Build Your Own Boat
Likewise boaters on Lake Erie had been encountering huge patches of floating algae, which were being fed by large volumes of industrial and agricultural runoff, especially phosphorus. The algae, in turn, robbed the lake bottom of oxygen, rendering the water incapable of sustaining fish life. In the early 1960s, scientists began measuring phosphorus levels dozens of times
Some one-hundred thousand dams regulate America's rivers and creeks. Large dams provide a source of energy generation flood control irrigation recreation for pleasure boaters, skiers, and anglers and locks for the passage of barges and commercial shipping vessels. But dams alter rivers as well as the land abutting them, the water bodies they join, and the aquatic life they contain. All this results in profound changes in water systems and the ecosystems they support.
However, governmental regulation of common pool resources has not always led to cries of bravo and encore. The sounds more often sound like hiss and boo. A case in point is the halibut fishery off the coast of Alaska. The government regulated the overfished resource by restricting the time period that halibut could be caught. The government shortened a season that had previously run four months, to just a few days, thinking that a shorter fishing season would lead to fewer fish caught. However, the new rules caused the existing stock to be fished more intensively, resulting in too much effort and cost, just as economic theory (and common sense) would predict. Too many boats crowded the area, and boats scurried about to catch as much as possible in the limited time. The frenzied harvest resulted in not only higher netting costs for the fishers who needed bigger boats and more equipment, but also higher processing costs because large processing and storage capacity was required. Because...
I used to go out and in six hours my boat was full. Now you catch nothing or maybe 1 kilogram of fish that is worth 50 Kenya shillings or so less than 1 . Our daily expenses are over 100 Kenya shillings. You are here now and I am embarrassed that I cannot even give you a fish as a gift. Fisherman, Bondo District
It wasn't really treasure that was sunken in that Minnesota lake, but something was down there. In the spring of 2006, discarded computer monitors started bobbing to the surface of Rice Lake and then washing ashore. By the fall, authorities had collected 64 monitors and other e-waste that had been criminally dumped into the lake. The notion of a monitor popping up next to your fishing boat can be comical, until you consider what's involved.
Communities along the coast of Maine witnessed their economic heyday in the years before the American Civil War in the early 1860s. At that time, the economy was based on fishing, lumbering, manufacturing, and - most importantly - shipbuilding. In the 1850s, Maine built more than a third of all the ships constructed in the US and more than any other state (Rowe, n.d., p. 144). Many of these were small fishing vessels or were built for the coastal trade, but a good percentage were very large vessels, well over 2,000 tons, which ranged to every deep water port in the world. Many of these ships, including the famous clipper ships of the 1850s, were built for owners in other states or nations. A sizable proportion, however, were locally owned and manned by Maine crews (Rowe, n.d., p. 144). The closing decades of the nineteenth century were a period of economic decline for most of Maine's coastal towns. As railroads and steamships replaced sailing vessels, the shipbuilding and shipping...
The need to relieve pressure on local fish stocks has led to searches further afield. Several nations now have long-distance fleets operating far from home waters. British fishing vessels have travelled to Australian and Antarctic waters in hopes of finding new supplies, though with disappointing results. The pelagic long line fishery by Japanese and Korean ships, mainly for tuna, now extends over all the warmer parts of the major oceans. Fisheries for hake and a variety of pelagic species have been rapidly developed since the mid-1960s, by fleets from Europe, the USSR, Japan and Korea in the productive areas of upwelling along the west coast of Africa. There are already grounds for fearing that some of these relatively newly exploited stocks are being overfished. If there are any remaining underfished stocks, they must be mainly in remote areas, possibly off the southern part of South America or around the East Indies. There may also be some unfamiliar demersal species living well...
When sailors harnessed wind energy in their sails centuries ago to traverse the globe, they learned to take advantage of atmospheric pressure differences caused by the sun. When Dutch farmers turned those sails to the task of making mechanical energy to grind their grain, the windmill was born. But wind energy is not merely a product of poetry, a quaint natural phenomenon fit only for powering eighteenth-century sailing ships and ancient Dutch windmills.
