Breast Cancer Survivors

Chemo Secrets From a Breast Cancer Survivor

Undergoing chemotherapy can be one of the most terrifying things that you go through in your life. One of the most frightening things about chemotherapy is the lack of real information that most people have about it, and the unknown makes it so much more frightening as a result. This eBook, written by a young cancer survivor gives you the real story about what chemo is all about. The most valuable information you can get about chemotherapy is from someone that has already experienced it. This PDF eBook allows you to download and read it as soon as your order it. You can begin your journey of reassurance as soon as you want! Because that's what this is about: chemo does not have to be a terrifying unknown! Other people have gone through it before, and want to help you through it as well! This eBook is the guide through chemo that many people wish they could have had, and now you can have it yourself! Read more...

Chemo Secrets From a Breast Cancer Survivor Summary

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Author: Nalie Augustin
Official Website: www.nalie.ca
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Chemotherapy

The role of chemotherapy in the management of brain tumors has expanded in recent years. In adults, chemotherapy has been demonstrated to extend survival in malignant brain tumors when added to radiation the introduction of oral temozolomide is seen as a significant advance 6, 34 . In the treatment of childhood brain tumors, the addition of chemotherapy has led to reductions in radiation dose without changes in survival rates 35 . High-dose myeloablative chemotherapy followed by peripheral blood stem cell support allows for the delay of, or provides alternatives to, radiation, which is critical for very young children diagnosed with malignant tumors 36 . Most chemotherapy agents are cytoxans, agents developed to incite cell death directly recently, novel therapies are targeting cell signaling pathways and tumor angiogenesis 37 . Cancer chemotherapy is associated with adverse neurological events including changes in white matter integrity, leukoencephalop-athy, seizures, hearing loss,...

An Unprecedented Politicization

Consider one small but telling incident. In November 2003, a National Cancer Institute fact sheet was altered, over government scientists' objections, to lend credence to a favorite canard of some anti-abortion Christian conservatives that there is a link between abortion and breast cancer. A number of scientific studies most notably a highly respected Danish study in the 1990s involving 1.5 million women have thoroughly refuted the link.2 And yet, as has frequently occurred in the Bush administration, politics whether out of ideological conviction or to appease political partisans trumped peer-reviewed scientific evidence, and a federal agency was pushed to dispense misleading information about a vital matter of women's health. After a public outcry, including a New York Times editorial labeling the incident an egregious distortion of the evidence, the National Cancer Institute restored its public information to reflect the well-documented scientific evidence that no connection...

Estrogens and progesterone

The wide-spread use of HRT following menopause has been the source of significant controversy in recent years due to findings of an increased incidence of breast cancer and cardiovascular disease associated with HRT 91 . As such, the utility of HRT for reducing health risks remains somewhat

Public participation in decisionmaking

Consensus conferences originated in the USA in the late 1970s with the first dealing with breast cancer screening. The UK held its first national Consensus Conference on Biotechnology in 1994 in London, but this focused on plants rather than humans or animals (Joss and Durant 1995). It consisted of a lay panel of sixteen chosen from replies to advertisements in the local press, who then chose a group of experts and a group of counter-experts from pre-selected lists. This framework, opposing lay and expert knowledge, revealed the importance of the neutral chair in framing the context and the nature of the ensuing debate. In particular it ensured that (as its name suggests) the

Is the public scientifically illiterate

The diffusionist and linear conception of scientific communication is also highlighted by the scant attention paid to the influence of the images of science and scientists purveyed externally to information contexts and, particularly, in fiction. Yet, the few studies conducted on this topic show that these images are often of considerable importance in shaping the public perception of science and its exponents. Consider the role of works of fiction in sensitizing public opinion to AIDS or environmental risk. In the mid-1990s, the hereditary origin of breast cancer and preventive mastectomies was given particular salience by the British media, despite the low incidence of cases, because of the treatment given to the subject by a popular soap opera set in a hospital (Henderson and Kitzinger, 1999).11

From specialist papers to the front pages of the newspapers

One crucial problem seems to be the control and transparency of the information collected by the Genome Project hence Clinton and Blair's recommendation that the entire map should be released into the public domain. The public consortium has consequently accelerated its work schedule to move this release forward and compel Celera to do the same. But while secrecy and the 'private' character of knowledge raise obvious dilemmas, the unfiltered dissemination of scientific results does not seem entirely unproblematic either, especially in a sector like genetics. Mention has already been made of the risk that genetic information will be used for discriminatory purposes and complex issues with regard to the handling of such information by those directly concerned have already arisen in the therapeutic field. In Great Britain, for example, the wide media coverage of the discovery of a gene believed able to cause breast cancer - even if in only 5 to 10 per cent of cases - prompted numerous...

