Family Bunker Plans
To survive until agriculture could recover from the effects of a large impact. Close writes that the Swiss 'have a national plan which is a good example of where to start. It is compulsory to have underground shelters for all individuals permanently stockpiled with two years' supply of food and other essentials'.16 While the plan was evolved for the case of nuclear war, it could serve for any number of other cases too.
Preliminary data on total oil demand by region only are available for 2007. The breakdown of oil demand by sector is available to 2006. Oil does not include biofuels derived from biomass, though transport demand o for oil is modelled in a way that takes account of the use of biofuels. Regional totals do not include interna- tional marine bunkers. For these reasons, the oil projections in this report are not directly comparable with J those published in the lEA's Oil Market Report. See Annex B for a detailed definition of oil. International marine bunkers
The Bunker Hill Mine complex is located in northwest Idaho in the Coeur d'Alene River Valley, and has a legacy of nearly a hundred years of mining-related contamination since 1889. Operations ceased in 1982, and the EPA declared much of the area a Superfund site in 1983. The complex produced lead, zinc, cadmium, silver, and gold, as well as arsenic and other minerals and materials. Much of the mining pollution was caused by the dispersal of mining wastes containing such contaminants as arsenic, cadmium, and lead into the floodplain of the Coeur d'Alene River, acid mine drainage, and a leaking tailings pond. The metals contaminated soils, surface water, ground-water, and air, leading to health and environmental effects. Lead, in particular, was noted for its health effects on children in the area. EPA reports concerning lead poisoning state that experts believe blood levels as low as 10 micrograms per deciliter (pg dl) are associated with children's learning and behavioral problems....
Climate change mitigation activities can be classified as related to energy efficiency (EEF), renewables (REN), fuel switching (FUE), fugitive gas capture (FGC), land use change and forestry (LUCF),16 agriculture, industrial processes, solvents, waste disposal, and bunker fuels.
Instead of stealing fuel elements out of nuclear reactors, or obtaining nuclear fuel from enrichment and reprocessing fabrication plants, or from transports between them, a more likely possibility is that a terrorist gang might attempt to steal a complete nuclear weapon from any one of the nuclear arsenals around the world. Though contents and locations of such arsenals are kept secret, a well-organized terrorist gang might infiltrate the military and discover how to break into one. The military have of course considered this and have taken appropriate countermeasures. The theft of a complete anti-aircraft missile some years ago in Germany shows that stealing a military weapon is not entirely impossible. One special measure for nuclear weapons that prevents or frustrates such a possibility is that nuclear warheads are usually composed of two or more separate parts that can be assembled only by one or two officers to produce a trigger-ready critical mass. These officers must have...
Avoided by the provision of additional resources to the carbon-trading regime (price caps, shares of proceeds from carbon trading, taxes on bunkers and international aviation). Indeed how to raise money is far less difficult than to guarantee their efficient use in conjunction with other funding mechanisms. This has become all the more complex as developing countries are evolving quickly in very different directions.
Total primary energy demand is equivalent to power generation plus other energy sector (formerly called other transformation, own use and losses) excluding electricity and heat, plus total final consumption excluding electricity and heat. Total primary energy demand does not include ambient heat from heat pumps nor electricity trade. Power generation includes electricity and heat production by main activity producers and autoproducers. Non-energy use includes some non-specified energy use. The row of which bunkers refers to international marine bunkers. Total CO2 emissions include emissions from other energy sector, as well as from power generation, and total final consumption (as shown in the tables). CO2 emissions from international marine bunkers are included at the global level, while CO2 emissions from international aviation are excluded from the tables. CO2 emissions do not include emissions from industrial waste and non-renewable municipal waste. ofwhich bunkers
Some 95 per cent of the fuel used for transport is a liquid petroleum product made from crude oil.4 Cars run mostly on petrol (gasoline), although increasingly in Europe they run on diesel fuel.5 Diesel fuel is denser, less volatile and contains more usable energy per litre or gallon than petrol. Lorries (trucks) run mostly on diesel fuel, although smaller ones use petrol. Small boats use petrol. Large ships invariably use diesel fuel, or a dense, high-sulphur variant of diesel fuel known as bunker fuel. Non-electric locomotives mostly use diesel fuel, usually for generators that power electric motors that drive the wheels but also, in smaller locomotives, for engines that drive wheels directly. A few locomotives still use coal, chiefly to give tourists a sense of rail travel in earlier times. Jet aircraft use a form of kerosene, which is similar to diesel fuel. Propeller aircraft use aviation petrol, also known as avgas. It is similar to what automobile petrol used to be like in that...