A third response strategy to a decline in lobster catches was that people may have moved away from the local area. Evidence suggests that there was a good deal of out-migration. The town of Bristol is rather typical in the region. The population of Bristol reached its high point in 1860 with 3,019 permanent, year-round inhabitants. By 1920 that number had declined to 1,419. The population reached a low point in 1940, when only 1,355 people lived in town. It has increased since 1940, primarily because of an influx of retirees after 1960. The population changes in Bristol clearly mirror the economic fortunes of the town. In 1860, the fortunes of the town were favorable with large shipping, shipbuilding, and fishing industries. In the latter part of the nineteenth century and the early decades of the twentieth century, its population declined as literally every industry went into eclipse. The biggest drop in population (from 2,415 to 1,419) occurred between 1910 and 1920.
Dunkerque, a city on the north coast of France, has developed some creative ways of reconciling heavy industry with the need to protect the natural environment there and the living environments of its population. It has developed what it calls its Industrial Environment Scheme (IES). Adopted in 1993, it was largely the basis for the city's selection as one of the first winners of the European Sustainable City award. The development of Dunkerque's strategy really began with the steel crisis in the 1980s, in which the area lost some 6,000 jobs, followed soon after by the closing of the city's shipyard and the loss of another 3,000 jobs. There were real ques
Because of scarcity, nominal wholesale and retail prices tripled between 1980 and 1986. Between 1980 and 1983, ex-vessel revenues to fishermen fell by US 93.2 million, more than 50 percent processor sales dropped US 178 million (60 ), sales from wholesalers dropped by US 304 million (66 ) (Hanson et al., 1988). Comparable losses were felt by associated industries such as shipyards and lending institutions. For example, as the US fishery grew, especially in 1970s, the fleet was overcapitalized with too many boats including expensive large crabbers processors. After
Figure 5.17 A hunter's grandchild in her grandfather's skiff in Qeqertarsuaq, Western Greenland. These skiffs are about to replace dog teams as means of transport to the winter hunting grounds. Due to lack of solid ice in the winter time, skiffs are now used all year round by the hunters in Qeqertarsuaq. Photo Stine Rybr ten Figure 5.17 A hunter's grandchild in her grandfather's skiff in Qeqertarsuaq, Western Greenland. These skiffs are about to replace dog teams as means of transport to the winter hunting grounds. Due to lack of solid ice in the winter time, skiffs are now used all year round by the hunters in Qeqertarsuaq. Photo Stine Rybr ten
On 1st March 1954 the USA ignited the first hydrogen bomb on the tiny Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands, contaminating a passing Japanese fishing boat and showering nearby villagers with radioactive ash. The bomb was 1000 times more powerful than the one dropped on Hiroshima. Three weeks later it emerged that a Japanese fishing boat, called Lucky Dragon, was within 80 miles (129 km) of the test zone at the time. Its 23 crew were severely affected by radiation sickness. They were among 264 people accidentally exposed to radiation because the explosion and fall-out had been far greater than expected.
Since World War II the catching power of fishing vessels has been further augmented by several innovations. The change from steam to diesel power has raised the power and speed of ships. The development of nets made of stronger, lighter and longer-lasting materials has encouraged the use of even larger nets. The availability of synthetic fibres of various densities, both lighter and heavier than water, facilitates the control and correct orientation of nets in the water by selection of different densities for different parts, and the use of transparent fibres invisible in water has increased the efficiency of certain nets. Sophisticated sonic techniques have been invented for the detection of fish shoals, and for net handling. Modern navigation systems such as GPS (see Section 3.3.5) allow accurate return to good fishing areas and accurate deployment of nets. Refrigeration equipment installed on fishing boats has allowed them to range far afield and continue fishing until full without...
During this process, the plants carbon content was trapped in coal together with the Sun's energy used in the photosynthesis of plants and accumulated over millions of years. This energy source was buried until modern man dug it up and made use of it. It is only very recently on the Earth's time scale that mankind has started to use coal. Historically, the use of coal began when the Romans invaded Britain. While it was used occasionally for heating purposes, the main use of this black stone was to make jewelry, since it could be easily carved and polished. It was only during the late 12th century that coal re-emerged as a fuel along the Tyne river in Britain, especially around the rich coal fields of Newcastle. The widespread use of coal however, would not be significant before the middle of the 16th century. At that time, England's population - and that of London especially - was growing rapidly. And, as the city was growing, the nearby land was deforested such that the wood had to...