Incubation period days

Canada and the USA (resulting in 3231 cases and 176 deaths in the USA), countries where this infection had not occurred before. While most people suffered minor illness, individuals with weakened immune systems, such as people with chronic diseases, those on chemotherapy or the elderly suffered more serious effects, including meningitis and encephalitis.

Types of brain tumors

An extensive description of types of brain tumors is beyond the scope of this chapter excellent summaries are available in several recent books and chapters 5, 14 . Tumors of neuroepithelial tissue include gliomas and embryonal tumors. Gliomas comprise 70 of brain tumors and most of these are astrocytic the specific types of gliomas are distinguished by morphological and molecular criteria, as well as infiltrative and proliferative capacity (grades I to IV) 15 . Low-grade gliomas, particularly pilocytic astrocytomas in children, are typically treated successfully with resection only. Adjuvant treatment (chemotherapy, radiation) can be necessary with incomplete resection or tumor recurrence. In adults, gliomas are more often grade III (anaplastic astrocytoma) or IV (glioblastoma multiforme) lower-grade tumors can undergo transformation to become more infiltrative. Embryonal tumors (medulloblastoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor) arise from transformations of immature neuroepithelial...

Future directions

As evident in the preceding discussion, the specific type and extent of impairment experienced by survivors of pediatric leukemia is dependent upon a variety of factors. One factor in particular is the type and intensity of chemotherapy treatment. Anti-metabolite therapy, in particular MTX, has been a focus of much neurocognitive investigation. However, this focus has concentrated on pediatric leukemia survivors, in spite of the fact that many other forms of pediatric cancer are treated with MTX (e.g. HL, NHL, soft tissue sarcomas, and bone cancers). Research efforts need to expand their focus to include specificity of treatment agents rather than just clusters of cancer diagnoses. As base rates for these cancer diagnoses are slightly lower than ALL, multi-site studies will be required. In addition, pooling children across diagnoses based on treatment agents may be necessary. In addition to examining individual agent and interactive chemotherapy regimens at the group level, an...

Mediators and moderators

Sex is a risk factor in pediatric malignancies that impacts treatment outcomes. Although boys develop ALL more often than girls, girls typically have a better prognosis since boys often experience extramedullary testicular relapse, have a higher incidence of T-cell disease, and have a lower incidence of favorable DNA index 1, 6 . As such, boys are often given chemotherapy for longer durations than girls, with a typical 36-month course for boys and a 30-month course for girls 2 . Sex has also been examined as a moderator of neurocognitive outcomes this will be discussed later in this chapter. Advances in treatment for leukemia and lymphoma are associated with a recent trend in evaluating genetic contributions to individual treatment response factors. Gene expression profiling can successfully be used to classify subtypes of leukemia for treatment consideration 33 . Brouwers has suggested that research initiatives should also be concentrated on investigating the polymorphisms that...

Neuropsychological issues in adult brain tumors

Evidence of cognitive dysfunction is seen in most patients diagnosed with brain tumors 88 . The types of deficits seen are similar to those encountered in patients who suffer strokes or traumatic brain injury though tend to be less severe and more diffuse than those associated with these sudden-onset events. Neurological and neuropsychological deficits can occur due to direct effects of the tumor or tumor progression on brain function, damage from surgery, toxicities of treatment (radiation therapy, chemotherapy), effects of other medications (anti-epileptic drugs, steroids), impact of associated complications (seizures, vascular events, metabolic disturbances), and psychological factors 89 . Cognitive deficits can be related to the site and volume of the tumor as well as its degree of malignancy. In addition to focal neurological deficits, patients experience problems with working memory, focused and divided attention, mental flexibility, and memory. Higher frequency of seizures and...

Evaluation and management

The Children's Oncology Group (COG) is a multi-disciplinary organization funded by the National Cancer Institute to organize and implement clinical trials in pediatric cancer. COG has established guidelines for the standard of care in monitoring the late effects of long-term survivors of pediatric cancer (www.survivorshipguidelines.org) 8 . These guidelines call for neurocognitive evaluation of all patients treated with CRT or antimetabolite chemotherapy. A recent extension to this recommendation calls for such testing to include assessment of intellectual, academic, and specific neurocognitive processes 69 . It was further recommended that such testing occur as a baseline when the patient enters the phase of long-term follow-up, with re-evaluations conducted at times of life transition and when academic difficulties occur. and 25 males) were enrolled during the beginning of their second year of chemotherapy. Mean age at the time of ALL diagnosis was 85.6 months (SD 37.7) slightly...

