Beyond War

Overlooked and Underappreciated The Human Potential for Peace

In the Waur view, self-control over violent aggressive impulses, compassion for children, and acceptance of the responsibility to share material wealth are all basic attributes of human beings. EMIL1ENNE IRELAND, CEREBRAL SAVAGE Although war and other types of violence may be very noticeable, a close examination of cross-cultural data reveals that people usually deal with conflict without violence. Humans have a solid capacity for getting along with each other peacefully, preventing physical...

Chapter Do Nonwarring Societies Actually Exist

Michael Ghiglieri, The Dark Side of Man Tracing the Origins of Male Violence Reading, Mass. Perseus, 1999 , 246,- David Buss, Evolutionary Psychology The New Science of the Mind Boston Allyn and Bacon, 1999 , 298 Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson, Demonic Males Apes and the Origin of Human Violence Boston Houghton Mifflin, 1996 , 63,- see also David Buss, The Murderer Next Door Why the Mind Is Designed to Kill New York Penguin Press, 2005 , 5, 9, 11, 231, 234-35,- Steven LeBlanc with K....

The Link Between Warfare and Social Organization

Kwakiutl Food Fish

Approximately half the nonwarring cultures listed in Appendix 2 are hunter-gatherer band societies. This observation raises a question Is the presence or absence of warfare related to social organization A number of studies suggests that the answer is yes. Sociopolitical complexity and warfare do go hand in hand. After reviewing cross-cultural studies on this topic, Johan van der Dennen summarizes that one of the most consistent and robust findings is the correlation between 'primitivity' and...

Appendix Nonwarring Societies

Huntingford, 'The political organization of the Dorobo, Anthropos 49 (1954) 123-48, 132-36. 2. Roy Willis, 'The 'peace puzzle' in Ufipa, in S. Howell and R. Willis (eds.), Societies atPeace Anthropological Perspectives, 133-45 (London Routledge, 1989). 3. J. van der Dennen, The Origin of War, 1 vols. (Groningen Origin Press, 1995), 638. 4. George Silberbauer, The G wi Bushmen, in M. Bicchieri (ed.), Hunters and Gatherers Today, 271-326 (Prospect Heights, 111. Waveland, 1972). 5. James...

Returning to the Evidence Life in the Band

A dispute among the Mbuti may be stopped simply by making life intolerable for tbe disputants by miming them and throwing them into ridicule. If these measures fail and the dispute persists, the hunting automatically suffers, and if no reconciliation is effected, the band splits, either forming two subsections or remaining as a single band, with the splinter section joining another band, at least temporarily. COLIN M. TURNBULL, WAYWARD SERVANTS In Chapter 3 we visited Siriono and Paliyan bands...

Chapter Returning to the Evidence

Frank Speck, Naskapi The Savage Hunters of the Labrador Peninsula Norman University of Oklahoma Press, 1935 , 13-16. 2. Eleanor Leacock, Seventeenth-century Montagnais social relations and values, in W. Sturtevant gen. ed. , Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 6 Subarctic, 190-95 Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Institution, 1981 , 191. 3. For example, Eleanor Leacock, Women's status in egalitarian society Implications for social evolution, Current Anthropology 19 1978 247-75, 249. 4....

War and Social Organization From Nomadic Bands to Modern States

The Batek Malaysia Beliefs And Values

The Batek abhor interpersonal violence and have generally fled from their enemies rather than fighting back. I once asked a Batek man why their ancestors had not shot the Malay slave-raiders, who plagued them until the 1920s. . .with poisoned blowpipe darts. His shocked answer was Because it would kill them KIRK ENDICOTT, PROPERTY, POWER AND CONFLICT AMONG THE BATEK OF MALAYSIA In the midst of World War II, Quincy Wright published a magnum opus called The Study of War. The two-volume work,...

Man the Warrior Fact or Fantasy

For more than 99 percent of the approximately two million years since the emergence of a recognizable human animal, man has been a hunter and gatherer. . . . Questions concerning territorialism, the handling of aggression, social control, property, leadership, the use of space, and many other dimensions are particularly significant in these contexts. To evaluate any of these focal aspects of human behavior without taking into consideration the socioeconomic adaptation that has characterized...

Killer Apes and Cannibals

Australopithecines Swartkrans

In 1925 a young anatomy professor, Raymond Dart, reported the discovery of an extraordinary fossil skull from a South African limestone quarry at Taung.3 The specimen was clearly a primate juvenile. The face and most of the lower jaw were intact, and in an extraordinary stroke of good fortune minerals had entered the brain case during fossilization and hardened to form a cast of the brain. Dart realized that the 'Taung child fossil showed both apelike and humanlike features, gave it the...

Notes to Pages Chapter Seeking Justice

Douglas Fry, Conflict management in cross-cultural perspective, in F. Aureli and F. de Waal eds. , Natural Conflict Resolution, 334-51 Berkeley University of California Press, 2000 ,- Douglas Fry, Reciprocity The foundation stone of morality, in M. Killen and J. Smetana eds. , Handbook of Moral Development, 399-422 Mahwah, N.J. Lawrence Erlbaum, 2006 Douglas Fry, The Human Potential for Peace New York Oxford University Press, 2006 www.peacefulsocieties.org. 2. Klaus-Friedrich Koch, S....