Al-Qaeda operatives have heeded bin Laden's calls. In April 2004, three bomb-laden boats attacked both of Iraq's oil terminals in the Persian Gulf. The first boat headed for the terminal known as Khor al-Amaya and was intercepted by a U.S. Navy speedboat. As the sailors on the speedboat approached the insurgents' boat, the suicide bombers blew up their boat, killing two American sailors and wounding four others. Twenty minutes later, and a few miles south, two more boats piloted by suicide bombers attacked Iraq's main oil terminal, Mina al-Bakr. They, too, blew up their boats before they reached their target.
To create 48 kWh per day of offshore wind per person in the UK would require 60 million tons of concrete and steel - one ton per person. Annual world steel production is about 1200 million tons, which is 0.2 tons per person in the world. During the second world war, American shipyards built 2751 Liberty ships, each containing 7000 tons of steel - that's a total of 19 million tons of steel, or 0.1 tons per American. So the building of 60 million tons of wind turbines is not off the scale of achievability but don't kid yourself into thinking that it's easy. Making this many windmills is as big a feat as building the Liberty ships.
For SST and MAT there are a number of corrections that have to be applied. First, up to 1941 most SST temperature measurements f were made in sea water hoisted on deck in a bucket. Since 1941 I. most measurements have been made at the ships' engine water intakes. Second, between 1856 and 1910 there was a shift from wooden to canvas buckets, which changes the amount of cooling m caused by evaporation that occurs as the water is being hoisted on sf deck. In addition, through this period there was a gradual shift from n sailing ships to steamships, which altered the height of the ship e decks and the speed of the ships, both of which can affect the evaporative cooling of the buckets. The other key correction that has to be made is for the global distribution of meteorological stations through time. As shown in Figure 14, the number of stations and their location varies greatly from 1870 to 1960. But by making these corrections it is possible to produce a continuous record of land-surface...
The Maunder Minimum, as it came to be known, was another period of cold weather. In London, the River Thames froze so firmly a fair was held on it. Mountain glaciers advanced. The area covered by sea ice increased. In some winters Iceland was completely surrounded by sea ice. Inuit people in kayaks were seen several times in the Orkney and Shetland Islands, to the north of the Scottish mainland, and on one occasion they turned up in the River Don, near Aberdeen. It was the coldest part of the Little Ice Age (see The Little Ice Age on pages 87-93). Maunder tried to persuade other scientists that he had discovered an important link between solar output and climate, but with little success. They thought he was relying too heavily on old records that were very probably inaccurate.
This was accomplished both by means of new scientific instruments and experimental rituals, as well as through mutual interaction between scientific inquiry and technical improvement, such as took place in the development of steam power, ship-building, and navigational techniques. As the telescope and microscope literally disclosed new dimensions of reality, the clock and the compass provided the scientist and the merchant with images and metaphors within which to recognize the natural world around him (Jardine 1999). And the perfect human construction - mathematical logic - was refined in order to reconstruct reality into forms that were amenable to optimal human intervention.
Near the equator, the belts of tropical easterly winds meet. This is the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), which was introduced in Chapter 2. It is a region of low pressure and light winds. Thundershowers often form in this zone. In ancient times, this region was called the doldrums, because sailing ships passing through it on their way from the northern hemisphere to the southern, or from the southern hemisphere to the northern, were often becalmed for lack of wind. In the Atlantic, the ITCZ almost always lies north of the equator. In August and September, the ITCZ reaches its northernmost position.
The Norse colony disappeared due to changes in the climate, politics and economics, had they not all coincided the Norse colony may have survived. But this solution ignores the possibility of human response to climate change. The success of the Innuit shows that the deteriorating climate did not make Greenland inhabitable. The Norwegian settlers in Finnmark (the furthest province in modern Norway) thrived in the deteriorating climatic conditions (Brown, 1994). Had the Norse settlers chosen to abandon their inner fjord pastures for the coastal oceanic zone and a more maritime economy they might have survived. However, archaeological evidence shows they persisted with their settlement pattern and their seasonal dual economy. They built larger byres and store houses to sustain them through the winter. The Norse did not take on other skills such as skin boat building (rather than the traditional wooden boats) which may have helped them exploit other resources such as the Ringed seal...