Advanced MRI techniques

Fmri Motor Task

Fully automated method for assessing tissue characteristics, overcoming some limitations of morphological methods which rely on manual segmentation of brain regions or structures and offering an unbiased, comprehensive, and reliable technique sensitive to local changes in tissue volume or density. In temporal lobe epilepsy VBM has confirmed findings of brain abnormalities noted in previous manual segmentation studies, and has also elucidated a pattern of more widespread extratemporal differences, which may help to explain the patterns of cognitive deficit found in this disorder 23 . VBM has likewise confirmed previous ROI analyses demonstrating MTL volume loss in MCI, and recent data suggest that similar abnormalities are present in individuals with cognitive complaints who do not meet clinical criteria for the diagnosis of MCI, suggesting the possibility of an even earlier pre-MCI stage 24 . While VBM has more commonly been used to examine GM changes, brain WM can also be studied...

Etiology of hearing loss

Neuropsychological deficits, certain etiologies carry additional risk factors for neural disruption. Although the cause of hearing loss was previously unknown for the majority of affected children, the ability to identify genetic causes has significantly increased in this decade the majority of them not associated with other neurodevelopmental risk factors. In addition, use of ototoxic drugs for medical treatments has led to a recent increase in the incidence of known causes of hearing loss in children (e.g. some chemotherapy agents used to treat cancers). In adults, hearing loss can be caused by trauma or auditory nerve tumors, although the vast majority of hearing loss is associated with the cumulative effects of aging, namely noise-induced hearing loss and presbycusis.

Neurocognitive outcomes

Pediatric leukemia and lymphoma survivors may suffer from neurocognitive impairment on a transient (i.e. acute) or lasting (i.e. late effects) basis in one or more domains that impede learning new information along with maintaining previously learned information, ultimately leading to declines in intelligence and academic and vocational success, as well as lowered self-esteem and behavioral disorders. Adult survivors of pediatric ALL treated with chemotherapy were 1.6 and 2.0 times as likely to report problems with mental health and functional impairment, respectively, compared to sibling controls 40 . Table 13a.2 presents a summary of the neurocognitive effects related to various treatment agents. Nonspecific chemotherapy effects The relationship between initial processing speed and the development of higher-level cognitive abilities has also been examined over the 3-year course of chemotherapy for ALL 49 . In a sample of 84 newly diagnosed patients, significant slowing in processing...

Neuropsychological and adaptive outcomes in children

Chemotherapy abnormalities such as Moyamoya syndrome 47 . Furthermore, newer chemotherapy treatment protocols have been shown to be effective in the management of low-grade gliomas, thus reducing the need for radiation therapy. This consideration is critical in evaluating the research literature on the long-term neuropsychological sequelae of childhood brain tumors. Survivors treated with more aggressive treatments and higher radiation doses will show more adverse outcomes. For example, in a follow-up study of children treated for medulloblastoma between 1980 and 1989, survivors were evaluated 10 years after treatment. These children were treated with higher doses of radiation than used in current protocols. Significant neuropsychological impairments were found in the areas of intellectual ability, executive functions, visual spatial ability, motor skills, and memory. Long-term adaptive outcomes were also compromised limited independence and social difficulties were noted as well 48 ....

Treatment and Mass Drug Administration

Treatment of the sick is not only a humanitarian action, but reduces the length of illness and, therefore, the period of commu-nicability, thereby aiding control. However, where treatment is incomplete, it can actually prolong the period of communicability, encourage the development of carriers or worst of all, resistant organisms. Case finding and treatment is the main method of control for leprosy (Section 12.6) and tuberculosis (Section 13.1), but careful follow-up is essential to ensure that treatment is taken for the whole period. Rapid diagnosis and treatment is particularly important in acute respiratory infections (Section 13.2) and meningitis (Sections 13.6 and 13.7). The development of effective single dose therapy for the treatment of the sexually transmitted infections (STIs, Chapter 14) has been one of the great challenges of chemotherapy, but the 'power of the needle' has also been the means of transmission of several communicable diseases. In many societies, having an...