Chapter Overlooked and Underappreciated

Douglas Fry, Conflict management in cross-cultural perspective, in F. Aureli and F. de Waal eds. , Natural Conflict Resolution, 334-51 Berkeley University of California Press, 2000 ,- Agustin Fuentes, It's not all sex and violence Integrated anthropology and the role of cooperation and social complexity in human evolution, American Anthropologist 106 2004 710-18, 716. 2. S. Gardner and H. Resnik, Violence among youth Origins and a framework for prevention, in R. Hampton, P. Jenkins, and T....

Restraint Among Nomadic Foragers

Nomadic Foragers Australia

An examination of conflict and aggression in nomadic hunter-gatherer society, as among animal species, shows that individuals practice a great deal of restraint. Of Yahgan foragers, Martin Gusinde expresses A person will literally foam with rage. . . . Nevertheless, he can muster astonishing self-control when he realizes that he is too weak to stand against his opponent.29 The voting with one's feet approach to conflict, so widely practiced by nomadic foragers, obviously reflects restraint....

Nonwarring Societies

Machiguenga Warfare

While researching this book, I compiled a list of cultures that were nonwarring according to the foregoing definition of war see Appendix 2 .19 I looked for direct ethnographic statements to the effect that a culture lacks war, that a people do not engage in warfare, or that the members of a society respond to threats from other groups by moving elsewhere rather than fighting, and so on. The Semai of Malaysia are a good example Figure 2.1 . Nonviolence characterizes daily life. They do not war...

Ancient Oaxaca From Nomadic Foraging to Warring State

Kent Flannery and Joyce Marcus report no evidence for group conflict among the small nomadic bands that foraged in the Valley of Oaxaca in southern Mexico between 10,000 and 4000 BP. Toward the end of this period, the transition from hunting and gathering to sedentary villages was under way. By 2800 to 2450 BP, three rival chiefly centers existed in the Valley of Oaxaca, buffered Figure 5.2 By the time of Christ, Zapotec civilization was already flourishing in the Oaxacan highlands of Mexico....

Sexual Selection and Aggression

Napalm Girl Vietnam Photographer

If the cases of protective coloration referred to by Charles Darwin in the chapter epigraph have evolved in these species due to selection favoring the survival and reproduction of the bearers of these particular traits over individuals lacking such traits, then these instances of protective coloration can be referred to as adaptations. The concept of adaptation applies to behavioral as well as physical traits. In other words, behavioral traits, such as those involving aggression, also are the...

Interdependence and Cooperation

Robert Tonkinson explains that nomadic hunter-gatherer Mardu bands need each other. The Mardu are interdependent for ecological reasons and are well aware of this fact. They strive to maintain positive relations among bands. In the Western Desert, . . . there is an important underlying ecological factor, the irregularity of spread and unreliability of rainfall in a region having no permanent waters. It necessitates a strong cultural stress on the permeability of boundaries and the maintenance...

Seeking Justice The Quest for Fairness

Among the Omaha t his feast occurred when there had been a difference between two tribes and the chiefs wished to make peace. As the guests were seen approaching, all the men who had contributed gifts mounted their horses and rode out to meet the coming tribe, charging upon them as if upon an enemy. The leader bore a pipe prepared for smoking and offered it to the leader of the guests, who, after it was lighted, accepted it. The gifts were then distributed, the feast eaten, and peace concluded...

Paliyan of India

Paliyan India

The Paliyan of southern India have a population of over three thousand. Some Paliyan now live in settled communities, but others remain in mobile foraging bands, usually between fifteen and thirty individuals in size. To focus on the nomadic bands that move camp every few days, the membership of a Paliyan band is always in flux.15 Peter Gardner reports that nomadic Paliyan subsist totally on the foods they forage, which consist of over one hundred species of plants and animals, with wild yams...

Siriono of Bolivia

Numbering about two thousand people at the time they were studied, the semi-nomadic Siriono inhabit a tropical area in Bolivia.7 They have few material possessions. Whereas good hunters have slightly higher status than average, Siriono society is basically egalitarian. Allan Holmberg reports that a form of chieftainship does exist, but the prerogatives of this office are few. Best hunter might be a better term than chief, for little attention is paid to what is said by a chief and the so-called...

Chapter The Earliest Evidence of

Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson, Demonic Males Apes and the Origin of Human Violence Boston Houghton Mifflin, 1996 , 63, 108-9,- Douglas Fry, Anthropological perspectives on aggression Sex differences and cultural variation, Aggressive Behavior 24 1998 81-95. 2. Douglas Fry, The Human Potential for Peace New York Oxford University Press, 2006 Bruce Bonta and Douglas Fry, Lessons for the rest of us Learning from peaceful societies, in M. Fitzduff and C. Stout eds. , The Psychology of...

Forager Aggression Costs and Benefits

In considering costs and benefits of aggression, it may be useful to assess what the nomadic forager data show about reasons for conflicts. Among the nonviolent Paliyan, the most serious disrespect cases involved sexual jealousy between husbands and wives. In Siriono society, the majority of disputes involved food or sex. Among the Montagnais-Naskapi, a man murdered a husband to get his wife. A common cause of disputes in Ju 'hoansi society was adultery. Competition among Netsilik men over a...

Netsilik Inuit

The Netsilik Inuit are one of many groups in the Central Canadian Arctic that traditionally resided in small nomadic bands with variable membership and weak leadership. In the winter, the Netsilik harpooned seals on the frozen sea, and in the summer, they engaged in fishing and communal caribou hunts.13 They had few material possessions and did not claim exclusive rights to natural resources. Asen Balikci emphasizes that a person had the right to hunt anywhere he pleased the exclusion of others...