosphere is dissolved, both the carbon and the oxygen in the molecules being removed. How such measurements can be interpreted for the period 1990-4 is...

Biomass and Green Energy

The question as to what constitutes biomass has at least two responses the short answer is, all living things are biomass. All animals, plants, and we humans are the organic matter that characterizes biomass. The more specific, industrial response defines biomass as the organic matter produced by crops, roots, stems, seeds, and stalks, along with animal metabolic wastes, and refers to materials that do not go into food products, but do have alternative commercial uses. Again, the concern is for energy, bioenergy, the energy inherent in the carbohydrates, fats, and proteins that constitute all organic matter. Biomass is a complex mixture of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, along with small amounts of sodium, iron, calcium, and phosphorus. However, the main components of biomass are the carbohydrates some 75 dry weight, and lignin, the remaining 25 , but these do vary by plant type. The carbohydrates are primarily the long- chain cellulose and hemicellulose fibers that impart...

What Are Green Plastics

On a more basic level, the polymers used in the making of the plastic are of biological origin. These polymers are aptly called biopolymers. Your basic carbohydrates and proteins are examples of biopolymers. Many biopolymers are already being produced commercially on large scales, although most are not created specifically for the production of plastics. And what are these biopolymers

Our climatic inheritance

Alongside the issue of how our physique has changed since palaeolithic times, there is the more specific question of just how much our diet has changed. The inference from the existing studies is that the breadth of the palaeolithic diet and its heavy reliance on animal protein was healthy, the assumption that the introduction of a cereal-based diet led to a general decline in health is much less easy to substantiate. The switch away from the broad plant-based content of the diet in the Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic may have been the important factor in these changes. Even so, any attempt to assert that the replacement of this broad plant-based diet by a much narrower cereal-based diet led to the declining health of the Neolithic peoples takes us into controversial territory. For example, the current debate about the merits or demerits of the high-protein, low-carbohydrate Atkins diet has embraced the issue of whether the evolutionary consequences of the palaeolithic diet may make...

The chemistry of sewage treatment

The organic substances in sewage mainly comprise carbohydrates, proteins, fats, soaps and detergents. All of these can be broken down into simpler substances by the micro-organisms in the sewage purification process. Some of these breakdown products are present in the final effluent as it discharges into the river, others are used as the food for the bacterial slime or the activated sludge in the sewage works, whilst the remainder sink to the bottom of the settling tanks to become the sludge. Carbohydrates are complex molecules containing just the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They are widely distributed in plants and animals as sugars, cellulose, starch and dextrin. In their journey through the sewage works, they are broken down by micro-organisms into simple sugars, carbon dioxide and water. The carbon dioxide will either vent to the atmosphere or form carbonates and bicarbonates with the cations present. Bicarbonates and carbonates are formed from the carbon dioxide in the...

Fossil Fuels

Fossil fuels are the remains of living things that were buried underground before they had time to decay. Coal is made of plants, so it contains the remains of the carbohydrates they created using the energy of sunlight. So coal is stored solar energy, compacted over millions of years.

Biomass Basics

Biomass is a renewable form of energy because it derives from the photosynthesis process in which plants convert the sun's radiant energy into carbohydrates (as opposed to hydrocarbons, which comprise fossil fuels). When plants are grown specifically for use as biomass, they also constitute a form of energy storage. Biomass can be described as stored solar energy. In general, biomass refers to organic matter of any kind, whether forest products or agricultural production or simply the plants that grow on the surface of the earth. These are broadly referred to as carbohydrates. Almost any organic-based materials can be utilized in biomass energy schemes. These include wood products from trees, crop residues (material left over after agricultural production for food sources), animal wastes (poop), aquatic plants like seaweed, landfill gas (from rotting garbage), and municipal and industrial wastes (like sewage).

Nature S Part

Green plants use the sun's energy and carbon dioxide from the air as part of photosynthesis. This is a good thing, because they soak up carbon dioxide in the process. Plants are considered to be carbon dioxide storehouses. During the pho-tosynthetic cycle, they form carbohydrates, which make up the foundation of the food chain.


Shoot biomass Cover Dominance * Carbohydrates Nitrogen SOIL Figure 2 (A) Responses of Rumex oblusifolius and soil microflora grown in microcosms to a doubling of atmospheric C02 (700 ppm) as compared to controls at 350 ppm. Vegetation was allowed to develop for 84 days by natural recruitment from seed banks in soils removed from a tall herb community in Derbyshire and placed in microcosms (6 replicates per treatment) in cabinets without nutrient addition. Shoot biomass was measured as milligram dry weight, cover as number of touches in a point-quadrat analysis, dominance as biomass of R. obtusifolius total community biomass, carbohydrates (starch + glucose h- sucrose) as milligram gram fresh weight and nitrogen as milligram gram dry weight of fully expanded young leaves, microbial C and N as milligram gram dry soil ns, nonsignificant *, P 0.05 **, P 0.01 (ANOVA). (B) Effects of atmospheric doubling of C02 concentration (ppm) and fertilizer addition on foliar N content of Rumex...