In the first half of the 1950s the Norwegian spring-spawning herring stock was at a high level of 8 million metric tons. In 1957 it reached a peak value of 10 million metric tons and then sharply decreased to about 3 million metric tons in 1963 (Anon., 1978). With this decline, the main source of its exploitation was lost to the Norwegian fishery, resulting in a serious economic crisis. The number of vessels significantly declined and fishermen were forced to find new ways to increase efficiency and reduce the costs of fishing. Norway carried out a technical reconstruction of its fishing fleet, as Iceland had done some years earlier. In the early 1960s, the two-dory system was replaced by the ring-net technique using power blocks. This allowed for a reduction in crew size by half. In addition, the new equipment was less affected by weather, allowing the fleet to operate much farther offshore. The development of
Although some authors suggest that UK fishermen have fished cod on the Icelandic fishing grounds since the 1300s, it was not until the end of the 1800s that UK fishermen began to exploit Icelandic waters year-round. Technological changes in the fishing industry (e.g., the development of the steam trawler, improved deep-water trawling techniques, the use of ice to preserve catches) strengthened British involvement in distant-water fishing activities based primarily in Hull, Grimsby, Fleetwood, and Aberdeen (e.g., Barston & Hannesson, 1974). These ports were adversely affected by changes in access to cod in waters around Iceland. Although the fishing industry at the time made up only a small percentage of UK's national work force (0.09 in 1979), it had an inordinate degree of political power for the following major reasons (1) employment and fishing revenue is concentrated in small, depressed, high-unemployment areas (2) a small change in fishing revenue in these areas creates a large...
More energy was consumed during the Advanced Agricultural period when people learned to use coal, and built machines to harvest the wind and water. By the early Renaissance, people were using wind to push sailing ships, water to drive mills, and wood and coal for generating heat. An example of a traditional windmill is shown in Figure 1-2. Transportation became a significant component of energy consumption by humans. Cook's estimate of the daily per
Natural resource scarcities, actual or anticipated, have kicked off major efforts to find substitutes or alternatives. There have been a number of cases of actual resource scarcity - or even exhaustion - usually limited to a particular resource or country. To name a few historical examples charcoal became scarce in western Europe, especially England, by the 17th century, due to land clearing, a building boom and ship-building for the navy.18 Coal came into general use in Britain as a substitute for charcoal in the 18th century. The availability of fossil fuels has been a subject of controversy since 1865 when W.S. Jevons predicted that British coal reserves would be exhausted within a few decades (Jevons 1974 1865 ). Later, other natural resources - and especially exhaustible resources - began to be seen as 'factors of production' in their own right.
Like many communities suffering from economic dislocation, Grays Harbor began to cast about for ways to bring back the jobs that had been so productive for generations. They tried the conventional routes, attempting to lure light manufacturing and call centers to the area, to little effect. They even tried a plan to make Grays Harbor a historic seaport, filled with sailing ships, museums, and tourists with disposable
The problems of framing beneficial fishery policies are made more difficult by the far-reaching effects of fishery regulations, often involving many people not directly employed in fishing. If fishing is reduced by cutting down the number of boats, fishermen are put out of work. Unemployment among fishermen has severe social consequences for local communities where fishing is a traditional way of life. More jobs are also lost in associated occupations, such as in shipbuilding, especially in small yards, in fishing gear manufacture and in enterprises involved in handling, processing and marketing fish. There are probably at least five shore jobs dependent on each fisherman's employment.