Classification of Communicable Diseases

Food is the control of animals either in their farming, slaughter, and the control of domestic pets, this group being responsible for 41 disease preventive actions. Chemotherapy as a method of control is valuable in 40 diseases and vaccination in 35, but several of these are major disease problems, such as tuberculosis, measles and the STIs. The provision of a good water supply will reduce 39 conditions and sanitation another 23, while the control of rats is important in 17 conditions. The social and educational methods appropriate to controlling STIs will be valuable in 20 conditions, while the screening of blood donors will avoid 14 diseases and the proper sterilization of needles, instruments and giving sets could prevent nine diseases.

Nutrigenomicsan Epigenetic Revolution

Jean Baptiste Lamark (1744-1829), a French biologist, suggested that useful features acquired during an individual's life could pass to the next generation. August Weismann exploded that theory by cutting off the tails of mice and showing that offspring of such mice had intact tails. Nevertheless, scientists have long wondered about such a possibility. It has long been suspected that what pregnant women eat can affect their babies' susceptibility to disease, but no one knew why. A now classic study of the Dutch famine during the war years 1944-1945, when the German Army prevented food from moving into Holland, disclosed that children and grandchildren of Dutch women who were pregnant and on near-starvation diets during the first trimester of their pregnancies produced offspring who during adulthood manifested a wide spectrum of diseases schizophrenia, diabetes, obesity, heart disease, and breast cancer, as well as low- birth- weight infants, and smaller than normal grandchildren 51 ....

Cancer As A Effect Of Global Warming With Refrence

Keinan-Boker, L., Van Der Schouw, Y. T., Grobbee, D. E. et al., Dietary phytoestrogens and breast cancer risk, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 79 282-288 (2004). 22. Bouker, K. B., and Halakivi-Clark, L., Genistein Does it prevent or promote breast cancer Environ. Health Perspect. 108 701-708 (2000).

Epidemiologic Studies

The European Prospective Investigation into cancer and Nutrition, referred to as EPIC, which involved 43 researchers from 10 countries, not including the United States, and enrolling 285,526 women between the ages of 25 and 70 years, were followed for 5 years to determine both the total and specific vegetable and fruit intake on the incidence of breast cancer. This formidable study found that neither the total nor the specific vegetable or fruit intake was associated with risk for breast cancer, and that the absence of a protective association was observed among almost all of the participating countries. They make the additional point that the duration of follow-up is relatively short and that, we cannot exclude that associations will be found after more years of follow-up. They also note that it is of interest and concern that a protective effect is supported by a vast number of case-control studies 22 .

Examples of Research on Endocrine Disruption

In 1987 researchers at Tufts Medical Center in Boston were studying breast cancer cells growing in plastic dishes in the laboratory, when they noticed that the cells began to grow rapidly as if exposed to estrogen, even when no estrogen was added to the dishes. They traced the problem to nonylphenol, a chemical leaching from the plastic laboratory dishes. Now researchers use breast cancer cells to test chemicals for estrogenic effects. In adult humans - lowers cholesterol, may decrease breast cancer risk. In animals - infertility.

Biological And Biohazardous Wastes

Biological waste is defined as infectious waste, pathological waste, chemotherapy waste, or the containers and supplies created during its handling and or storage. It is further described as waste that because of its quantity, type, or makeup requires special handling. Noninfectious waste can be handled as non-hazardous and can be disposed of through standard methods of trash disposal. 6. Spills any material collected during or resulting from the cleanup of a spill of infectious or chemotherapy waste and

Feeding Your Baby

When your child is an infant, breast-feeding provides the best nutrition. Breast milk is the food nature intended for babies, and it's healthy for both mother and child. It's easier to digest than baby formula and is full of antibodies that protect your little one from disease. According to the U.S. Department of Heath and Human Services, breast-fed babies are less likely to get ear and respiratory infections, stomach viruses and upsets, and atopic dermatitis (a type of eczema). They also have lower rates of childhood leukemia, asthma, diabetes, and obesity. And breastfeeding moms are at lower risk of type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and postpar-tum depression. But sometimes breastfeeding is impossible or impractical. Breast milk changes as a baby develops, and occasionally the child refuses to feed. Or the mom may not produce enough milk. In rare cases, a doctor may advise against breastfeeding, such as when the mother is taking antiretroviral medications or undergoing...

Adult brain tumors

Treatment for brain tumors in adults is similar to that in children. The three major treatment approaches of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy are used to prolong survival. Benign tumors in adults (menin-giomas) are treated with surgery if the tumor is in an accessible site. In some cases, meningiomas are found in the course of work-ups for other issues and, if not associated with symptoms, these may not require intervention beyond periodic surveillance. Radiotherapy is used when resection is not feasible. Most brain tumors in adults are metatastatic, occurring ten times more often than primary brain tumors. These tumors occur primarily in the context of lung and breast cancer and melanoma. Patients are treated with surgery and often whole brain radiation in addition 86 . A substantial proportion of these tumors are not surgically resectable 6 . Overall survival is poor, with life expectancy of 1 year or less 86, 87 . Survival rates for primary neuroepithelial tumors in adults vary...