Economies and the Middle East also see rapid rates of growth. The latter region has emerged as a major oil consuming as well as producing region, on the back of a booming economy (helped by high oil prices) and heavily subsidised prices. Middle East countries account for 20 of the growth in oil demand over the projection period. Demand in all three OECD regions, by contrast, falls, most heavily in volume terms in the Pacific region and Europe. As a result of these trends, the non-OECD countries' share of global oil demand (excluding international marine bunkers) rises from 43 in 2007 to 57 in 2030.
Trends in US greenhouse gas emissions and sinks in teragrams of carbon dioxide equivalents Teragrams CO Equivalent and
Sinks are only included in net emissions total, and are based partially on projected activity data. Parentheses indicate negative values (or sequestration). 'Emissions from international bunker fuels and biomass combustion are not included in totals. Note Totals may not sum due to independent rounding.
The safest place to be, should a tornado directly strike in your vicinity, is several meters underground in an old-fashioned storm cellar. This type of shelter is completely separate from the main living structure and has an entrance like a trap door, made from heavy steel or reinforced hardwood. Another excellent refuge is a fallout shelter. These heavy structures are practically immune to demolition from anything less than a direct hit by a nuclear bomb. Because the storm cellar is completely autonomous, people inside are totally safe from flying debris. Unfortunately, most homes built today, even if they have basements, have neither storm cellars nor fallout shelters.
All the increase in world oil demand between 2007 and 2030 comes from nonOECD countries in the Reference Scenario. Their demand rises by 22.8 mb d, offsetting a 2.5 mb d fall in the OECD (international bunker demand rises by almost 1 mb d). India sees the fastest rate of growth, averaging 3.9 per year over the Outlook period, followed by China, at 3.5 . High as they are, these growth rates are still significantly lower than historic trends. India's oil use grew by 5.6 per year between 1980 and 2007 (quadrupling), while Chinese oil use increased almost as fast (from a larger base). In volumetric terms, China remains the single biggest contributor to the growth in world oil demand, accounting for 43 of the total projected increase in 2007-2030 (Figure 3.5). Other emerging Asian
Amateur and Citizens Band radio operators observed and reported the storm's progress as a second funnel descended, reached the ground with a trundling noise, and proceeded to follow a southwest-to-northeast track into the suburbs of Omaha. people took shelter wherever they could. The storm passed near a hospital and then blew a restaurant to pieces, killing an employee who took refuge in one of the bathrooms. (Although she had chosen one of the safest places in the building, the whole structure was demolished. Only a detached, subterranean storm cellar can provide complete safety from the winds of an intense twister.) The storm moved on, wrecking businesses and homes. Automobiles and trucks flew through the air along with pieces of wood, brick, and turf. The tornado grew until its diameter was in excess of 1 km. The storm skipped over a freeway and turned northward along West 72nd street. Two more people died in the tornado as it roared northward...
10 The CO2 emission data from Marland et al. include those emissions of bunker fuel for international freight shipping and aviation, which contribute to more than 50 of Singapore's emissions in 2000 (Schulz 2007). While this procedure is justified from the view of total emission accounting it differs from the national responsibility according to IPCC guidelines, which excludes such emissions from national liability. Moreover, Singapore hosts one of the world largest industrial petroleum refining complexes. Much of its industrial sector emissions are waste products due to the refining of crude
The approach of allowing interventions on specific agenda items by NGO constituencies has continued in both the SBSTA and SBI in the post-Kyoto period. The start of a new exploratory stage on the novel issues raised by the Kyoto Protocol, along with the more open attitude of the SBSTA and SBI Chairs, led to a sudden upsurge in demand by NGOs to speak in the early post-Kyoto negotiations. This was especially so in the SBSTA, which is responsible for issues traditionally of particular concern to ENGOs, such as LULUCF, bunker fuels and the relationship with the ozone layer. Between two and four NGO statements were made at each session between SBSTA 8 (early 1998) and 11 (late 1999). As in the AGBM process, the overwhelming majority of statements in the subsidiary bodies were made by ENGOs, reflecting their more united positions and the greater value that they attach to participation in official arenas.
World total primary energy demand, which is equivalent to total primary energy supply, includes international marine bunkers, which are excluded from the regional totals. Primary energy refers to energy in its initial form, after production or importation. Some energy is transformed, mainly in refineries, power stations and heat plants. Final consumption refers to consumption in end-use sectors, net of losses in transformation and distribution. In all regions, total primary and final demand includes traditional biomass and waste, such as fuelwood, charcoal, dung and crop residues, some of which are not traded commercially. For details of statistical conventions and conversion factors, please go to www.iea.org.