From a sea kayak floating off Pier 40 in lower Manhattan, you get a whole new perspective on New York City. The bustling metropolis falls away, and you are alone except for the sporadic barge traffic and the incongruity of students walking the high wire as part of a trapeze school in the Hudson River Park just beyond the seawall. If the Hudson rises, it is most immediately noticeable to people like Randall Henriksen, who has led sea-kayaking expeditions here since 1994. From his perch in the front of the kayak, Hendriksen points to a green-and-white state Department of Environmental
One of the earliest studies of nuclear power industry workers, and to this day one of the most remarkable epidemiologic studies, was conducted by the Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University. In 1980, the U.S. Department of Energy awarded Dr. Genevieve M. Matanoski, the principal investigator, a 10 million contract to determine whether there was an excess risk of leukemia or other cancers associated with exposure to low levels of gamma radiation (from the decay of cobalt'60) to workers overhauling nuclear-powered submarines. This study lasted 8 years, and included over 70,000 shipyard workers from six government and two private bases Charleston, Groton, Mare Island, Norfolk, Pearl Harbor, Newport News, Portsmouth, and Puget Sound. The workers, aged 16-70, were classified into three groups nuclear workers with cumulative doses greater than 0.5rem (0.005mSv), workers with cumulative doses less than 0.5 mrem, and nonnuclear workers who had...
For vessels that skim the water surface, such as high-speed catamarans and water-skiers, an accurate cartoon should also include the energy going into making waves, but I'm tempted to guess that this hydrofoil theory is still roughly right. I've not yet found data on the transport-cost of a hydrofoil, but some data for a passenger-carrying catamaran travelling at 41km h seem to agree pretty well it consumes roughly 1 kWh per ton-km.
280 Data for a passenger-carrying catamaran. From 5h6xph Displacement (full load) 26.3 tons. On a 1050 nautical mile voyage she consumed just 4780 litres of fuel. I reckon that's a weight-transport-cost of 0.93 kWh per ton-km. I'm counting the total weight of the vessel here, by the way. The same vessel's passenger-transport-efficiency is roughly 35 kWh per 100p-km.
You can estimate the period of ocean waves by recalling the time between waves arriving on an ocean beach. Is 10 seconds reasonable For the height of ocean waves, let's assume an amplitude of 1 m, which means 2 m from trough to crest. In waves this high, a man in a dinghy can't see beyond the nearest crest when he's in a trough I think this height is bigger than average, but we can revisit this estimate if we decide it's important. The speed of deep-water waves is related to the time T between crests by
Government plays a critical role in reducing the uncertainty created by lack of rules mentioned above. Government should provide a framework of clear-cut general rules for doing business, as well as resolving conflict in a free-market setting. It should not favor any industry by special subsidies, tariffs, quotas, or other non-tariffs barriers. Nevertheless, in its early phase of economic development, an LDC may protect infant and strategic industries to be developed based on resource endowments. Coordination failure created by externalities calls for government intervention to organize private entrepreneurs into investments that they might not otherwise have made. For instance, the Korean government masterminded early import-substitution projects in cement, fertilizers, oil refining, synthetic fibers, heavy machinery, chemicals, steel, and shipbuilding. The Taiwanese government initiated and financed the establishment of such industries as plastics, textiles, fibers, steel and...
Near the equator, the surface winds are generally light, and for this reason, the region was named the doldrums (which means something like low in spirit ). Similarly, in the region between the trades and the westerlies, the surface winds are light. In this region, in the days of sailing ships, vessels frequently became calmed for long periods, and it was named the horse latitudes (possibly because horses had to be eaten or thrown overboard when food and water shortages developed).
The efficiency and accessibility dimensions of a transport revolution strongly influence economic and social opportunities. However, the resulting benefits and burdens are unevenly distributed, unless there are compensatory mechanisms. Some revolutionary changes can trigger decline, and even collapse, as seen in the abandoned UK shipyards of John Brown in Glasgow and Cammel Laird in Birkenhead following the transatlantic jet revolution. The same forces of change unleashed by jet aircraft made the Hawaiian Islands into a thriving economy fuelled by tourism. But, as the distance between the Clyde and Mersey rivers and the beaches of Waikiki makes clear, the winners and losers from a transport revolution are often quite disconnected.