Research and Health

That causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS see the New and Emerging Diseases section of this chapter) found that low levels of lead cause cognitive problems in children (see chapter 9) found that body weight is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes and discovered gene mutations and variants that cause a variety of rare human diseases, including all of the many hereditary cancers, glaucoma, Huntington's disease, inherited deafness, and many others. Most of these genetic discoveries were made possible by the completion of the Human Genome Project, one of the best-known research triumphs of the past decade, which allowed for the sequencing of the entire human genome. The finding that aspirin reduces stroke and heart attack risk, the discoveries of Taxol and tamoxifen for the treatment of breast cancer, the cure for childhood leukemia, the role of cholesterol in heart disease, the discovery of Lyme disease and the agent responsible for it, cisplatin's ability to...

BCG vaccination

Tuberculosis is particularly a disease of poor social conditions and overcrowding as shown by the remarkable decline of the infection from industrialized countries prior to the advent of chemotherapy. The disease was as bad, if not worse in Europe, at the turn of the century than in many developing countries now, but showed a progressive and continuous reduction of cases as living conditions improved. As standards increased, there was a demand for improved housing with less people sharing the same room so that overcrowding declined. Personal hygiene improved and such practices as spitting disappeared almost completely (see Fig. 13.3). Treatment and prophylaxis The functions of chemotherapy can be summarized as follows

Treatment factors

Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) was the standard of care for CNS prophylaxis of leukemia in the 1960s and 70s 6 . Since that time, standards have shifted to CNS prophylaxis with chemotherapy. Despite this change in the standard of care, approximately 10-15 of ALL patients in the highest risk categories still receive prophylactic or therapeutic CRT. CRT is associated with physiological late effects including growth suppression, obesity, and endocrine dysfunction 11 . Steno-occlusive disease of large and small cerebral vessels, abnormal vascular collateralization, aneur-ysms, and vascular malformations are a particularly morbid complication of CRT because of the increased risk for ischemic stroke and intraparenchymal hemorrhage 12, 13 . Children and adolescents diagnosed with AML, HL, or NHL do not typically receive cranial radiation therapy as part of their treatment regimens. High dose chemotherapy Total body irradiation Bone marrow transplantation Children and adolescents with bone...

Tobacco

Women began smoking in large numbers in the 1940s, and the rate of smoking continued to increase until around 1975. Many women associated smoking with freedom and new rights. The tobacco industry saw women as a new market, using brands targeted to women such as Virginia Slims. Some biological factors that appear to make it harder for women to quit, as well as the issue of weight gain after quitting, have had tragic consequences for women's health. Lung cancer had been a rare disease in women until the 1960s, but as women's rate of smoking increased, so did their rate of lung cancer. Today, the leading cause of cancer mortality for women is not breast cancer anymore it is lung cancer. Although lung cancer rates for men have been declining steadily, for women they are still rising, because there is a twenty- to thirty-year lag time between smoking and cancer incidence (see figure 9-3). Based on this, one can predict that the epidemic of lung cancer among women will continue to get worse...

Emotional Dimensions

Direct experience in nature is usually required for these deeper kinds of emotional responses and spiritual understandings. We usually cannot feel the full depth of our ecological being, nor the accompanying feelings, from information on paper. For example, poet Terry Tempest Williams claimed that wilderness experience is required for us to make appropriate environmental decisions because such experience opens us to feelings, to a deeper sense of caring, and to matters of the heart. In a testimony to the United States Congress regarding the logging of the Pacific yew tree, valuable because of its potential in treating breast cancer, she urged her listeners to make their decisions from more direct experience, and from their hearts

Asbestos

On October 20, 2005, a jury in California found Gurlock Sealing Technologies, of Palymyra, New York, and Kelly'Moore Paint Company, of San Carlos, California, jointly liable for Robert Treggett's malignant lung cancer. The jury recommended that Tregget receive a total of 36.6 million dollars. Mr. Tregget, 60, allegedly contracted his lung cancer through asbestos exposure on a U.S. Navy submarine and while remodeling a home. Tregget had chemotherapy and surgery to remove his right lung after being diagnosed with lung cancer in 2003.

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