To determine how ocean pH may affect the ocean ecosystem, scientists are using satellites to monitor the health of the oceans. Satellites are beginning to measure the extent of basic aquatic plant activity (in the form of phytoplankton consuming carbon dioxide, releasing oxygen, and producing food) in the ocean. Primary production is the basic ecologic process in which carbohydrates are produced by plants through photosynthesis. This forms the basis of the ocean food chain. Satellites measure primary production by monitoring the very specific green wavelengths of visible light that indicate the presence of chlorophyll. Initial indications are that there has been a 6 percent decrease from the 1980s to the 1990s. These data carry too much uncertainty to be a cause for alarm, but they are something that scientists will continue to monitor.


Another application intended for the agricultural industry is the greenhouse. The basic function of a greenhouse is to provide environmental conditions that accelerate the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the driving force for plant growth, in which CO2 is transformed into H2O, using solar energy, to carbohydrates and oxygen. Photosynthesis is highly sensitive to environmental factors.

Carbon Fertilization

Carbon dioxide is an input in photosynthesis, which uses solar energy to combine water and carbon dioxide to produce carbohydrates, with oxygen as a waste product.1 In addition, higher atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide reduce plants' stomatal (pore) openings and hence the loss of water to respiration. So-called C3 crops, which include rice, wheat, soybeans, fine grains, legumes, and most trees, benefit substantially from additional atmospheric carbon dioxide. Benefits for C4 crops, which include maize, millet, sorghum, and sugarcane, are much more limited.2

Methane Degassing

Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, 30 times stronger per molecule than CO2, and it is produced during both the short-term and long-term carbon cycles. In the (prehuman) short-term cycle, it is produced mainly from wetlands and animal exhalation such as from bovids and termites. (These organisms have bacteria located in their digestive systems that break down carbohydrates to methane.) In wetlands and other water-logged, organicrich sediments, methane forms from a variety of microbial processes and chemical pathways, but the overall reaction can be simplified as

Primary production

Producers Ecology

The synthesis of organic compounds from the inorganic constituents of seawater by the activity of organisms is termed production. It is effected almost entirely by the photosynthetic activity of marine plants. The raw materials are water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and various other substances known as nutrients. The latter are mainly inorganic ions, principally nitrate and phosphate. Chlorophyll-containing plants, by making use of light energy, are able to combine these simple substances to synthesize complex organic molecules. This is termed gross primary production. The chief products are the three major categories of food materials, namely carbohydrates, proteins and fats (Steeman Nielsen, 1975). Oxygen, derived from the water, is produced as a byproduct. The process involves a number of steps but can be summarized by the following very general equation

Liquid Biofuels

Brazil Automobile Production Total

Produced by fermentation of annually grown crops (sugar cane, corn, grapes, etc.). In this process, starch or carbohydrates (sugars) are decomposed by microorganisms to produce ethanol. Ethanol can be produced from a wide variety of sugar or starch crops, including sugar beet and sugar cane and their byproducts, potatoes and corn surplus. In Russia after the Bolshevik revolution, Lenin proposed the use of agricultural alcohol to produce industrial fuels and products. This diversion amounted to the use of Russian people's beloved source of vodka, however, the plan was soon abandoned. During World War II in Europe, blends of ethanol with gasoline were used, but only anhydrous ethanol is miscible, with gasoline phase separation otherwise causing stalling of the engines. Ethanol has been promoted and used more recently extensively in Brazil and the United States as a response to the OPEC oil embargoes and rising gasoline prices (but also to subsidize farmers). Beginning in that period,...

Solar biomass

So, let's simply estimate the power at the first staging post. (In Chapter D, we'll go into more detail, estimating the maximum contribution of each process.) The average harvestable power of sunlight in Britain is 100 W m2. The most efficient plants in Europe are about 2 -efficient at turning solar energy into carbohydrates, which would suggest that plants might deliver 2W m2 however, their efficiency drops at higher light levels, and the best performance of any energy crops in Europe is closer to 0.5 W m2. Let's cover 75 of the country with quality green stuff. That's 3000 m2 per person devoted to bio-energy. This is the same as the British land area

Discovery Island

In July 2000 the first harvest in more than a century of Blue camas (Camassia quamash) bulbs took place on Discovery Island (near Victoria, British Columbia, Canada) by a team of ethnobotanists and Lekwungen indigenous peoples. Camas bulbs are a rich source of carbohydrates that were used historically as a major food source and trade good by the Coast Salish-speaking indigenous peoples in the region around the Strait of Juan de Fuca, southern Vancouver Island, and the archipelago of islands between the very southwestern part of Canada and the northwest of the United States, as well as farther afield in the interior plateau of what is now the province of British Columbia (Canada) and the state of Washington (U.S.A.). Camas grows in meadows and savannas (associated locally with the regionally threatened Garry oak Quercus garryana ecosystem), both ecosystem types that have undergone extensive alteration and loss in this region over the past century. m

Chemical Wastes

In order to meet the new concern, chemists doubled their interest in the biodegradability of plastic products. They found that by adding large complex carbohydrates (C6H10O5)n to plastics microorganisms were able to break plastics down. Carbohydrates make up a large group of organic compounds containing carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.

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