The ambitious plans of some Polish companies aimed at expanding the national fishery were destroyed during World War II (1939-45), together with the entire fleet of 180 offshore fishing boats that was in operation in 1939, in addition to the loss of more than 500 small motorized boats. When the war ended, Poland inherited a southern Baltic sea-coast which resembled a scorched desert. Fishing vessels were sunk, processing plants ruined and harbors devastated. The reconstruction of the fishing sector and the shipbuilding industry took two years. In 1947, Polish catches in the Baltic Sea had doubled, compared to the pre-war level. From 1948, the shipbuilding industry was steadily growing, which was very important for the development of the rudimentary Polish fishery. Before Poland mastered the construction of ocean-going vessels, the then-fledgling shipyards in Gdansk and Gdynia were operating at their fullest capacity to support, first and foremost, the national fishery. Within the...
In May 2003 the CDC released its sixth annual Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance Report 2002. The report notes that 1,265 people died in 2002 from asbes-tosis. This value is up from less than one hundred recorded in 1968. In total, 10,914 people have died from asbestosis between 1990 and 1999. (See Figure 10.6.) The vast majority of the deaths have occurred among white men aged fifty-five and older. Most were plumbers, pipe fitters, and steamfitters. Construction accounted for, by far, the greatest proportion (24.6 ) of asbestosis deaths second was ship boat building and repairing (6.0 ). Death from asbestosis usually occurs only after many years of impaired breathing.
If you are caught in a boat during a heavy electrical storm, your situation is particularly dangerous, especially if your boat has a radio antenna or a tall mast. You should crouch in a position facing away from the antenna or mast, with your face down and your feet close together. (You might also want to cover your ears.) If the boat has an enclosed space, you should get inside it and stay away from metal objects and the boat's radio equipment.
Oil was everywhere, and every single day, I would get covered with it, said Randy Lowe, a commercial fisherman from Soldotna, Alaska, who was one of thousands hired to clean up Prince William Sound after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in i989. When I got done loading a boom, there'd be a foot of oil in the bottom of my boat, and I'd just shovel it out.You'd drink sodas that had oil on it, you'd smoke a cigarette, it had oil on it, if you ate a sandwich, it had oil on it. 19 Hygiene at lunchtime, however, was the least of Lowe's problems.
Utnapishtim tells how the gods resolved to destroy the world in a great flood. All the gods were under oath not to reveal this secret to any living thing, but Ea (one of the gods that created humanity) came to Utnapishtim's house and told the secret to the walls of the house, thus not violating his oath to the rest of the gods. He advised the walls to build a great boat, its length as great as its breadth, to cover the boat, and to bring all creatures into the boat. In his tale, Utnapishtim builds the great boat, which he then loads with gold, silver and all the creatures of the Earth. Ea orders him into the boat and commands him to close the door behind him. The black clouds arrive the Earth splits like an earthenware pot, and all the light turns to darkness. The Flood lasts for seven days and seven nights. When, finally light returns, Utnapishtim opens a window and the entire Earth has been turned into a flat ocean all humans have been turned to stone. His boat comes to rest on the...
Conservation is at the heart of the CFP, and is promoted in three main ways. First, the CFP has opened all the waters within the EU's 200-mile limit to all EU fishing boats, but gives member states the right to restrict access to fishing grounds within 12 miles of their shores. One of the problems with this arrangement was that it was difficult to police, so, since 1995, all EU fishing boats have had to be licensed, and the Commission has been given greater powers to monitor fishing activities using satellites and its own (few) inspectors on the ground, and to monitor every stage in the fishing process from catching to landing to sales.
In the beginning, about 4000 years ago, wind energy was used for the propulsion of sailing ships. In antiquity, this was the only energy available to drive ships sailing in the Mediterranean Basin and other seas, and even today, it is used for sailing small leisure boats. At about the same period, windmills, which were used mainly to grind various crops, appeared (Kalogirou, 2005).
While all these methods have their attractions, the construction method most likely to be used to build a large barrage today would involve prefabricated units called caissons. Made from steel or concrete, the caissons would be built in a shipyard and then towed to the barrage site where they would be sunk and fixed into position with rock anchors and ballast.
Second, we need to focus on the ability and motivation of contractors. You can't make a green building with unwilling or unskilled team members, but that's what we're doing most of the time. At most businesses, Aspen Skiing Company being no exception, it is very hard to move away from the tried-and-true business-as-usual architects and take a flyer on a green designer who may be either new or based out of state. To be fair, a green designer can represent a real risk with real potential costs. At the same time, building is a very human endeavor. You pick an architect (as we have done at Aspen Skiing Company) because you know him or her, because you kayak together, or because you owe that person a
Vessels were large row boats, fitted with sails. Principal products were canned and dried shrimp. There were two seasonal closures in Louisiana, which had evidently been enacted as a result of industry's concerns. Both were intended to prevent the harvest of small white shrimp less than 4 inches (10 cm) in length (Louisiana Conservation Commission, 1920).
Despite the evident care of William Redfield's investigations, his findings were sharply attacked, beginning in 1834, by a Philadelphia scientist with a very different theory about the character of storms. In an era of high seas sailing ships, when captains were relying on luck and lore for the safety of their vessels and men, the different ideas these two men held about the behavior of the winds were of special practical interest.
Keeping the catch fresh once the fish have been caught has always been a problem and the length of time iced fish will remain in reasonable condition effectively limits the duration of fishing for distant-water trawlers if they rely solely on ice for preservation. The development in recent years of efficient and cost-effective refrigeration and storage systems on board larger fishing boats, has made much longer fishing trips possible. If fish are stored directly in the hold, then dry refrigeration or refrigerated brine spray can be used to lower the hold Large pelagic fish such as tuna and sharks are also caught on single hooked lines dangled or trolled through the water from strong poles which are either manhandled or may be hinged to the side of the boat and mechanically raised and lowered. The hooks are baited either with artificial lures or more often with live fish. Sardines or anchovies are favoured bait, and numbers of these are first pitched overboard to attract groups of tuna...
There are several kinds of anemometer for measuring the surface wind. Figure 14.3 shows a simple device used by dinghy sailors, and at some weather stations. The cup anemometer has been commonly used since its invention in 1846 cups on each of three radial arms from a vertical axis are driven by the wind, and their rotations are counted. The number of rotations multiplied by the distance around the cups' circle is proportional to the wind run, the distance that a parcel of air would travel. International agreement in 1956 fixed the knot as the unit of wind speed, though subsequent metrication of units leads to the use of kilometres per hour or, preferably, metres per second (Note 1.J). Alternatively, one can use a landlubber's version of the Beaufort Scale, devised in 1896 by a British admiral to determine wind speed from the appearance of waves at sea (Table 14.1). (It is hard to measure the wind speed from a small boat at sea, because of its rocking and the eddies caused by the...
Clouds form when the air cools to, or below, the dewpoint temperature. Normally this happens at a certain altitude above the surface, but not at the surface itself. Occasionally, however, conditions are such that the base of a cloud is at the surface. This is known as fog. It has contributed to many accidents in aviation and highway travel. Fog has plagued mariners ever since the first boat floated on the sea.
Been killed there in the past 30 years. Dolphins follow schools of yellowfin tuna and fishermen use boats, helicopters and light aircraft to spot the dolphins. The fishermen then herd the tuna using small speedboats and the main fishing boat encircles and catches them using large seine nets (see Section 9.1.3). Unfortunately many dolphins are also caught in the nets and drown. New nets have now been developed which have a fine-mesh area called the Medina panel. As the net tightens, the dolphins can jump over the net rim because the panel makes it visible to them. Sometimes divers and small boats are used to help the dolphins out.
Many interrelated fields of study are included under the general heading of fishery research, including investigations of the distribution and natural history of fish, the size and composition of stocks, and the extent and causes of fluctuations in stocks. One of the chief objectives of this science is to achieve sufficient understanding of the factors influencing fish stocks to be able to predict reliably the long-term effects, on the quantities of fish caught, of varying the methods and intensity of fishing. Much relevant information derives from fishery statistics regarding the quantities of fish landed from each area at various times, the numbers and types of fishing boats, the fishing gear used and the duration of fishing. Additional biological data can be obtained from sampling the catches to determine the numbers of each age and size, and the presence of ripe or spent fish. The following is a brief summary of some of the methods used.
C Visit to local fish auction and associated industries, for example fishing vessels, fish curing, processing and freezing installations, net factory and ice factory. Fishery officers and fishing boat skippers are sometimes willing to meet groups of students and tell them about their work. D Day tour as far along the coast as practicable to observe biological,
The major surface currents of the oceans became known during the days of sailing ships when this knowledge was needed for successful ocean voyages. Information was accumulated by noting the course of drifting objects such as becalmed ships, drift-wood or pieces of wreckage. Oceanographers refined this technique by using specially designed drift bottles. These provided much of the original information about water movements around the British Isles. They are hardly ever used now but are described here for their historical interest and possible use in local inshore investigations.
Jim Motavalli would like to thank the scientists Dr. Paul Epstein of Harvard University, Dr. Janine Bloomfield of Environmental Defense, Vivien Gornitz and Cynthia Rosenzweig of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Dr. Dickson Despommier of Columbia University, and Orrin Pilkey of Duke University. Also invaluable in preparing the chapter were Dery Bennett of the American Littoral Society (on the web at http www.alsnyc.org) Brian Unger of the Surfers' Environmental Alliance (http www.damoon.net sea) Scott L. Douglass of the University of South Alabama (author of the useful Saving America's Beaches) Andy Wilner and attorney Deborah A. Mans of the NY NJ Baykeeper (732-291-0176, http www.nynjbaykeeper.org) the many-hatted Noreen Bodman, president of the business-oriented Jersey Shore Partnership and kayaker supreme Randall Henriksen. Information on kayaking around Manhattan is available from Henriksen's New York Kayak at 212-924-1327 or online at http www.nykayak.com.
Greenpeace was founded by a small group of activists in an old fishing boat, the Phyllis Cormack. They wanted to stop and bear witness to U.S. underground nuclear testing at Amchitka, a tiny island off the west coast of Alaska. Although their boat was intercepted and the bomb was detonated, nuclear testing there ended a year later. Greenpeace's creative communication and media-savvy tactics of bringing vivid images to the public, of individuals confronting huge corporations and governments, and of using specific cases to highlight broader issues sparked worldwide interest and changed the way advocacy groups conduct campaigns. In one of its best-known campaigns, activists placed small inflatable boats called zodiacs between whaling ships and the whales to protest the hunting practice and highlight toxic threats facing oceans. In 1987, Greenpeace's flagship the Rainbow Warrior was preparing to lead a peace flotilla of ships from New Zealand to the island of Moruroa to peacefully protest...
Patterson tracks each of her birds by island of origin, nest number, and band number (for leg-banded birds). One of the things these censuses have helped establish is the recent decline of the species' population. As many as 100,000 Antarctic seabirds, mainly albatrosses, but also giant petrels, are thought to be dying every year in encounters with long-line fishing fleets that have expanded their operations into the Southern Ocean. The birds dive for the baits as the long lines, often containing several thousand hooks, are unreeled from the high-seas fishing boats. If the birds catch the bait at the surface, they are often dragged under and drowned, or else entangled and injured.
Cancer had become a terrifying disease that seemed to be striking more and more people, and the logical idea that environmental toxic exposures were causing a new cancer epidemic gained credence among the population. In fact, several examples of specific exposures (mostly in occupational settings) were found to have caused cancer. These included asbestos, which caused mesothelioma (an otherwise rare and very lethal form of cancer) in workers using the material in shipbuilding and brake repair dyes such as anilines, which caused bladder cancer in workers and benzene, which caused leukemia in certain occupations that used a great deal of this solvent.
The two trade wind systems tend to converge in the equatorial trough (of low pressure). Over the oceans, particularly the central Pacific, the convergence of these airstreams is often pronounced and in this sector the term intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is applicable. Generally, however, the convergence is discontinuous in space and time (see Plate 24). Equatorward of the main belts of the trades over the eastern Pacific and eastern Atlantic are regions of light, variable winds, known traditionally as the doldrums and much feared in past centuries by the crews of sailing ships. Their seasonal extent varies considerably from July to September they spread westward into the central Pacific while in the Atlantic they extend to the coast of Brazil. A third major doldrum zone is located in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific. In March to April it stretches 16,000 km from East Africa to 180 longitude and is again very extensive during October to December.
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